Evolution of Fighter Aircraft

EnlightenedMonk

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From the legendary Sopwith Camel to the revolutionary F-22 Raptor, aviation, and fighter aircraft in particular have truly come a very long way, and indeed have a further path to trod on...

In this thread, we will explore the evolution of these machines that truly revolutionised warfare in the 20th century and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future...

Hats off to the Fighter Aircafts !!!
 

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Vickers F.B.5



General characteristics

Crew: Two, pilot & observer/gunner
Length: 27 ft 2 in (8.28 m)
Wingspan: 36 ft 6 in (11.13 m)
Height: 11 ft 0 in (3.35 m)
Wing area: 382 ft² (35.5 m²)
Empty weight: 1,220 lb (555 kg)
Loaded weight: 2,050 lb (930 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Gnome Monosoupape 9-cylinder rotary engine, 100 hp (75 kW)

Performance

Maximum speed: 70 mph (61 knots, 113 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1,520 m)
Range: 250 mi (217 NM, 403 km)
Service ceiling: 9,000 ft (2,743 m)
Wing loading: 5.4 lb/ft² (26 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 0.05 hp/lb (0.08 kW/kg)
Endurance 4 hours 30 minutes [7]
Climb to 5,000 ft (1,520 m): 16 min

Armament

1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun in observer's cockpit
 

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Nieuport 11



General characteristics

Crew: one, pilot
Length: 5.8 m (19 ft 0 in)
Wingspan: 7.55 m (24 ft 9 in)
Height: 2.4 m (7 ft 10.5 in)
Wing area: 13 m² (140 ft²)
Empty weight: 344 kg (759 lb)
Loaded weight: 480 kg (1,058 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 550 kg (1,213 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Gnome or Le Rhone 9C air-cooled rotary, 59.6 kW (80 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 156 km/h (97 mph)
Range: 330 km (205 miles)
Service ceiling: 4,600 m (15,090 ft)
Rate of climb: 15 mins to 3,000 m (9,840 ft)
Power/mass: 1.49 kW/kg (0.09 hp/lb)

Armament

1 × Hotchkiss or Lewis machine gun
 

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Nieuport 17



General characteristics

Crew: one, pilot
Length: 5.8 m (19 ft)
Wingspan: 8.2 m (26 ft 9 in)
Height: 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in)
Wing area: 14.75 m² (158.77 ft²)
Empty weight: 375 kg (827 lb)
Loaded weight: 560 kg (1,235 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Le Rhône 9J 9-cylinder rotary engine, 82 kW (110 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 164 km/h (89 kn, 102 mph)
Range: 249 km (135 nmi, 155 mi)
Service ceiling: 5,300 m (17,390 ft)
Rate of climb: 11.5 min to 3,000 m (9,840 ft) ()
Wing loading: 37.9 kg/m² (7.77 lb/ft²)
Power/mass: 0.15 kW/kg (0.09 hp/lb)

Armament

(French service) 1 × synchronised Vickers machine gun
(British service) 1 × Lewis gun on Foster mounting on upper wing
 

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SPAD S.XIII



General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 6.25 m (20 ft 6 in)
Wingspan: 8.25 m (27 ft 1 in)
Height: 2.60 m (8 ft 6.5 in)
Wing area: 21.1 m² (227 ft²)
Empty weight: 566 kg (1,245 lb)
Loaded weight: 856 kg (1,888 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 845 kg (1,863 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Hispano-Suiza 8Be 8 cylinder vee-type, 220 hp (164 kw)

Performance

Maximum speed: 218 km/h (135 mph)
Service ceiling: 6,650 m (21,815 ft)
Rate of climb: 2 m/s (384 ft/min)

Armament

Guns: * 2 x .303-cal. (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
 

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Nieuport 28



General characteristics

Crew: one, pilot
Length: 7.8 m (24.4 ft)
Wingspan: 8.1 m (26 ft 3 in)
Height: 2.5 m (8 ft 0 in)
Wing area: 15.8 m² (169 ft²)
Empty weight: 475 kg (1,227 lb)
Loaded weight: 560 kg (1,635 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Gnome 9-N rotary, 102kW (160 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 184 km/h (122 mph)
Range: 349 km (180 miles)
Service ceiling: 5300 m (17,390 ft)
Rate of climb: 11.5 min to 3,000 m (9,840 ft)
Wing loading: 37.9 kg/m² (7.77 lb/ft²)
Power/mass: 0.15 kW/kg (0.09 hp/lb)

Armament

2 × .303 in Vickers machine guns
 

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Fokker Eindecker



General characteristics

Crew: one, pilot
Length: 7.2 m (23 ft 6 in)
Wingspan: 9.52 m (31 ft 2 in)
Height: 2.4 m (7 ft 9 in)
Wing area: m² (ft²)
Empty weight: 400 kg (882 lb)
Loaded weight: 610 kg (1,345 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Oberursel U.I 1 Rotary Engine, 74 kW (99 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 140 km/h (76 kn)

Armament

1 × 7.92 mm (.312 in) Parabellum MG14 machine gun
 

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Albatros D.III



General characteristics

Crew: one
Length: 7.33 m (24 ft 0 in)
Wingspan: 9.00 m (29 ft 6 in)
Height: 2.90 m (9 ft 6 in)
Wing area: 23.6 m² (254 ft²)
Empty weight: 695 kg (1,532 lb)
Loaded weight: 886 kg (1,949 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 955 kg (2,105 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.IIIa inline water cooled engine, 127 kW (170 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 175 km/h (94 kn, 109 mph) at sea level
Range: 480 km (261 nmi, 300 mi)
Service ceiling: 5,500 m (18,044 ft)
Rate of climb: 4.5 m/s (886ft/min)
Wing loading: 37.5 kg/m² (7.67 lb/ft²)
Power/mass: 0.13 kW/kg (0.081 hp/lb)

Armament

2 × 7.92 mm (.312 in) LMG 08/15 machine guns
 

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Fokker Dr.I



General characteristics

Crew: One
Length: 5.77 m (18 ft 11 in)
Wingspan: 7.20 m (23 ft 7 in)
Height: 2.95 m (9 ft 8 in)
Wing area: 18.70 m² (201 ft²)
Empty weight: 406 kg (895 lb)
Loaded weight: 586 kg (1,292 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Oberursel Ur.II 9-cylinder rotary engine, 82 kW (110 hp)
Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0323
Drag area: 0.62 m² (6.69 ft²)
Aspect ratio: 4.04

Performance

Maximum speed: 185 km/h (115 mph)
Stall speed: 72 km/h (45 mph)
Range: 300 km (185 mi)
Service ceiling: 6,095 m (20,000 ft)
Rate of climb: 5.7 m/s (1,130 ft/min)
Lift-to-drag ratio: 8.0

Armament

2 × 7.92 mm (.312 in) "Spandau" LMG 08/15 machine guns.
 

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Fokker D.VII



General characteristics

Crew: One
Length: 22 ft 9 in (6.93 m)
Wingspan: 29 ft 3 in (8.93 m)
Height: 9 ft 2 in (2.80 m)
Wing area: 217.4 ft² (20.2 m²)
Empty weight: 1,540 lb (698 kg)
Loaded weight: 1,874 lb (850 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 1,936 lb (878 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.IIIa, 180hp (134 kW)

Performance

Maximum speed: 116 mph (186 km/h)
Service ceiling: 19,600 ft (5,970 m)
Rate of climb: 787 ft/min (240 m/min)
Wing loading: 9.64 lb/ft² (47 kg/m²)

Armament

2 × 7.92 mm (.312 in) LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machine guns
 

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Airco DH.2



General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 25 ft 2½ in (7.69 m)
Wingspan: 28 ft 3 in (8.61 m)
Height: 9 ft 6½ in (2.91 m)
Wing area: 249 ft² (23.13 m²)
Empty weight: 942 lb (428 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 1,441 lb (654 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine, 100 hp (75 kW)

Performance

Maximum speed: 93 mph (150 km/h) at sea level
Range: 250 mi (400 km)
Service ceiling: 14,000 ft (4,265 m)
Rate of climb: 545 ft/min (166 m/min)
Wing loading: 5.79 lb/ft² (28.3 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 0.069 hp/lb (110 W/kg)
Endurance 2¾ hours
Climb to 5,000 ft (1,500 m) 24 minutes 45 seconds

Armament

1 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun using 47-round drum magazines
 

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Sopwith Camel



General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 18 ft 9 in (5.71 m)
Wingspan: 26 ft 11 in (8.53 m)
Height: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m)
Wing area: 231 ft² (21.46 m²)
Empty weight: 930 lb (420 kg)
Loaded weight: 1,455 lb (660 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Clerget 9B 9-cylinder Rotary engine, 130 hp (97 kW)
Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0378
Drag area: 8.73 ft² (0.81 m²)
Aspect ratio: 4.11

Performance

Maximum speed: 115 mph (185 km/h)
Stall speed: 48 mph (77 km/h)
Range: 300 mi ferry (485 km)
Service ceiling: 21,000 ft (6,400 m)
Rate of climb: 1,085 ft/min (5.5 m/s)
Wing loading: 6.3 lb/ft² (30.8 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 0.09 hp/lb (150 W/kg)
Lift-to-drag ratio: 7.7

Armament

Guns: 2× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
 

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Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5



General characteristics

Crew: One
Length: 20 ft 11 in (6.38 m)
Wingspan: 26 ft 7 in (8.11 m)
Height: 9 ft 6 in (2.89 m)
Wing area: 444 ft² (22.67 m²)
Empty weight: 1,410 lb (639 kg)
Loaded weight: 1,935 lb (880 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 1,988 lb (902 kg)

Performance

Maximum speed: 138 mph (222 km/h)
Range: 300 miles (483 km)
Service ceiling: 17,000 ft (5,185 m)
Wing loading: lb/ft² (kg/m²)

Armament

1x 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun with Constantinesco interrupter gear
1x .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun on Foster mounting on upper wing
4x 18kg Cooper bombs, two under each lower wing, to be dropped in 2, 3, 4, 1 order.
 

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Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe



General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 19 ft 2 in (5.84 m)
Wingspan: 31 ft 1 in (9.47 m)
Height: 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m)
Wing area: 274 ft² (25.46 m²)
Empty weight: 1,305 lb (590 kg)
Loaded weight: 2,105 lb (955 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Bentley BR2 rotary engine, 230 hp (172 kW)

Performance

Maximum speed: 121 mph (195 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
Rate of climb: 970 ft/min (296 m/min)
Endurance: 3 hours
Time to altitude: 9 min 25 sec to 10,000 ft (3,050 m)

Armament

Two 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
Four 25 lb (11 kg) bombs
 

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Avia B-534



General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 8.2 m (27 ft)
Wingspan: 9.4 m (31 ft)
Height: 3.1 m (10.2 ft)
Wing area: 23.5 m² (253 ft²)
Empty weight: 1,460 kg (3,220 lb)
Loaded weight: 1,985 kg (4,376 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 2,120 kg (4,680 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs liquid-cooled V12, 620 kW (830 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 394 km/h (212 kn, 245 mph)
Range: 580 km (310 nmi, 360 mi)
Service ceiling: 10,600 m (34,800 ft)
Max wing loading: 90.2 kg/m² (18.5 lb/ft²)
Minimum power/mass: 292 W/kg (0.178 hp/lb)

Armament

Guns: 4× 7.92 mm (0.312 in) machine guns
Bombs: 6× 20 kg (44 lb) bombs
 

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Fiat CR.42



General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 8.25 m (27 ft 1 in)
Wingspan:
Top wing: 9.70 m (31 ft 10 in)
Bottom wing: 6.50 m (21 ft 4 in)
Height: 3.585 m (10 ft)
Wing area: 22.4 m² (241.0 ft²)
Empty weight: 1,782 kg (3,929 lb)
Loaded weight: 2,295 kg (5,060 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Fiat A.74 RIC38 radial air cooled, fourteen cylinders radial engine, 627 kW (840 hp at 2,400 r.p.m./12,500 ft)

Performance

Maximum speed: 441 km/h (238 kn, 274 mph) at 20,000 ft
Cruise speed: 399 km/h (215 kn, 248 mph)
Range: 780 km (420 nmi, 485 mi)
Service ceiling: 10,210 m (33,500 ft)
Rate of climb: 11.8 m/s (2,340 ft/min)
Wing loading: 102 kg/m² (21 lb/ft²)
Power/mass: 270 W/kg (0.17 hp/lb)

Armament

Guns: First series : Breda SAFAT 7.7 mm (0.303 in)
Later 2 × 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Breda SAFAT machine guns, 400 rpg.
2 × 12.7 mm (.5 in) machine-guns in underwing fairing on some.
Bombs: 200 kg (440 lb) on 2 × wing hardpoints
 

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Kawasaki Ki-10



General characteristics

Crew: one, pilot
Length: 7.55 m (24 ft 9 in)
Wingspan: 10.02 m (32 ft 10 in)
Height: 3 m (9 ft 10 in)
Wing area: 20 m2 (215.3 ft2)
Empty weight: 1,300 kg (2,866 lb)
Loaded weight: 1,650 kg (3,638 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa, 634 kW (850 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 400 km/h at 3000 m (250 mph at 9,840 ft)
Range: 1,100 km (688 mi)
Service ceiling: 11,500 m (37,720 ft)
Rate of climb: 1,000 m/min (3,280 ft/min)
Wing loading: 82.5 kg/m² (16.9 lb/sq ft)

Armament

2 × fixed, forward-firing 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 89 machine guns
 

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Kawasaki Type 92

General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 7.05 m (23 ft 1½ in)
Wingspan: 9.55 m (31 ft 4 in)
Height: 3.10 m (10 ft 2 in)
Wing area: 24.0 m² (258 ft²)
Empty weight: 1,280 kg (2,822 lb)
Gross weight: 1,700 kg (3,747 lb)
Powerplant: 1 × BMW VI, 470 kW (630 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 320 km/h (199 mph)
Range: 850 km (528 miles)

Armament

2 × 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine guns (synchronised)
 

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Mitsubishi 1MF



General characteristics

Crew: One
Length: 6.90 m (22 ft 7½ in)
Wingspan: 8.50 m (27 ft 10½ in)
Height: 3.10 m (10 ft 2 in)
Empty weight: 940 kg (2,073 lb)
Loaded weight: 1,280 kg (2,821 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Mitsubishi Hi V-8 water cooled, 224 kW (300 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 213 km/h (115 kn, 132 mph)
Service ceiling: 7,000 m (23,000 ft)
Power/mass: 0.18 kW/kg (0.11 hp/lb)
Endurance: 2½ hours
Climb to 3,000 m(9,800 ft): 10 min

Armament

2 × 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns.
 

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Nakajima A1N



General characteristics

Crew: One
Length: 6.50 m (21 ft 3¾ in)
Wingspan: 9.70 m (31 ft 10 in)
Height: 3.30 m (10 ft 10 in)
Wing area: 26.3 m² (283 ft²)
Empty weight: 882 kg (1,944 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 1,375 kg (3,031 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Nakajima Kotobuki 2 9 cylinder radial engine, 336 kW (450 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 241 km/h (130 kn, 150 mph)
Cruise speed: 148 km/h (80 kn, 92 mph)
Range: 370 km (200 nmi, 230 mi)
Service ceiling: 7,000 m (23,000 ft)
Wing loading: 3.05 kg/m² (6.7 lb/ft²)
Power/mass: 0.24 kW/kg (0.15 hp/lb)
Climb to 3,000 m (9,843ft): 6 min 10 sec

Armament

Guns: 2 × fixed, forward-firing 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns
Bombs: 2 × 30 kg (66 lb) bombs
 

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