Aryan Invasion Theory

Indo-Aryan

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He is mainly associated with the legend of his chasing the earth goddess, Prithvi, who fled in the form of a cow and eventually agreed to yield her milk as the world's grain and vegetation.

😉
 

Indo-Aryan

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That is thought to be CHG related not IranN related.
then this confusing observation ☺

According to Narasimhan et al. (2019) Iranian farmer related people arrived before 6000 BCE in Pakistan and north-west India, before the advent of farming in northern India. They suggest the possibility that this "Iranian farmer–related ancestry [...] was [also] characteristic of northern Caucasus and Iranian plateau hunter-gatherers."

At the beginning of the Neolithicum, at c. 8000 BCE, they were probably distributed across western Iran and the Caucasus, and people similar to northern Caucasus and Iranian plateau hunter-gatherers arrived before 6000 BCE in Pakistan and north-west India.
 
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Indo-Aryan

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If they use Max plank model but steppe route for Indo-Iranian then;

11kbp - North Iran - Proto-Indo-European
3kbp - North Iran - old Iranian
HARAPPA - Dravidian/Linguistic isolate

😂 PIE speakers left Iran and returned Iran as Iranian speakers 8000 years later 😂
Ghar wapsi lol

Same Max plank model but southern route then;

11kbp - North Iran - Proto-Indo-European
8kbp - North Iran - Indo Iranian
HARAPPA - Indo-Aryan
 

viklewapatel

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The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations



Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations.

H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup.

https://archive.md/YekEv#selection-2489.657-2489.1226

 
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viklewapatel

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Genetics Proves Indian Population Mixture. Between 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, intermarriage in India was rampant.

But once established, the caste system became genetically effective, the researchers observed. Mixture across groups became very rare. “An important consequence of these results is that the high incidence of genetic and population-specific diseases that is characteristic of present-day India is likely to have increased only in the last few thousand years when groups in India started following strict endogamous marriage,” said co–first author Kumarasamy Thangaraj, of the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India.**
https://archive.md/4qqeC#selection-1765.0-1773.76
 

viklewapatel

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Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools.

 

viklewapatel

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😂 PIE speakers left Iran and returned Iran as Iranian speakers 8000 years later 😂
Ghar wapsi lol
Boy, that escalated quickly.

Both IE- and DR-speaking populations show a high combined frequency of haplogroups C*, L1, H1, and R2. The total frequency of these four haplogroups outside of India is marginally low. In turn, haplogroups E, I, G, J*, and R1* have a combined frequency of 53% in the Near East among the Turks and 24% in Central Asia, but they are rare or absent in India (0.86% in all populations and almost solely because of R1*). Similarly, haplogroups C3, D, N, and O specific to Central Asian (36%) and Southeast Asian populations (subclades of haplogroup O; 85%) are virtually absent in India (Fig. 3A). Only haplogroups J2 and R1a have interregional frequency patterns west of India with J2 being most common in Afro-Asiaticspeaking (and IE-speaking) populations of the Near East and Middle East, whereas R1a occurs at the highest frequencies in populations of India, East Europe, and Central Asia. The O2a and O3e subclades of haplogroup O in India also have interregional distributions, overlapping with those of Southeast Asia and East Asia.
https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/103/4/843.full.pdf

 

viklewapatel

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In India, R1a1a is identified as the haplogroup that represents the Indo-Aryan people. ... major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y haplogroup R1a1*, ...
Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins.

 

viklewapatel

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Whereas on the one hand a consensus has developed in the literature among all schools of thought in assigning Indian origin to haplogroup H1 and in the association of haplogroup O with either Austro-Asiatic or Tibeto-Burman tribals, the widespread geographic distribution of R1a1* and reasonably high frequency across Eurasia, with scanty representation of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c) across the region, leaves obscure the question of origin of R1a1*. This becomes more complex with the claims7, 9, 12, 23 proposing a scenario of the recent major gene flow from Central Asia to India and the antagonistic observations9, 12 of its highest variance in India, suggesting the gene flow in opposite direction. Further, the observation of a very high frequency (upto 72.22%) in this study and in the literature of this haplogroup in all of the Brahmins may indicate its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group (irrespective of the geographical and linguistic affiliation of Brahmins), thus making this haplogroup of extreme importance and a key haplogroup in answering the question of origin of caste systems in India.

Simultaneously, the presence of R1a1* in very high frequency in Brahmins, irrespective of linguistic and geographic affiliations, suggested it as the founder haplogroup for the population. The co-presence of this haplogroup in many of the tribal populations of India, its existence in high frequency in Saharia (present study) and Chenchu tribes, the high frequency of R1a* in Kashmiri Pandits (KPs—Brahmins) as well as Saharia (tribe) and associated phylogenetic ages supported the autochthonous origin and tribal links of Indian Brahmins, confronting the concepts of recent Central Asian introduction and rank-related Eurasian contribution of the Indian caste system.


 

viklewapatel

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High frequency of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in tribal populations and ancestral Y-haplogroup R1a* in the Indian subcontinent

Y-haplogroup R1a1* has been reported to be present in the tribal population in many of the earlier studies, but with very less frequency. In this study, a tribe named Saharia from Madhya Pradesh (Central India) showed the presence of R1a1* with high diversity in 19/71 males (26.76%), negating the idea of later admixture or some founder effect. Similar observations were made in the Chenchu tribe of Andhra Pradesh,24 with a high percentage (26.82%) of R1a1*.
Sharma, Swarkar, et al. "The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system." Journal of human genetics 54.1 (2009): 47-55.

 

viklewapatel

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The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations



Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations.

H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup.

https://archive.md/YekEv#selection-2489.657-2489.1226

The percentage distribution of haplogroups in Brahmins showed a total of six most frequent (percentage >5%) haplogroups: R1a1* (40.63%), J2 (12.5%), R2 (8.59%), L (7.81%), H1 (6.25%) and R1* (5.47%), contributing to 81.25% of the total distribution in Brahmins. Tribals and scheduled castes (n=254) also showed six haplogroups: H1 (31.10%), R1a1* (20.47%), J2 (10.24%), L (7.87%), H* (7.87%) and O (6.69%), contributing in total to 84.25%. Interestingly, four of the haplogroups were overlapping in percentage (>5%) distribution with Brahmins.

Sharma, Swarkar, et al. "The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system." Journal of human genetics 54.1 (2009): 47-55.
 

viklewapatel

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Haplogroup R (38.5%)
This is one of the largest haplogroups in India and Pakistan. This is also the largest haplogroup in the dataset used in this study. It originated in north Asia about 27,000 years ago (ISOGG, 2016). It is one of the most common haplogroups in Europe, with its branches reaching 80 percent of the population in some regions (Eupedia, 2017). One branch is believed to have originated in the Kurgan culture, known to be the first speakers of the Indo-European languages and responsible for the domestication of the horse (Smolenyak and Turner, 2004). From somewhere in central Asia, some descendants of the man carrying the M207 mutation on the Y chromosome headed south to arrive in India about 10,000 years ago (Wells, 2007).
 

viklewapatel

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ntu.jpg


Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a
Human Y-chromosome haplogroup structure is largely circumscribed by continental boundaries. One notable exception to this general pattern is the young haplogroup R1a that exhibits post-Glacial coalescent times and relates the paternal ancestry of more than 10% of men in a wide geographic area extending from South Asia to Central East Europe and South Siberia. Its origin and dispersal patterns are poorly understood as no marker has yet been described that would distinguish European R1a chromosomes from Asian. Here we present frequency and haplotype diversity estimates for more than 2000 R1a chromosomes assessed for several newly discovered SNP markers that introduce the onset of informative R1a subdivisions by geography. Marker M434 has a low frequency and a late origin in West Asia bearing witness to recent gene flow over the Arabian Sea. Conversely, marker M458 has a significant frequency in Europe, exceeding 30% in its core area in Eastern Europe and comprising up to 70% of all M17 chromosomes present there. The diversity and frequency profiles of M458 suggest its origin during the early Holocene and a subsequent expansion likely related to a number of prehistoric cultural developments in the region. Its primary frequency and diversity distribution correlates well with some of the major Central and East European river basins where settled farming was established before its spread further eastward. Importantly, the virtual absence of M458 chromosomes outside Europe speaks against substantial patrilineal gene flow from East Europe to Asia, including to India, at least since the mid-Holocene.
https://archive.md/x0ZLv
 

Indo-Aryan

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Food for thought
Stupid question indeed.

Indian IranN contributed 33% ancestry to Yamnaya. Is this the reason why this ancestry shows up as sinthasta rus/Steppe MLBA among Indians?
 

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