History of Indo Iranian Deities

Indo-Aryan

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Vedic Deities

Minor deities (one single or no dedicated hymn)

 

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Contrary to popular belief Iranian Deities are quite distinct. Scythians from steppes had entirely different cast of deities:

The structure of the Scythian pantheon was typically Indo-Iranian, being divided into three ranks:

  1. In the first rank was the head of the pantheon:
    • Tabiti (Ταβιτί), the flaming one, who was the goddess of heat, fire and the hearth and was equated by Herodotus with the Greek goddess of the Hearth, Hestia
  2. In the second rank were the binary opposites and the father and mother of the universe:
    • Api (Ἀπί), the Earth and Water Mother, equated by Herodotus with the Greek goddess of the Earth, Gaia
    • Papaios (Παπαῖος), the Sky Father, equated by Herodotus with the Greek god Zeus
  3. The third and final rank was composed of four deities with specific characteristics
    • The "Scythian Heracles" (Ἡρακλῆς), likely the same as the deity Targitaos, the forefather of the Scythian kings
    • The "Scythian Ares" (Ἄρης), the god of war
    • Goitosyros (Γοιτόσῠρος) or Oitosyros (Οἰτόσυρος), who might have been associated with the Sun, and was equated by Herodotus with the Greek solar deity Apollo
    • Artimpasa (Ἀρτίμπασα) or Argimpasa (Ἀργίμπασα), a more complex deity who was a patron of fertility with power over sovereignty and the priestly force, and was equated by Herodotus with Aphrodite Urania
A eighth Scythian deity mentioned by Herodotus was Thagimasadas (Θαγιμασάδας), whom he equated with the Greek god Poseidon.
 

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These are the Slavic Gods

Again quite distinct from Vedic people who popular theories claim to have originated in Southern Russia (Andronovo culture 2000bce-1000bce)

Mokosh
Perun
Veles
Dazhbog
Chernobog
Yarilo
Svetovid
Stribog
Simargl
Triglav
Rod
Morana
Svarozhits
Svarog
Devana
Rugiaevit
Dodola
Rusalka
Porevit
Khors
Lada
Belobog
Radegast
Živa
 

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This section includes the names of gods, divine or demonic beings, and other personages from Lithuanian myths, legends, folklore, and fairy-tales.

Gods and goddesses
  • Ašvieniai, the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun (the Vedic Ashwins).
  • Aušrinė, the Morning Star, a goddess, a daughter of the God ("dievaitė"). She was the goddess of the morning. Alternatively her name is given as Aušra ("dawn"). (Usha in Vedic religion.)
  • Auštaras (Auštra), the god of the northeast wind, who stands at the gates of paradise and lights the way for those going to paradise. His function of shining this beacon makes him similar to Aušrinė; some consider him to be her cousin.
  • Bangpūtys, the god of the seas and storms ––he is two-faced like the Roman god Janus.
  • Dalia, goddess of fate and weaving.
  • Deivės Valdytojos (Lithuanian: Governing Goddesses), were the goddesses who made garments from human's lives. They were seven sisters: Verpiančioji (who spun the threads of life), Metančioji (who threw rims of life), Audėja (the weaver), Gadintoja (who broke the thread), Sergėtoja (who scolded Gadintoja, and instigated war between people), Nukirpėja (who cut the cloth of life), and Išskalbėja (the laundress). They have similarities with the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns. Deivės Valdytojos were associated with Dalia and Laima.
  • Dievas, ("God"), the supreme deity
  • Dievas Senelis ("God Old Man"), a teacher of people and judge of their morality. He looks like an old traveling beggar. Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine. Epithet of Dievas.
  • Gabija, the foster of the Holy Fire, a goddess, a daughter of Dievas ("dievaitė").
  • Laima, goddess of Fate and pregnant women.
  • Mėnuo, the Moon, a son of Dievas ("dievaitis").
  • Perkūnas, the Thunder, the main god. ("dievaitis") (Parjanya/Indra in Vedic religion).
  • Praamžius, Pramšans, Pramžimas, Praamžimas, an epithet of Dievas (the chief god); probably of later literary origin.
  • Saulė, the Sun Goddess (Surya in Vedic religion)
  • Vakarinė, goddess of the Evening Star.
  • Vėjopatis, god of the wind and master of Dausos (paradise)
  • Žemyna, goddess, the deified soil (Thracian Zemele; Zamin in Persian and Hindi for "land").
  • Žvaigždės (singular: žvaigždė), stars. Saulė (the sun) is their mother and sometimes with the Moon as their father. One of the most important stars is Aušrinė. Other stars, Aušrinė's sisters, are less important, but they sometimes appear in mythic stories too. Especially notable ones are Vakarinė or Vakarė (the evening Venus, who makes the bed for Saulė), Indraja (Jupiter), Sėlija (Saturn), Žiezdrė (Mars), and Vaivora (Mercury).

Heroes and heroines
  • Pajauta, the legendary princess of Kernavė
  • Jūratė and Kastytis are heroes of a Lithuanian legend, which subsequently became popular, mostly because of its modern poetic interpretation by Maironis. The queen of the amber palace Jūratė may be considered a manifestation of the goddess of Sea in this legend.
Local and nature spirits
  • Ežerinis, a spirit of lakes
  • Javinė, a household goddess who protects grain in barns.
  • Jievaras, a household spirit who protects grain. Sacrifices to Jievaras are made after the rye harvest. While cutting grain, women would leave a few grain tufts uncut, which would later be braided into plaits. They would also leave some bread and salt under the plait, and would say: Davei manei, Žemele, duodame ir tau ([You] gave for us, Mother Earth, we are giving for you too), a request for the land to continue to be fruitful.
  • Kupolė, the spirit of springtime vegetation and flowers. The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with Feast of St. John the Baptist (Joninės). In this festival, women picked sacral herbs, danced and sang songs. Kupolinės is also known as Rasos. Compare this with Ziedu māte in Latvian mythology, Kupala in Polish mythology and Ivan Kupala in Russian mythology
  • Laukų dvasios (spirits of fields), spirits, who were running through the fields. When crops in the fields waved in the wind, people saw them as being the actions of spirits. Laukų dvasios include Nuogalis, Kiškis (hare), Meška (bear), Lapė (fox), Katinas (tomcat), Bubis, Bubas, Bubė, Baubas, Babaužis, Bobas, Maumas (bugaboo), Raudongalvis (red-headed), Raudongerklis (red-throated), Žaliaakis (green-eyed), Paplėštakis, Guda, Dizikas, Smauglys (boa), Ruginis (spirit of rye), Papiokė, Pypalas, Žebris, Arklys (horse), Vilkas (wolf).
  • Upinis, a spirit of rivers
Various lower beings
  • Kaukas, spirits similar to leprechauns.
  • Laumė, a fairy-like female creature (pixies). Described as white and blue as the sky itself. Good spirit, very friendly with the Earth and Nature gods. However, if anyone tried to use them for personal gain, their punishment would be severe.
  • Nykštukas, gnomes.
  • Vėlės, spirits of dead human beings.
"Demonic" beings
  • Aitvaras, a household spirit bringing both good and bad luck
  • Baubas, an evil spirit with long lean arms, wrinkly fingers and red eyes. He harasses people and tears their hair or stifles them. To children, he is the equivalent of the boogeyman of the English-speaking countries. A misbehaving child could be told by the parents: "Behave, or baubas will come and get you". Also it could be described as a black and dark creature living under the carpet or in some dark spot of the house.
  • Giltinė – goddess of death, also The Reaper. Other names include Kaulinyčia, Maras (black death or the Plague), Maro mergos, Kolera, Pavietrė, Kapinių žmogus.[2] Her sacred bird is the owl. Sometimes she was considered to be a sister of Laima (luck).
  • Ragana, a forest-dwelling witch.
  • Slogutis means pain, misery or nightmare. Also can mean fear or bad feelings.
  • Pinčiukas, devil, not the pure evil being of Christianity, but a trickster. Earlier - dweller or even god of bogs and marshes.
  • Žiburinis, a scary forest spirit that appears as a phosphorescent skeleton.
 

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Could someone explain to me why such differences?

Prophets & God/Angles of Abrahmic faiths haven't changed. Why so with Indo-European religions? Oral traditions ..... could be could be not.

In his role as god of rain and thunder, Ishkur corresponded to the Sumerian deities Asalluhe and Ninurta. He was identified by the Akkadians with their god of thunderstorms, Adad.

In my opinion all these God's are of independent origins and have nothing to do with commonality.

Baal of Egypt
Adad of Akkadians
Indra of Hindus
Zeus of Greeks
Thor of Germanics
Perun of Slavs
Tarhuna of Hittite
Set of Egypt
 

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If Vedic people & their God's came from Andronovo directly or through BMAC then Why is there no Indra in these culture or the later Iranian cultures.

Instead we Find Indra mentioned among the treaty between Hittites (themselves IE people) and Mittani.

Hittite thunder God was Tarhunna
Mittani thunder God was probably Indra.
 

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What is your name?

kak vas zovut?
koks tavo vardas?
wie heissen Sie?

tumhaara naam kya he?
Tuhāḍā nāma kī hai?
Tamāruṁ nāma śuṁ chē?

any body who can translate it to Sanskrit?
 

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Vedic Deities

Minor deities (one single or no dedicated hymn)

 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Contrary to popular belief Iranian Deities are quite distinct. Scythians from steppes had entirely different cast of deities:

The structure of the Scythian pantheon was typically Indo-Iranian, being divided into three ranks:

  1. In the first rank was the head of the pantheon:
    • Tabiti (Ταβιτί), the flaming one, who was the goddess of heat, fire and the hearth and was equated by Herodotus with the Greek goddess of the Hearth, Hestia
  2. In the second rank were the binary opposites and the father and mother of the universe:
    • Api (Ἀπί), the Earth and Water Mother, equated by Herodotus with the Greek goddess of the Earth, Gaia
    • Papaios (Παπαῖος), the Sky Father, equated by Herodotus with the Greek god Zeus
  3. The third and final rank was composed of four deities with specific characteristics
    • The "Scythian Heracles" (Ἡρακλῆς), likely the same as the deity Targitaos, the forefather of the Scythian kings
    • The "Scythian Ares" (Ἄρης), the god of war
    • Goitosyros (Γοιτόσῠρος) or Oitosyros (Οἰτόσυρος), who might have been associated with the Sun, and was equated by Herodotus with the Greek solar deity Apollo
    • Artimpasa (Ἀρτίμπασα) or Argimpasa (Ἀργίμπασα), a more complex deity who was a patron of fertility with power over sovereignty and the priestly force, and was equated by Herodotus with Aphrodite Urania
A eighth Scythian deity mentioned by Herodotus was Thagimasadas (Θαγιμασάδας), whom he equated with the Greek god Poseidon.
When commenting about this you must understanding modern day eurfags discovered Parsis and Zarathushtra from the verbal accounts of Parsi priests in Gujarat recorded by duperrorn via SANSKRIT translations of original documents.

The word "Indo" was attached in order to claim Sanskrit for eurfags and malicious delusions to erase 1000s of years of our past.

Dumb retarded eurfags who believe Zarathushtra works is not Indian simply because eurfags are butthurt about the fact its all Indian.
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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If Vedic people & their God's came from Andronovo directly or through BMAC then Why is there no Indra in these culture or the later Iranian cultures.

Instead we Find Indra mentioned among the treaty between Hittites (themselves IE people) and Mittani.

Hittite thunder God was Tarhunna
Mittani thunder God was probably Indra.
A mural of Zarathustra in a Tehran temple. Unlike his so called melanin deficient depictions, here his skin is depicted dark brown like many Indians.

Zarathustra was of the Athravan (Atharvan) priestly caste. The Avesta declares that Zarathustra was an Athravan.

1635955983993.png
 

Indo-Aryan

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When commenting about this you must understanding modern day eurfags discovered Parsis and Zarathushtra from the verbal accounts of Parsi priests in Gujarat recorded by duperrorn via SANSKRIT translations of original documents.

The word "Indo" was attached in order to claim Sanskrit for eurfags and malicious delusions to erase 1000s of years of our past.
Were all Vedic God's worshiped by all tribes or were they tribe specific?

Do we have any proof of these deities worshiped by Sudasa? Or was it just limited to Rishis?

I may sound stupid but who did the Pandavas worshiped?
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Were all Vedic God's worshiped by all tribes or were they tribe specific?

Do we have any proof of these deities worshiped by Sudasa? Or was it just limited to Rishis?

I may sound stupid but who did the Pandavas worshiped?
Last and most recent Veda the THARVA VEDA is known as the Bhrigu Angirasa Veda wherein Bhrigu and Angirasa are the names of ancient rishis associated with Atharva Veda. However due to philosophical split among a group of Vedic people of BHARATA the ATHARVA VEDA came to be associated only with RISHI Angirasa. So it transpires that the Zend Avesta is 5th Veda or BHARGAVA ATHARVA VEDA. This explains the great commonality in two texts with both being chanted in characteristic meter and oral transmission over centuries.
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Look at Zarathustra portrayed on a mural of the Shree Saibaba Satsang Mandal, Surat, Gujarat. He is shown next to Jalaram (left) and Vivekananda.



Apart from the gods that are common to both Zoroastrianism and HINDUISM, names of some other Hindu gods are carried by even modern day Persian speakers. For example, the names 'Śiva' (Charming) and variations of 'Rāma' (Black)[63] are used by Iranic speakers, such as Persians and Pashtuns. King Ram is also added in names such as 'Shahram' (King Rām) and 'Vahram'/Bahram' (Virtuous Rām), which was the other name of Verethragna mentioned in the Bahram Yasht of the Avesta. The Sassanian kings took the Vahram title, such "Vahram I" (ab. AD 273-276.)[64] Toponyms as well include 'Ram'/'Raman' in their syntax, such as Ramsar in Iran.
Daēvā does not mean Deva
Whereas the root of the Avestan word 'daēvā' is "daē" meaning god, of 'deva' it is "div", which means light. Zarathustra wrote in his Gāthās, "daēnāe paouruyae dae ahura!"[65] Hence, the word for religion in Avestan is daēnā.[66]

That deva carries positive connotations is seen in Gāthā 17.4 Yasna 53.4 wherein Ahura Mazda is said to be a "devaav ahuraaha."

As Airyanem Vaeja is in Kashmiri, the Avestan and Kashmiri vocabulary are similar. Dai is still used by Kashmiris to refer as god.
Many Avestan verses are from Vedas

The Rig Veda is believed to have been the oldest scripture in the world. In it are verses that are identical to ones within the Zhand Avesta, except the dialect of the Avesta is in Avestan. Ahura Mazda, whom the Mazdaens worship as the Supreme Lord is the Avestan equivalent to Vedic Sanskrit's Asura Medhira or Asura Mada. These terms mean "Wise Lord" and in the Rig Veda this phrase appears in a few places, in one verse being "kṣayannasmabhyamasura".





Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
With bending down, oblations, sacrifices, O Varuna, we deprecate thine anger:
Wise Asura, thou King of wide dominion, loosen the bonds of sins by us committed.[67]

Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
—Rig Veda 24.14


There are several passages in the Vedas (especially the Atharva Veda) and Avesta that are identical, with the only difference that they are in the different dialects of Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit.

There are two sets of Mazdaen scriptures; the Zhand Avesta[68] and the Khorda-Avesta.[69] The Zhand contains 3 further sets of writings, known as the Gāthās[70] compiled by Zarathustra, and the Vendidad, and Vispered. (Not surprisingly, Hindu scriptures also have collections known as Gāthas, such as the Vasant Gātha and Theragātha.) The Khorda contains short prayers known as Yashts. They are written in a metre much like the Vedas. Normally they contain 15 syllables known in Sanskrit as Gayatri asuri) like hymns of the Rig Veda, or Ushnih asuri such as in the Gāthā Vohu Khshathrem[71] or of 11 syllables in the Pankti asuri form, such as in the Ustavaiti Gātha.

Some scholars also note that there is a connection between Bhargava Rṣi and Zoroastrianism, as the Atharva Veda portion composed by him is known as Bhargava Upastha and the latter word is the Sanskrit version of the term 'Avesta'.[72]


"The Avesta is nearer the Veda than the Veda to its own epic Sanskrit." - Dr. L. H. Mills
Some identical verses from Vedas and the Avesta

ScriptureSanskritAvestanEnglish
Rig Veda (10.87.21) /
Zhand Avesta (Gāthā 17.4 Yasna 53.4)
mahaantaa mitraa varunaa samraajaa devaav asuraaha sakhe
sakhaayaam ajaro jarimne agne martyaan amartyas tvam nah
mahaantaa mitraa varunaa devaav ahuraaha sakhe ya fedroi vidaat
patyaye caa vaastrevyo at caa khatratave ashaauno ashavavyo
O Ahura Mazda, you appear as the father, the ruler, the friend, the worker and as knowledge.
It is your immense mercy that has given a mortal the fortune to stay at your feet.
Atharva Veda 7.66 /
Zhand Avesta (Prishni, Chapter 8, Gāthā 12)
yadi antareekshe yadi vaate aasa yadi vriksheshu yadi bolapashu
yad ashravan pashava ud-yamaanam tad braahmanam punar asmaan upaitu
yadi antareekshe yadi vaate aasa yadi vriksheshu yadi bolapashu
yad ashravan pashava ud-yamaanam tad braahmanam punar asmaan upaitu
O Lord! Whether you be in the sky or in the wind, in the forest or in the waves.
No matter where you are, come to us once. All living beings restlessly await the sound of your footsteps.
Rig Veda /
Zhand Avesta (Gāthā 17.4, Yasna 29)
majadaah sakritva smarishthahmadaatta sakhaare marharintoOnly that supreme being is worthy of worship.
Atharva Veda / Zhand Avesta (Yasna 31.8)vishva duraksho jinavativispa drakshu janaitiAll (every) evil spirit is slain.
Atharva Veda / Zhand Avestavishva duraksho nashyativispa drakshu naashaitiAll (every) evil spirit goes away.
Atharva Veda / Zhand Avestayadaa shrinoti etaam vaacaamyathaa hanoti aisham vaacamWhen he hears these words.

Why Zarathustra's teachings are called Zhand Avesta

The Avesta is also known as the Zhand Avesta. Zhand is the Avestan equivalent of Chhand.





Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
O Kshatriya, the verses that were recited by Atharvan to a conclave of great sages, in days of old, are known by the name of Chhandas. They are not be regarded as acquainted with the Chhandas who have only read through the Vedas, without having attained to the knowledge of Him who is known through the Vedas. The Chhandas, O best of men, become the means of obtaining Brahm(Moksha) independently and without the necessity of anything foreign.
Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
—Mahabharata Udyoga Parva Chapter 43:4[73]


The word Avesta comes from Sanskrit 'Abhyasta', which means Repeated. Hence, the Avesta (Abhyasta) is basically a repetition of Zarathustra's teachings.
Zarathustra was born in Kashmir




Zarathustra is always shown wearing a dhoti, (Indian-fashioned garment), unlike the Balkhans to whom he preaches.

The birthplace of Zarathustra has been a subject of dispute ever since the Greek, Latin and later the Muslim writers came to know of him and his teachings. Cephalion, Eusebius, and Justin believed it was either in Balkh (Greek: Bactria) or the eastern Iranian Plateau, while Pliny and Origen thought Media or the western Iranian Plateau, and Muslim authors like Shahrastani and al-Tuabari believed it was western Iran. [74]While Zarathustra's place of birth has been postulated in various places even in modern times, including within areas not historically included by authors, such as in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, a few scholars have believed that he was born in Kashmir. Shrikant G. Talageri[75] and T. Lloyd Stanley[76] were proponents of this Kashmiri Airyanem Vaeja viewpoint. Mazdaen scriptures[77] mention repeatedly that Zarathustra was born in Airyanem Vaeja, also known as Airyanam Dakhyunam. However, Zarathustra moved from there to Balkh, where he was given sanctuary by its king and he had become a royal sage. The Mazdaen scriptures further say that many other people of Airyanem Vaeja had moved out with the dramatic climate change whereby snow and cold weather became much more frequent. Zarathustra was regarded as a pious Godman for the Balkhan administrators of his time and India was recognized as a center of spiritual and scientific wisdom. This is why Mazdaean scriptures show that King Vishtaspa's court was already familiar with the Indian Brahman adviser Changragach who was teacher to minister Jamaspa, even before Zarathustra's arrival to Balkh. The Brahman Byas was also welcome in King Vishtaspa's court and met and had become a disciple of Zarathustra. King Vishtaspa (Greek: Hystaspes) was the father of King Darius I of the Balkh Kingdom and he had studied astronomy amongst the Brahmans of India.[78]

There are similarities noticed by scholars such as Subhash Kak and Zubin Mehta which are described by them between Mazdaen practices of Kashmiri Hindus. These include the sacred thread for women (called aetapan in Kashmiri) and the sacred shirt (sadr.) The festival of Nuvruz[79] in commemoration of King Yima is known as Navreh in Kashmir which is celebrated by Kashmiri Hindus. Furthermore, the folklore of Kashmir too has many tales where devas[80] are antagonists to both devas and asuras. As the title Zarathustra has many variations, such as 'Zartust' and 'Zardost', the Sanskrit equivalent of his title is 'Haritustra Svitma'. The 'p' in 'Spitama' corresponds to a 'v' in Sanskrit just as Avestan 'Pourusarpa' is 'Purusarva' is Sanskrit. Whereas the consonant 's' of many Sanskrit words becomes 'h' in Avestan, 'Svitama' maintains its letter because it is followed by a 'v', just as how the 's' in Sanskrit 'asva' (horse) becomes 'aspa' (i.e., 'Dhruwaspa' means She who possesses strong horses, and animals within nameswere more common, such as Yuvanasva and Vindhyasva.) As 'Spitama' means white, the Sanskrit word for the color-based name is 'Svitama'. Svita is a metaphorical characteristic associated with purity and normally associated with Brahmans in the Vedas. For example, the Rig Veda[81] describes the Vasiśṭha ṛṣis as 'svityam' (white), 'svityanco' (dressed in white)[82] and white-robed. Zarathustra dresses in white as well Mazdaen priests also dress up in white. The connection between Vasiśṭha ṛṣi with Atharvan Rṣi is a very close one.
Identification of Avestan sacred places in Kashmir
See also: King Yama's Kingdom was in Kashmir, Rig Vedic rivers, India is the homeland of Indo-Europeans
Kashmir itself has taken on various endonyms and exonymns, which can make pinpointing whether an author is talking about the region. In this case, the Mazdaen scriptures refer to it as Airyanem Vaeja and Anu-Varshte. In addition to these, the region has been called Kashmar, Kashir, Kasherumana, Katche-yul, Kasperia, and Kipin, and it together with Balawaristan is known as Hari-varṣa, Naishadha-varṣa, Uttara-Patha, and Deva-Kuru. It has symbolic and historic association with rishis, and has been known as Rishivaer/Rishi-wara (Land of Rishis.) Even Persian literature has mentioned the words Reshi, Reshout, and Rea-Shivat when speaking about Kashmir.[83] Firdaus (Paradise) is another Persian word that has been used to describe Kashmir. The word Airyanem within the phrase Airyanem Vaeja means Of the Aryans. Jain mantras use the term in the salutations, such as "Namo Airiyanam" in the Namokar Mantra, and "Om Hreem Namo Airiyanam" as an astrological mantra for Jupiter.
Why Airyanem Vaeja is also called Anu-Varshte
The Avesta mentions 'Anu-varshte daēnāyai'[84], meaning "religion of Anu-land." This prayer requests the help of Ardvisura to help Zarathustra able to convince King Vishtaspa to accept the 'religion of Anu-Varshte.' The Anu tribe, also known as Anavas in many Hindu scriptures, were based in Kashmir. There's even a village called Ainu Brai after them within Pahalgam tehsil of Anantanag in Kashmir. That they later annexed nearby lands, including Balkh in Afghanistan, is evident from scriptures such as that of Panani's that tells us of Anava settlements.

In the Anava lineage, 7th in descent from Anu were brothers Usinara and Titikshu. The territories gained by the Anavas was split by these brothers wherein Usinara had grasped Kashmir and the Punjab[85] while Titikshu gained rulership over eastern territories of Anga (Bihar), Vanga (Bengal), Suhma, Pundra, and Kalinga (Orissa.)

Because Kashmir has prehistorically been the Anava stronghold, even during the Dasarajna War as the Rig Veda mentions, it is acknowledged as such both in Hindu scriptures such as the Atharva Veda[86] and in the Mazdaen Avesta.

One of the reasons why historically Balkh and some other regions of modern Afghanistan were Indianized (and hence, referred to as Ariana) is because the Anavas also held areas of Afghanistan under their suzerainty. In Vrtlikara[87], Sage Panini (from Afghanistan himself) mentions that there are 2 Anava settlements of the Usinara called Ahvajala and Saudarsana. Even scholarly Chinese visitors to ancient India, Fa Hien and Yuan Chwang describe the story of a certain King Usinara told at Udyana (modern Swat Valley where people are mostly ethnically Afghans) that sacrificed his life to save that of a dove's.

To little surprise the Kurma Purana[88] mentions Anava being 1 of the 7 sons (Saprtarṣis) of Vasiśṭha, meaning that Vasiśṭha had married within the royal family. Within the same Manavatara era another son of Vasiśṭha was Shukra, meaning that Vasiśṭha had likely married multiple women.
 

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Look at Zarathustra portrayed on a mural of the Shree Saibaba Satsang Mandal, Surat, Gujarat. He is shown next to Jalaram (left) and Vivekananda.



Apart from the gods that are common to both Zoroastrianism and HINDUISM, names of some other Hindu gods are carried by even modern day Persian speakers. For example, the names 'Śiva' (Charming) and variations of 'Rāma' (Black)[63] are used by Iranic speakers, such as Persians and Pashtuns. King Ram is also added in names such as 'Shahram' (King Rām) and 'Vahram'/Bahram' (Virtuous Rām), which was the other name of Verethragna mentioned in the Bahram Yasht of the Avesta. The Sassanian kings took the Vahram title, such "Vahram I" (ab. AD 273-276.)[64] Toponyms as well include 'Ram'/'Raman' in their syntax, such as Ramsar in Iran.
Daēvā does not mean Deva
Whereas the root of the Avestan word 'daēvā' is "daē" meaning god, of 'deva' it is "div", which means light. Zarathustra wrote in his Gāthās, "daēnāe paouruyae dae ahura!"[65] Hence, the word for religion in Avestan is daēnā.[66]

That deva carries positive connotations is seen in Gāthā 17.4 Yasna 53.4 wherein Ahura Mazda is said to be a "devaav ahuraaha."

As Airyanem Vaeja is in Kashmiri, the Avestan and Kashmiri vocabulary are similar. Dai is still used by Kashmiris to refer as god.
Many Avestan verses are from Vedas

The Rig Veda is believed to have been the oldest scripture in the world. In it are verses that are identical to ones within the Zhand Avesta, except the dialect of the Avesta is in Avestan. Ahura Mazda, whom the Mazdaens worship as the Supreme Lord is the Avestan equivalent to Vedic Sanskrit's Asura Medhira or Asura Mada. These terms mean "Wise Lord" and in the Rig Veda this phrase appears in a few places, in one verse being "kṣayannasmabhyamasura".





Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
With bending down, oblations, sacrifices, O Varuna, we deprecate thine anger:
Wise Asura, thou King of wide dominion, loosen the bonds of sins by us committed.[67]

Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
—Rig Veda 24.14


There are several passages in the Vedas (especially the Atharva Veda) and Avesta that are identical, with the only difference that they are in the different dialects of Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit.

There are two sets of Mazdaen scriptures; the Zhand Avesta[68] and the Khorda-Avesta.[69] The Zhand contains 3 further sets of writings, known as the Gāthās[70] compiled by Zarathustra, and the Vendidad, and Vispered. (Not surprisingly, Hindu scriptures also have collections known as Gāthas, such as the Vasant Gātha and Theragātha.) The Khorda contains short prayers known as Yashts. They are written in a metre much like the Vedas. Normally they contain 15 syllables known in Sanskrit as Gayatri asuri) like hymns of the Rig Veda, or Ushnih asuri such as in the Gāthā Vohu Khshathrem[71] or of 11 syllables in the Pankti asuri form, such as in the Ustavaiti Gātha.

Some scholars also note that there is a connection between Bhargava Rṣi and Zoroastrianism, as the Atharva Veda portion composed by him is known as Bhargava Upastha and the latter word is the Sanskrit version of the term 'Avesta'.[72]



Some identical verses from Vedas and the Avesta

ScriptureSanskritAvestanEnglish
Rig Veda (10.87.21) /
Zhand Avesta (Gāthā 17.4 Yasna 53.4)
mahaantaa mitraa varunaa samraajaa devaav asuraaha sakhe
sakhaayaam ajaro jarimne agne martyaan amartyas tvam nah
mahaantaa mitraa varunaa devaav ahuraaha sakhe ya fedroi vidaat
patyaye caa vaastrevyo at caa khatratave ashaauno ashavavyo
O Ahura Mazda, you appear as the father, the ruler, the friend, the worker and as knowledge.
It is your immense mercy that has given a mortal the fortune to stay at your feet.
Atharva Veda 7.66 /
Zhand Avesta (Prishni, Chapter 8, Gāthā 12)
yadi antareekshe yadi vaate aasa yadi vriksheshu yadi bolapashu
yad ashravan pashava ud-yamaanam tad braahmanam punar asmaan upaitu
yadi antareekshe yadi vaate aasa yadi vriksheshu yadi bolapashu
yad ashravan pashava ud-yamaanam tad braahmanam punar asmaan upaitu
O Lord! Whether you be in the sky or in the wind, in the forest or in the waves.
No matter where you are, come to us once. All living beings restlessly await the sound of your footsteps.
Rig Veda /
Zhand Avesta (Gāthā 17.4, Yasna 29)
majadaah sakritva smarishthahmadaatta sakhaare marharintoOnly that supreme being is worthy of worship.
Atharva Veda / Zhand Avesta (Yasna 31.8)vishva duraksho jinavativispa drakshu janaitiAll (every) evil spirit is slain.
Atharva Veda / Zhand Avestavishva duraksho nashyativispa drakshu naashaitiAll (every) evil spirit goes away.
Atharva Veda / Zhand Avestayadaa shrinoti etaam vaacaamyathaa hanoti aisham vaacamWhen he hears these words.

Why Zarathustra's teachings are called Zhand Avesta

The Avesta is also known as the Zhand Avesta. Zhand is the Avestan equivalent of Chhand.





Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
O Kshatriya, the verses that were recited by Atharvan to a conclave of great sages, in days of old, are known by the name of Chhandas. They are not be regarded as acquainted with the Chhandas who have only read through the Vedas, without having attained to the knowledge of Him who is known through the Vedas. The Chhandas, O best of men, become the means of obtaining Brahm(Moksha) independently and without the necessity of anything foreign.
Zoroastrianism and Hinduism
—Mahabharata Udyoga Parva Chapter 43:4[73]


The word Avesta comes from Sanskrit 'Abhyasta', which means Repeated. Hence, the Avesta (Abhyasta) is basically a repetition of Zarathustra's teachings.
Zarathustra was born in Kashmir




Zarathustra is always shown wearing a dhoti, (Indian-fashioned garment), unlike the Balkhans to whom he preaches.

The birthplace of Zarathustra has been a subject of dispute ever since the Greek, Latin and later the Muslim writers came to know of him and his teachings. Cephalion, Eusebius, and Justin believed it was either in Balkh (Greek: Bactria) or the eastern Iranian Plateau, while Pliny and Origen thought Media or the western Iranian Plateau, and Muslim authors like Shahrastani and al-Tuabari believed it was western Iran. [74]While Zarathustra's place of birth has been postulated in various places even in modern times, including within areas not historically included by authors, such as in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, a few scholars have believed that he was born in Kashmir. Shrikant G. Talageri[75] and T. Lloyd Stanley[76] were proponents of this Kashmiri Airyanem Vaeja viewpoint. Mazdaen scriptures[77] mention repeatedly that Zarathustra was born in Airyanem Vaeja, also known as Airyanam Dakhyunam. However, Zarathustra moved from there to Balkh, where he was given sanctuary by its king and he had become a royal sage. The Mazdaen scriptures further say that many other people of Airyanem Vaeja had moved out with the dramatic climate change whereby snow and cold weather became much more frequent. Zarathustra was regarded as a pious Godman for the Balkhan administrators of his time and India was recognized as a center of spiritual and scientific wisdom. This is why Mazdaean scriptures show that King Vishtaspa's court was already familiar with the Indian Brahman adviser Changragach who was teacher to minister Jamaspa, even before Zarathustra's arrival to Balkh. The Brahman Byas was also welcome in King Vishtaspa's court and met and had become a disciple of Zarathustra. King Vishtaspa (Greek: Hystaspes) was the father of King Darius I of the Balkh Kingdom and he had studied astronomy amongst the Brahmans of India.[78]

There are similarities noticed by scholars such as Subhash Kak and Zubin Mehta which are described by them between Mazdaen practices of Kashmiri Hindus. These include the sacred thread for women (called aetapan in Kashmiri) and the sacred shirt (sadr.) The festival of Nuvruz[79] in commemoration of King Yima is known as Navreh in Kashmir which is celebrated by Kashmiri Hindus. Furthermore, the folklore of Kashmir too has many tales where devas[80] are antagonists to both devas and asuras. As the title Zarathustra has many variations, such as 'Zartust' and 'Zardost', the Sanskrit equivalent of his title is 'Haritustra Svitma'. The 'p' in 'Spitama' corresponds to a 'v' in Sanskrit just as Avestan 'Pourusarpa' is 'Purusarva' is Sanskrit. Whereas the consonant 's' of many Sanskrit words becomes 'h' in Avestan, 'Svitama' maintains its letter because it is followed by a 'v', just as how the 's' in Sanskrit 'asva' (horse) becomes 'aspa' (i.e., 'Dhruwaspa' means She who possesses strong horses, and animals within nameswere more common, such as Yuvanasva and Vindhyasva.) As 'Spitama' means white, the Sanskrit word for the color-based name is 'Svitama'. Svita is a metaphorical characteristic associated with purity and normally associated with Brahmans in the Vedas. For example, the Rig Veda[81] describes the Vasiśṭha ṛṣis as 'svityam' (white), 'svityanco' (dressed in white)[82] and white-robed. Zarathustra dresses in white as well Mazdaen priests also dress up in white. The connection between Vasiśṭha ṛṣi with Atharvan Rṣi is a very close one.
Identification of Avestan sacred places in Kashmir
See also: King Yama's Kingdom was in Kashmir, Rig Vedic rivers, India is the homeland of Indo-Europeans
Kashmir itself has taken on various endonyms and exonymns, which can make pinpointing whether an author is talking about the region. In this case, the Mazdaen scriptures refer to it as Airyanem Vaeja and Anu-Varshte. In addition to these, the region has been called Kashmar, Kashir, Kasherumana, Katche-yul, Kasperia, and Kipin, and it together with Balawaristan is known as Hari-varṣa, Naishadha-varṣa, Uttara-Patha, and Deva-Kuru. It has symbolic and historic association with rishis, and has been known as Rishivaer/Rishi-wara (Land of Rishis.) Even Persian literature has mentioned the words Reshi, Reshout, and Rea-Shivat when speaking about Kashmir.[83] Firdaus (Paradise) is another Persian word that has been used to describe Kashmir. The word Airyanem within the phrase Airyanem Vaeja means Of the Aryans. Jain mantras use the term in the salutations, such as "Namo Airiyanam" in the Namokar Mantra, and "Om Hreem Namo Airiyanam" as an astrological mantra for Jupiter.
Why Airyanem Vaeja is also called Anu-Varshte
The Avesta mentions 'Anu-varshte daēnāyai'[84], meaning "religion of Anu-land." This prayer requests the help of Ardvisura to help Zarathustra able to convince King Vishtaspa to accept the 'religion of Anu-Varshte.' The Anu tribe, also known as Anavas in many Hindu scriptures, were based in Kashmir. There's even a village called Ainu Brai after them within Pahalgam tehsil of Anantanag in Kashmir. That they later annexed nearby lands, including Balkh in Afghanistan, is evident from scriptures such as that of Panani's that tells us of Anava settlements.

In the Anava lineage, 7th in descent from Anu were brothers Usinara and Titikshu. The territories gained by the Anavas was split by these brothers wherein Usinara had grasped Kashmir and the Punjab[85] while Titikshu gained rulership over eastern territories of Anga (Bihar), Vanga (Bengal), Suhma, Pundra, and Kalinga (Orissa.)

Because Kashmir has prehistorically been the Anava stronghold, even during the Dasarajna War as the Rig Veda mentions, it is acknowledged as such both in Hindu scriptures such as the Atharva Veda[86] and in the Mazdaen Avesta.

One of the reasons why historically Balkh and some other regions of modern Afghanistan were Indianized (and hence, referred to as Ariana) is because the Anavas also held areas of Afghanistan under their suzerainty. In Vrtlikara[87], Sage Panini (from Afghanistan himself) mentions that there are 2 Anava settlements of the Usinara called Ahvajala and Saudarsana. Even scholarly Chinese visitors to ancient India, Fa Hien and Yuan Chwang describe the story of a certain King Usinara told at Udyana (modern Swat Valley where people are mostly ethnically Afghans) that sacrificed his life to save that of a dove's.

To little surprise the Kurma Purana[88] mentions Anava being 1 of the 7 sons (Saprtarṣis) of Vasiśṭha, meaning that Vasiśṭha had married within the royal family. Within the same Manavatara era another son of Vasiśṭha was Shukra, meaning that Vasiśṭha had likely married multiple women.
Being a kashmiri myself I had no clue 😅
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Being a kashmiri myself I had no clue 😅
Its absolutely untenable to claim that language of the Zend Avesta developed separately and distinctly in Iran in parallel to a serpate development of Sanskrit in BHARAT. Both sacred texts have a common origin with VEDAS predating Avestan.

Jatindra Chatterji : BHARTIYA Origins of Atharvan zarathushtra

 

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Its absolutely untenable to claim that language of the Zend Avesta developed separately and distinctly in Iran in parallel to a serpate development of Sanskrit in BHARAT. Both sacred texts have a common origin with VEDAS predating Avestan.

Jatindra Chatterji : BHARTIYA Origins of Atharvan zarathushtra

It saddens me when Its next to impossible to get your hands on authentic versions of Vedic and Iranian literature at fair price.
 

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oṃ tryámbakaṃ yajāmahe sugandhíṃ puṣṭi-vardhánam
urvārukam íva bandhánān mṛtyor mukṣīya mā 'mṛtā́t

From Rig Veda Book 7


And they said there is no Shiva in Rig Veda 😅
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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It saddens me when Its next to impossible to get your hands on authentic versions of Vedic and Iranian literature at fair price.
SARASVATI Research Center and Center for Indic Studies have original documentations.

There were also no "Indo-Iranians" who became Zarathushtra's ancestor.All pre-Zoroastrian gods that are mentioned in Zoroastrian texts and absorbed into the Zoroastrian tradition are also mentioned in the Vedas.

There was no separate country called “iran”. Western mass of BHARATA formed a continuum from punjab, to balochistan, afghanistan and iran. Common geographical references exist within the Vedas and the zend avesta.
 

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