China Economy: News & Discussion

RoaringTigerHiddenDragon

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LAUNCESTON, Australia, April 2 (Reuters) - China and India lifted imports of seaborne thermal coal to three-month highs in March as the world's two biggest buyers took advantage of lower international prices of the fuel to meet strong domestic power demand.
-------


China and India are the same.
Sure but India is not polluting as much as China even in coal. Like I said sat pics don’t lie.
 

MiG-29SMT

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Sure but India is not polluting as much as China even in coal. Like I said sat pics don’t lie.
pollution is complex because there are many pollutants, I mean there are many pollutants and types of pollution.


Amongst the recent data collected, some key findings stand out:

  • Bangladesh, with an average PM2.5 concentration of 83.3 µg/m³, ranks as the most polluted country. This pollution level is nearly eight times the WHO's annual exposure recommendation, clearly posing severe health risks to its population.
  • Asian countries dominate the list of most polluted countries with Pakistan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, and India standing amongst the top five, signifying a pressing need for adopting cleaner fuels and industrial processes, and improving waste management.
  • The Middle East does not lag far behind in air pollution levels. The data indicates Bahrain, with an average PM2.5 value of 46.8 µg/m³, to be the most polluted country in this region, followed closely by the United Arab Emirates.
  • China, once infamous for its polluted cities, has notably improved its air quality over the past decade. However, it still ranks 11th on the list, with a PM2.5 concentration of 39.12 µg/m³.
  • In contrast, the United States falls on the cleaner end of the spectrum, maintaining an average PM2.5 concentration of 9.04 µg/m³, which is within permissible limits set by WHO

but see

1713217369790.png


Table 3: The 25 countries that emitted the greatest amount of anthropogenic SO2 (kt/yr) in 2018 and 2019, estimated by NASA . See Table A1 and Table A2 for uncertainty ranges and wording scheme. Data source: NASA 28 MEaSUREs. Rank Country / Region 2018 2019 Relative change Direction of change Confidence in direction of change - worldwide 30,604 28,704 -6% down virtually certain 1 India 6,329 5,953 -6% down virtually certain 2 Russia 3,635 3,362 -8% down likely 3 China 2,263 2,156 -5% down likely 4 Saudi Arabia 1,861 1,910 3% uncertain 5 Mexico 1,809 1,873 4% up likely 6 Iran 1,977 1,746 -12% down virtually certain


China continues polluting the most, but per capita or type of pollutant things my look different
 
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MiG-29SMT

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MiG-29SMT

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Sure but India is not polluting as much as China even in coal. Like I said sat pics don’t lie.
Rivers are a critical part of our ecosystem; they not only provide drinking water to billions of people, but are also homes to our precious wildlife. However, pollution at global scale, such as the release of industrial, urban and agricultural wastes, has substantially harmed the river ecosystem and threatened the access to clean drinking water. Furthermore, polluted rivers flowing into the ocean can create even far-reaching impacts.

Here are the top 12 most polluted rivers in the world.

  1. GANGES RIVER
    The Ganges River is the most sacred river in India. The Hindus believe that the river cleanses people from their sins. Ganges River is the third largest river in the world with a consumption base of over two billion people. While the river is sacred, it’s a victim of massive water pollution due to the dumping of raw sewage and chemicals, and higher incidences of waterborne diseases have been reported in communities frequently exposed to this holy river, now covered with a layer of floating plastics and other wastes.
  2. CITARUM RIVER
    The Citarum River is one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The industrial wastes from 2,000 factories have led to an increase in the mercury levels of the water far above the legit level. The river is dirty and polluted from the source, all the way to the outlets. Similar to the Ganges River, the Citarum River serves a big population. Indonesia, the home of the Citarum, exceeds a national population of 200 million residents.The river flows through an area where there are heavy human settlements coupled with a number of factories. The river has continually robbed the country of people with over 50,000 deaths annually.
  3. YELLOW RIVER
    For thousands of years, the Yellow River has been one of the most famous rivers in China due to its unique colour. However, this river has become a dumping ground for chemical factories, making the water too toxic even for agriculture. More specifically, the coal mining industry releases a lot of waste back to the river after using water from it to run its operations.

    Nevertheless, people are still dependent on the river for drinking water. It is because of this that the area around the river has seen a rise in the occurrence of waterborne diseases, cancer and birth defects. Most recently, there are efforts to dissuade people from drinking the water from this river since it is unsafe for human or animal consumption.
  4. SARNO RIVER
    This is arguably the most polluted river in Europe. Although its source is clean and safe for drinking, industrial and agricultural wastes have made this river so toxic that it is associated with an alarming increase in liver cancer cases in the area. Worse, the river easily floods, leading to mudslides and toxicity in soil nearby. Poor waste treatment control has led to the increased pollution of the Sarno River.
  5. BURIGANGA RIVER
    This river is a source of life for millions of Bangladesh residents. It is also a major economic resource for the country since it is one of the longest rivers in the country. The river is mainly polluted by the tanneries which border the river, as well as human waste, plastics, and animal carcasses. The river has turned black, and the aquatic life in the river has since died.
  6. MARILAO RIVER
    This river is home to millions of Philippine residents who use the water for drinking and also for irrigation. The pollution of the river is mostly from wastes from tanneries, dumping and gold refineries. The dumping of non-recyclable materials such as plastic bottles is present on the surface of the water. In addition to this, the water has rocks bearing heavy metals, which pose a health hazard to the residents.
    The river, like the Sarno, is prone to flooding, which brings the wastes to the land, thus leading to soil degradation. The pollution of the water is detrimental to the fish industries in the Philippines since toxic metals such as lead contribute to the death of aquaculture.
  7. MISSISSIPPI RIVER
    Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world. As such, it serves millions of US residents. The river is brown in color, owing to the constant release of waste into the river. The aquatic life in the river has reduced alarmingly due to various oil spillages in the past. More waste comes from industries and farmers who use harmful chemicals and release them into the river.
    The river has a high level of nitrogen-based fertilizer run-off, which in addition to leaching in the soil, upsets the food chain and reduces the oxygen levels in the waters, thus causing death of aquatic life. The major pollutants are benzene, mercury and arsenic.
  8. JORDAN RIVER
    The source of the river is clean and fit for human consumption. However, as the river flows, it increases in toxicity due to the many wastes disposal. This has caused an increase in the salinity of the water. Most of the pollution comes from the refugee crisis of the country, coupled with the increase in population, both local and international.
  9. MATANZA-RIACHUELO RIVER
    The river is based in Argentina and is arguably the most polluted river in South America. The presence of industries around the river has not made any cleaning easier. The reason for this is that there are millions of tons of sewage released into the river on a daily basis.
    Also, there are heavy metals in the river, such as mercury and lead, which lead to high cases of cancer. These have come to existence due to the release from chemical industries. Further, the river, also known as Slaughterhouse River, is home to wastes from slaughterhouses and tanneries, which are rampant along the river. Due to this, the river has a foul smell.
  10. YAMUNA RIVER
    This is the second most polluted river in India after the Ganges. It boasts its source as the Himalayas, but the river gets more polluted as it moves. The major issue is the poor management of raw sewage by the Indian government. There are few functional sewage plants in the city of New Delhi, which dampens the glory of the big capital city.
    Furthermore, agricultural and industrial wastes have also played a role in the pollution of the Yamuna. The river has been polluted so much that the establishment of water treatment might not reduce the level of toxicity in the river. Unlike normal water with a pH of 7, the pH level of the Yamuna is 11. This has been caused by traces of poison in the water, and hence the pH.
  11. YANGTZE RIVER
    The rapid industrialization in China has led to major pollution of the Yangtze River.As a result, there has been a growth in algae through eutrophication. There are many negative effects of this, including the death of aquatic life since this drastically reduces available oxygen in the wate
    r.
  12. RIVER NILE
    In Egypt, most common diseases are bacterial diarrhea, typhoid fever, and schistosomiasis. All of these illnesses have one thing in common - they are often associated with unsafe water and poor sanitation. The Nile is a likely source of these problems.
    Egypt is the most populous, agricultural and industrial country in the basin. ost sewage release to the river takes place in Lower Egypt. Nile pollutants are derived from sources such as industrial wastewater, oil pollution, municipal wastewater, agricultural drainage, and include natural cyanotoxins.
    Besides excessive water extraction from the River Nile for irrigation, growing saltwater incursion in coastal areas and the decline in the availability of freshwater in the delta region brought huge problems for species living in its waters.


Preserving our beloved rivers are critical in protecting our oceans and marine life. Rivers flow in the ocean and the ocean becomes polluted when rivers are contaminated. If you want to become a sustainability champion and to power waves of change around the world, volunteer or advocate Sea Smart School, donate to our programs, or bring your kids to our after school programs in Vancouver so they can learn about different marine animals, cool ocean science, the threats impacting these animals and simple actions we can take to help.


I mean China is no paradise rapid economic development means destruction of the environment and economic loses.

Mexico is no paradise either

1713218338732.png

In China alone, 320 million citizens lack access to clean drinking water while an alarming 1.4 million children die each year due to polluted water consumption or contact with contaminated surfaces or objects in general. Plastic pollution also contributes significantly to this problem as 14 billion pounds are dumped annually into oceans across the globe leading to further contamination and economic damages up to $4.8 billion per year in Middle Eastern countries alone according to World Bank estimates from 2007

In India, 21% of communicable diseases are water-borne due to polluted water.

90% of wastewater discharged into rivers in Latin America is untreated.



.

water pollution in Mexico
1713218576202.png
 
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MiG-29SMT

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  • Chinese Residents
    The Yangtze is the first river in Eurasia in terms of length and fullness, and the third in the world. It crosses China from west to east, making a big bend to the south. It is the largest source of fresh water in China - 40% of its total reserves. It used to be a unique natural site with rich fauna and flora.

    China's Yangtze River is now so polluted that nearly half of the people who depend on it have no safe drinking water. It supports more than 400 million people and is unfortunately perhaps the most polluted river in the world, accounting for 55 percent of the material that ends up in neighboring seas and oceans. This amount of plastic has disastrous consequences for wildlife as well. Animals in areas surrounding the river have been found with microplastics in their stomachs, slowly killing them.
  • Major Environmental Problems of the Yangtze
    Over the past fifty years, the environmental situation around this river has reached a critical point. The main cause of pollution in the Yangtze River is industrial, domestic, and municipal wastewater discharges.

    Located along its banks are:

    ● about 400 chemical plants;
    ● major oil refineries - seven;
    ● steel mills - five;
    ● The world's largest concrete Three Gorges Dam;
    ● cities and other population centers;
    ● agricultural fields.

    All of these facilities continuously pollute the water. A total of 600 kilometers of the river in different sections are in critical condition. Thirty percent of the tributaries of the Yangtze are also heavily polluted.


1713218945347.png


yeah you can have BYDs yeah

1713219072647.png

1713219127061.png



 

MiG-29SMT

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EU Goes on China Trade Offensive After Getting Played for Years




(Bloomberg) -- European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen is unleashing a barrage of trade restrictions against China as she seeks to follow through on a pledge to make the EU a more relevant political player on the global stage.
In addition to an investigation into Chinese subsidies for electric vehicles, the European Union is also investigating whether Beijing provided illegal support for windparks on the continent, it has brought subsidy probes into solar and railway firms and will shortly launch an inquiry into China’s procurement of medical devices.


The deluge of investigations is a reflection of the EU’s increasingly assertive approach to China, threatening restrictive trade measures that could result in tariffs, cutting China off from European markets, and potentially leading to a trade war. But for some, it’s a matter of the EU finally taking steps to make international trade fair again.

“We recognize what we see as the Chinese playbook,” Margrethe Vestager, the EU’s competition chief told Bloomberg Television last week. “Knowing you have been played teaches you that you need to watch out, to be much more observant and to take better actions.”

European officials including former European Central Bank President Mario Draghi have argued that China’s trade abuses are at the heart of the biggest social and political problems that have plagued Europe and the US over the past 20 years. The lack of international rules and dispute settlements created unfair competition that led voters to turn against democratic values because, Draghi said in a February speech, they “justifiably felt they have been left behind.”

The EU’s approach aligns with some Western allies, who are taking a firmer stance with Beijing. US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen traveled to China earlier this month, saying that the vast output of its factories had become a global problem. The US won’t take “anything off the table,” including the possibility of additional tariffs, to stem the flood of Chinese goods, she told CNN over the weekend.

German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, who is visiting China this week, warned officials in Beijing to address overcapacity and to treat foreign companies better, saying “competition must be fair.”

EU leaders will this week step up efforts to defend the bloc against unfair trade practices as part of its efforts to come forward with a new competitiveness deal, according to draft conclusions for the summit seen by Bloomberg. The document highlights that the bloc is facing increasingly “assertive policy measures” by rivals, most notably when it comes to subsidies.

It’s in the area of clean tech where the EU is most fervently fighting to stave off competition from cheap Chinese imports of everything from EVs to solar panels. An industry backlash has raised concerns that its domestic green technologies could be hijacked during the transition to net-zero by the middle of the century.

Over the past decade, China has come to dominate the market for clean tech, with domestic industries buoyed by massive support from the state. Take the wind sector as an example. Companies are able to sell products on average 20% lower than European and US peers, backed by deferred payments systems. The EU has a trade balance deficit of €462 million last year, according to the commission.

The EU said last month that it had found “sufficient evidence” that the imports of new battery electric vehicles from China received subsidies including direct transfer of funds, tax breaks, or public provision of good or services below market prices. This means the bloc could introduce provisional tariffs on Chinese imports by July, with definitive duties hitting by November.

The EU is also using a new tool — its foreign subsidies regulation — to crack down on bidding from Beijing for a railway tender in Bulgaria, as well as solar parks in Romania. Vestager last week announced an early-stage probe of Chinese involvement in wind parks in Spain, Greece, France, Romania and Bulgaria.

“We are using our trade tools and our tools that come with the foreign subsidies regulation in full in order to restore fair competition,” Vestager said.

The bloc has also started surveying its industry about the use of Chinese legacy chips, which could see action taken in future against older — but widely used — semiconductors.

The investigations are part of a concerted EU drive to keep global markets open and based on rules, protect supply lines and bring production closer to home. The moves have tested relations with Beijing, which has launched its own investigations into EU trade practices.

French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire also issued a warning on Monday about fair competition. “Europe must assert its economic interests between an increasingly protectionist US and China’s industrial over-capacity that risks overflowing into the European market,” he told reporters.

The EU is also set to launch an investigation into China’s procurement of medical devices in a bid to address concerns that Beijing unfairly favors domestic suppliers, Bloomberg reported Monday.

These trade measures are not just “symbolic,” said Maximo Miccinilli, head of energy and climate at the consulting firm FleishmanHillard EU. The “EU is working really working hard case by case and will continue to do so, providing there is no u-turn on trade after elections, which I do not expect,” he added referring to the region’s vote in two months time.

When the EU put forward it’s Net Zero Industry Act last year — a plan to make sure 40% of the EU’s clean tech needs were produced domestically — the focus was clearly on trying to rival the US’s enormous package of support under the Inflation Reduction Act. Since then, the focus has moved squarely toward China, including through the insertion of provisions in the NZIA to make sure that Chinese firms find it more difficult to bid for renewable energy contracts.

But ridding itself of cheap Chinese clean tech may hamper its ability to slash emissions by 55% this decade, with the bloc already off-track. Vestager has warned that other sectors, like EVs or chips, could share a similar fate to solar panels, which the EU has lost out on since investing heavily in the technology over a decade ago. Now more than nine in 10 are produced in China.

“The EU must ensure that all rules applied to domestic players are also applied to foreign players acting in its market,” said Simone Tagliapietra, a senior researcher at the Bruegel think tank. “Its all about level playing field, not about trade wars.”


 

rockdog

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EU Goes on China Trade Offensive After Getting Played for Years




(Bloomberg) -- European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen is unleashing a barrage of trade restrictions against China as she seeks to follow through on a pledge to make the EU a more relevant political player on the global stage.
In addition to an investigation into Chinese subsidies for electric vehicles, the European Union is also investigating whether Beijing provided illegal support for windparks on the continent, it has brought subsidy probes into solar and railway firms and will shortly launch an inquiry into China’s procurement of medical devices.


The deluge of investigations is a reflection of the EU’s increasingly assertive approach to China, threatening restrictive trade measures that could result in tariffs, cutting China off from European markets, and potentially leading to a trade war. But for some, it’s a matter of the EU finally taking steps to make international trade fair again.

“We recognize what we see as the Chinese playbook,” Margrethe Vestager, the EU’s competition chief told Bloomberg Television last week. “Knowing you have been played teaches you that you need to watch out, to be much more observant and to take better actions.”

European officials including former European Central Bank President Mario Draghi have argued that China’s trade abuses are at the heart of the biggest social and political problems that have plagued Europe and the US over the past 20 years. The lack of international rules and dispute settlements created unfair competition that led voters to turn against democratic values because, Draghi said in a February speech, they “justifiably felt they have been left behind.”

The EU’s approach aligns with some Western allies, who are taking a firmer stance with Beijing. US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen traveled to China earlier this month, saying that the vast output of its factories had become a global problem. The US won’t take “anything off the table,” including the possibility of additional tariffs, to stem the flood of Chinese goods, she told CNN over the weekend.

German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, who is visiting China this week, warned officials in Beijing to address overcapacity and to treat foreign companies better, saying “competition must be fair.”

EU leaders will this week step up efforts to defend the bloc against unfair trade practices as part of its efforts to come forward with a new competitiveness deal, according to draft conclusions for the summit seen by Bloomberg. The document highlights that the bloc is facing increasingly “assertive policy measures” by rivals, most notably when it comes to subsidies.

It’s in the area of clean tech where the EU is most fervently fighting to stave off competition from cheap Chinese imports of everything from EVs to solar panels. An industry backlash has raised concerns that its domestic green technologies could be hijacked during the transition to net-zero by the middle of the century.

Over the past decade, China has come to dominate the market for clean tech, with domestic industries buoyed by massive support from the state. Take the wind sector as an example. Companies are able to sell products on average 20% lower than European and US peers, backed by deferred payments systems. The EU has a trade balance deficit of €462 million last year, according to the commission.

The EU said last month that it had found “sufficient evidence” that the imports of new battery electric vehicles from China received subsidies including direct transfer of funds, tax breaks, or public provision of good or services below market prices. This means the bloc could introduce provisional tariffs on Chinese imports by July, with definitive duties hitting by November.

The EU is also using a new tool — its foreign subsidies regulation — to crack down on bidding from Beijing for a railway tender in Bulgaria, as well as solar parks in Romania. Vestager last week announced an early-stage probe of Chinese involvement in wind parks in Spain, Greece, France, Romania and Bulgaria.

“We are using our trade tools and our tools that come with the foreign subsidies regulation in full in order to restore fair competition,” Vestager said.

The bloc has also started surveying its industry about the use of Chinese legacy chips, which could see action taken in future against older — but widely used — semiconductors.

The investigations are part of a concerted EU drive to keep global markets open and based on rules, protect supply lines and bring production closer to home. The moves have tested relations with Beijing, which has launched its own investigations into EU trade practices.

French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire also issued a warning on Monday about fair competition. “Europe must assert its economic interests between an increasingly protectionist US and China’s industrial over-capacity that risks overflowing into the European market,” he told reporters.

The EU is also set to launch an investigation into China’s procurement of medical devices in a bid to address concerns that Beijing unfairly favors domestic suppliers, Bloomberg reported Monday.

These trade measures are not just “symbolic,” said Maximo Miccinilli, head of energy and climate at the consulting firm FleishmanHillard EU. The “EU is working really working hard case by case and will continue to do so, providing there is no u-turn on trade after elections, which I do not expect,” he added referring to the region’s vote in two months time.

When the EU put forward it’s Net Zero Industry Act last year — a plan to make sure 40% of the EU’s clean tech needs were produced domestically — the focus was clearly on trying to rival the US’s enormous package of support under the Inflation Reduction Act. Since then, the focus has moved squarely toward China, including through the insertion of provisions in the NZIA to make sure that Chinese firms find it more difficult to bid for renewable energy contracts.

But ridding itself of cheap Chinese clean tech may hamper its ability to slash emissions by 55% this decade, with the bloc already off-track. Vestager has warned that other sectors, like EVs or chips, could share a similar fate to solar panels, which the EU has lost out on since investing heavily in the technology over a decade ago. Now more than nine in 10 are produced in China.

“The EU must ensure that all rules applied to domestic players are also applied to foreign players acting in its market,” said Simone Tagliapietra, a senior researcher at the Bruegel think tank. “Its all about level playing field, not about trade wars.”


IMG_20240416_085848.jpg
 

ym888

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China tops world in nuclear power capacity and new unit construction


China's nuclear power units Hualong One in Fuqing, Fujian Province, China. /CFP


China's nuclear power units Hualong One in Fuqing, Fujian Province, China. /CFP
China is building 26 nuclear power units with a total capacity of 30.3 million kilowatts, the most in the world, according to an industrial report on Monday.
China approved five new nuclear power projects and started construction of five units in 2023, said the report titled China Nuclear Energy Development Report 2024 released by the China Nuclear Energy Association (CNEA). There are 55 commercial nuclear power units currently in operation in China.
China's nuclear power generation continues to increase steadily, reaching about 433.4 billion kWh in 2023, ranking second globally. Its nuclear power output last year was equivalent to reducing the consumption of standard coal by more than 130 million tonnes.
CGTN's infographic by Zhao Hong, Yu Peng


CGTN's infographic by Zhao Hong, Yu Peng
The country aims to peak carbon emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
Deemed as a new quality productive force, nuclear power displays tremendous potential for the nation's economic growth and increasing energy demand. Du Xiangwan, a member of Chinese Academy of Engineering, stressed at a science outreach event about nuclear power last week in Beijing that the country needs to double down on nuclear power advances as its annual output only accounted for 5 percent of the nation's power output, compared with the 10 percent global average.
He added that not only coastal regions but also inland areas with water resources should carry out nuclear energy development.
 

skywatcher

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Beijing viewed from China Space Station for the first time
82e4e451gy1honbm5lh0lj22z04g0u0z.jpg


China's political center gradually shifted to Beijing in the north from ancient capital Xi'an while China's economic center gradually shifted to the south from the north during the past millennia.
must-see-places.jpg
 

SexyChineseLady

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Just like Tesla and Apple, trade war with US doesn't mean China will go after their companies. That would be silly. There are Chinese parts in 10000 Boeing aircraft :)

IMG_2770.jpeg

IMG_2772.jpeg



 

SexyChineseLady

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LOL. China left behind in HSR by India!

We see the same kinds of claims about all sorts of silliness like India passing China in space (China has literally hundreds of more launches than India in past five years) and in semicon (India has NO commercial fabs versus China who has the world's largest market supporting more semicon fabs coming online than the rest of the world combined!)

Today we see news of new Chinese products and equipment like smartphones, cars, ships, aircraft and aircraft engines every week but nothing from jealous people except words -- hope and cope :)

Huawei P70
IMG_2773.jpeg


BYD Denza Z9GT
IMG_2775.jpeg



Comac ARJ-21 and C919 -- Vietnamese executives!
IMG_2776.jpeg


AECC CJ-1000A being tested on the Xian Y-20:
IMG_2780.jpeg


CSSC Adora Magic City:
IMG_2779.jpeg
 
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SexyChineseLady

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Signs of the time :) The top TV sold in Japan is a Chinese brand, TCL. Another Chinese brand, Hisense, is also in top 10.

IMG_2781.jpeg


IMG_2782.jpeg


Reaching #1 in Japan for any home electronics as a foreign brand is VERY VERY HARD!
 

skywatcher

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LOL. China left behind in HSR by India!

We see the same kinds of claims about all sorts of silliness like India passing China in space (China has literally hundreds of more launches than India in past five years) and in semicon (India has NO commercial fabs versus China who has the world's largest market supporting more semicon fabs coming online than the rest of the world combined!)

Today we see news of new Chinese products and equipment like smartphones, cars, ships, aircraft and aircraft engines every week but nothing from jealous people except words -- hope and cope :)

Huawei P70
View attachment 248665

BYD Denza Z9GT
View attachment 248666


Comac ARJ-21 and C919 -- Vietnamese executives!
View attachment 248667

AECC CJ-1000A being tested on the Xian Y-20:
View attachment 248678

CSSC Adora Magic City:
View attachment 248679
In terms of commercial space industry, China has to significantly boost its launch cadence to a higher level(at least 150 annual orbital launches) to meet the demands of the upcoming Guowang mega-constellation & other LEO constellations. SpaceX is launching its Starlink sats like crazy, which is very concerning for the Chinese.
 

SexyChineseLady

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In terms of commercial space industry, China has to significantly boost its launch cadence to a higher level(at least 150 annual orbital launches) to meet the demands of the upcoming Guowang mega-constellation & other LEO constellations. SpaceX is launching its Starlink sats like crazy, which is very concerning for the Chinese.
True! SpaceX is great!

We'll see what happens when the Chinese mega-constellations get started! The race between US and China will make them both launch at ridiculous levels compared to the rest of the world.

I think SpaceX will be ahead for the rest of this decade and then the lead will swing to China once things are mass produced and commoditized for the mega constellations. Everything in China eventually becomes a commodity like cars and ships. In the future, for SpaceX to continue to compete it might need to build a factory in China like Tesla and take advantage of the eco-system :)
 

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