China's increasing scientific publications

ajtr

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Publish or Publish? Or maybe Publish?

Thomson Reuter has raised some interesting data on the scientific activity in national comparison to "to inform policymakers about the changing landscape of the global research base." Shown below is the annual number of papers with at least one author address in the respective countries. The papers counted are all those indexed by Web of Science, covering most leading scientific journals. See China on the rise:



The USA is not on the above figure; their number of papers is about a factor 4 higher still: During the period shown the USA output increased from 265,000 to 340,000 publications. Note that Russia's output actually decreased during that period. The increase in the number of Chinese publications is even more dramatic when you normalize each curve to the 1982 level:



China's share on the number of world publication (in 2004-2008) is the largest in material science (20.83%), chemistry (16.90%), and physics (14.16%).
 

ajtr

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China scientists lead world in research growth

China has experienced the strongest growth in scientific research over the past three decades of any country, according to figures compiled for the Financial Times, and the pace shows no sign of slowing.

Jonathan Adams, research evaluation director at Thomson Reuters, said China’s “awe-inspiring” growth had put it in second place to the US – and if it continues on its trajectory it will be the largest producer of scientific knowledge by 2020.

Thomson Reuters, which indexes scientific papers from 10,500 journals worldwide, analysed the performance of four emerging markets countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China, over the past 30 years.



China far outperformed every other nation, with a 64-fold increase in peer-reviewed scientific papers since 1981, with particular strength in chemistry and materials science.

“China is out on its own, far ahead of the pack,” said James Wilsdon, science policy director at the Royal Society in London. “If anything, China’s recent research performance has exceeded even the high expectations of four or five years ago, while India has not moved as fast as expected and may have missed an opportunity.”

Although its quality remains mixed, Chinese research has also become more collaborative, with almost 9 per cent of papers originating in China having at least one US-based co-author.

Brazil has also been building up a formidable research effort, particularly in agricultural and life sciences. In 1981 its output of scientific papers was one-seventh that of India; by 2008 it had almost caught up with India.

At the opposite extreme is Russia, which produced fewer research papers than Brazil or India in 2008.

Just 20 years ago, on the eve of the Soviet Union’s disintegration, Russia was a scientific superpower, carrying out more research than China, India and Brazil combined. Since then it has been left behind.

The Thomson Reuters figures show not only the “awe-inspiring” expansion of Chinese science but also a very powerful performance by Brazil, much slower growth in India and relative decline in Russia.

According to James Wilsdon, science policy director at the Royal Society in London, three main factors are driving Chinese research. First is the government’s enormous investment, with funding increases far above the rate of inflation, at all levels of the system from schools to postgraduate research.

Second is the organised flow of knowledge from basic science to commercial applications. Third is the efficient and flexible way in which China is tapping the expertise of its extensive scientific diaspora in north America and Europe, tempting back mid-career scientists with deals that allow them to spend part of the year working in the west and part in China.



Although the statistics measure papers in peer-reviewed journals that pass a threshold of respectability, “the quality [in China] is still rather mixed,” says Jonathan Adams, research evaluation director at Thomson Reuters. But it is improving, he adds: “They have some pretty good incentives to produce higher quality research in future.”

Like China, India has a large diaspora – and many scientifically trained NRIs (non-resident Indians) are returning but they go mainly into business rather research. “In India there is a very poor connection between high-tech companies and the local research base,” says Mr Wilsdon. “Even the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the highest level institutions in the system, find it difficult to recruit top faculty.”

A symptom of this is the poor performance of India in international comparisons of university standards. The 2009 Asian University Rankings, prepared by the higher education consultancy QS, shows the top Indian institution to be IIT Bombay at number 30; 10 universities in China and Hong Kong are higher in the table.

Part of India’s academic problem may be the way red tape ties up its universities, says Ben Sowter, head of the QS intelligence unit. Another issue is that the best institutions are so overwhelmed with applications from would-be students and faculty within India that they do not cultivate the international outlook essential for world-class universities. This looks set to change as India’s human resource minister has stepped up efforts to build links with US and UK institutions.

In contrast to China, India and Russia, whose research strengths tend to be in the physical sciences, chemistry and engineering, Brazil stands out in health, life sciences, agriculture and environmental research. It is a world leader in using biofuels in auto and aero engines.

Russia produced fewer research papers than Brazil or India in 2008.

“The issue is the huge reduction in funding for research and development in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union,” says Mr Adams. “Although there has been an exodus of many of the rising stars of Russian research, there is still a great pool of talent there. It is not in the interests of the rest of the world for the exodus to continue, and we need more co-funding arrangements to help Russian research get back up to speed.”
 
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Brazil is ahead of India? very confusing the way presented, if the numbers are correct it looks like India should be behind China
 

Armand2REP

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Most of the peer reviewed journals in China are owned by the state so that means nothing. Chinese patents don't get checked out which also means nothing.
 

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Brazil is ahead of India? very confusing the way presented, if the numbers are correct it looks like India should be behind China
Its the growth rate that is higher for Brazil compared to India not the absolute number of articles published.
 

Daredevil

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country wise rankings puta india at 12 and brazil at 17.

http://www.scimagojr.com/countryrank.php
It seems the quality of published papers from China is much lower than India. China's publication record is same as the manufacturing record - more quantity, less quality.

Citations per document - China -(4.61), India - (5.77)

Also one has to consider what is the value per buck in the form of citation record. Need to look for such data. I read somewhere that India comes top in this regard.
 
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badguy2000

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Most of the peer reviewed journals in China are owned by the state so that means nothing. Chinese patents don't get checked out which also means nothing.
the most wonderful reply I have heard of ever before.
 

Energon

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At least in the medical sciences, China's advances in research and publications has been commendable. They seem to have done a good job of infusing research funds and promoting research activity in their higher education system. But having said that, there are also certain gray areas in regards to informed consent and the practice of ethical clinical research. All in all though the research productivity has been very impressive.
 

Armand2REP

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the most wonderful reply I have heard of ever before.
Legal experts in China say these figures reflect a concerted government campaign to persuade Chinese companies to protect their intellectual property by law: the elevated motorway that runs through Shanghai recently sported billboards extolling the virtues of IP protection and some Chinese companies get government subsidies to cover patent application costs, a factor that artificially inflates the number of filings.

In addition, the bulk of filings are what Elliot Papageorgiou of Rouse & Co, the IP consultancy, calls “mini-patents”, which give 10 years’ protection with less cost and fuss – often scarce investigation of claims – than the 20-year protection otherwise standard abroad.

One legal expert says the standard is so low that “at the moment, you could patent a wheel in China, and get it through”

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/3389c83a-48...008/07/patent-quality-in-china-you-could.html
 

Armand2REP

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So as we see from the evidence, China is nowhere near approaching the level of scientific advancement or patent ingenuity as they want us to believe.
 

cczabel

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So as we see from the evidence, China is nowhere near approaching the level of scientific advancement or patent ingenuity as they want us to believe.
Hahaha! You are definetly right. Don't trust any statistic data from China. They are 100 years behind smart Indians. Hahaha.
 

Armand2REP

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Hahaha! You are definetly right. Don't trust any statistic data from China. They are 100 years behind smart Indians. Hahaha.
Is there some reason you are opening a new account guy?
 

no smoking

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So as we see from the evidence, China is nowhere near approaching the level of scientific advancement or patent ingenuity as they want us to believe.
Isn't that the reason we call ourselves developing country?

We want you to believe? for what?

The fact is china is still far behind developed countries in almost every field. No one deny that. This thread is talking about "increasing scientific publications", the growth--in other word. So, please use your brain.
 

Armand2REP

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Isn't that the reason we call ourselves developing country?

We want you to believe? for what?

The fact is china is still far behind developed countries in almost every field. No one deny that. This thread is talking about "increasing scientific publications", the growth--in other word. So, please use your brain.
Guy, China has been increasing patents and scientific publications but it hasn't earned them any higher a spot in scientific contribution and ingenuity scale. The quality of Chinese patents and papers are just as low as that of their toys. Just because you make more of them doesn't mean they are better. This mass production of patents and papers is actually reducing the quality of the work.
 

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