Publish or Publish? Or maybe Publish?
Thomson Reuter has raised some interesting data on the scientific activity in national comparison to "to inform policymakers about the changing landscape of the global research base." Shown below is the annual number of papers with at least one author address in the respective countries. The papers counted are all those indexed by Web of Science, covering most leading scientific journals. See China on the rise:
The USA is not on the above figure; their number of papers is about a factor 4 higher still: During the period shown the USA output increased from 265,000 to 340,000 publications. Note that Russia's output actually decreased during that period. The increase in the number of Chinese publications is even more dramatic when you normalize each curve to the 1982 level:
China's share on the number of world publication (in 2004-2008) is the largest in material science (20.83%), chemistry (16.90%), and physics (14.16%).