Aryan Invasion Theory

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Evidence of Domestic horse at very early time around Belan River


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R.S.Sharma also notes "The horse is known in the Neolithic complex of MAHAGARA in PRAYAGRAJ in the VINDHYA ranges"

At Mahagara horse bones were identified and six samples dated between 2265 B.C.E. to 1480 B.C.E (quoted by Danino)


At Mahagara horse bones were identified and six samples dated between 2265 B.C.E. to 1480 B.C.E (quoted by Danino)


A.K.Sharma also notes this in his paper

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Evidence from Afghanistan which was always historically into BHARTIYA fold :

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Refer to Early Animal Domestication and Its Cultural Context pg 25-26 And Archaeology of Afghanistan - From Earliest Times to the Timurid Period

The World of the Oxus Civilization by Bertille Lyonnet, Nadezhda A Dubova (Pg 439)

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At Gonur evidence for domestic horse exists Refer pg 440 and 444 of the book mentioned above.

The Language of the Harappans: From Akkadian to Sanskrit By Malati J. Shendge (Pg 287) Some interesting finds

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Also this.
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Taken from the celestial level works of V.s. Sardesai :

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https://twitter.com/hub_nationalist/status/1440882339853209603/photo/1
Deriivka horse remains was long considered evidence for horseback-riding at an early date But in 1997 radiocarbon dates showed that the horse remain belonged to later timeframe that is 700-200 BCE "New radiocarbon dates from Oxford and Kiev indicate that the Dereivka 'cult stallion' should be withdrawn from discussions of Eneolithic horse-keeping. The Dereivka horse died. between about 700 and 200 BC" - David Anthony .

Shengde's 1997 work above cites Littauer and Crouwel endorsing Sredni Stog's Dereivka "horse domestication". But 2019 book "Equids and Wheeled Vehicles" adds footnote 11 (orange) to commemorative 1980 Littauer interview showing 2006 research revealed Dereivka horses not ridden.

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The horse appears on some pottery, at pre-Harappan levels of kunal and figurine was found at Balu, with what looks like a saddle Refer to Michel Danino's amazing paper titled THE HORSE AND THE ARYAN DEBATE


G.R. Sharma noted the domestic horse bones from 6500 bce and 4500 bce, Bolan and Son valleys and even older specimens from many sites in Central BHARAT(
G.R. Sharma 1980a:22, 220, 224; 1980b 110 ff.) Premendra Priyadarshi's 2014 book Pg 138

Slavic branch DIDN'T have any similar word for other SANSKRIT words such as aśva(horse),epos... This is a very important fact that must be noted because slavic branch occupies the territory which is delusionally accepted as homeland top joke.Coomers lost the original word even in their homeland but managed to spread the word elsewhere? Nice larp.

Hypothetical reconstructed words for horse in fraud pie are *éḱwos or *h₁éḱus from the root *ōku or *h₁eḱ(respectively) meaning "swift"Sanskrit āśú(fast, quick) Ancient Greek ōkús(fast) Latin ōcior (faster) Avestan āsu(quick) Maharastri Prakrit āsu(quick) Borrowed by Telugu āśuvu(fast,quick)

Also note alternative meanings also Armenian: ēš(donkey), ēšayceamn (deer or antelope), ēšaycyam(moose,elk) išan (donkeys,asses) Classic Persian: āhū(antelope,gazelle,chamois) Also Look

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Refer to Language in Time and Space (pg 122 to 123) by Werner Winter to get information regarding the Persian term and also note Pashto word Osáy (gazelle) and there many similar Iranian terms that refer to deer and other such species.

Alexander Semenenko in his confirms the arguments on Aśva of RIGVEDA meant not only horse but also other similar species.



Horse in dravidian languages Tamil kutirai Malayalam kutira,Kota kudyr, Toda kïθïr, Kannada kudire, kudure, kudare, Kodagu kudire, Tulu kudurė, Telugu kudira, kudaramu, gurraṁ From the proto dravidian root *kuti(to jump) The exact same word (kuti- to jump) is preserved in Tamil

Other words for horse Old Tamil ivuḷi, Brahui hulli David W. McAlpin suggests that proto form of kuthrai(and its congnates) meant 'domestic' horse while the proto form of ivuli and hulli might have used to refer to wild varieties There are 2 more Old Tamil words parī and mā both of these words were present during SANGAM age

Austroasiatic word for horse is Sādom which is not at al related to any Indo-e. Source: Mundari-English Dictionary By Manindra Bhusan Bhaduri (Pg 161)
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Even MICHEL DANINO confirms on ASVA of RIGVEDA :

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Do note that the RIGVEDA MANDALA 1 SUKTA 162 MANTRA 18"

चतु॑स्त्रिंशद्वा॒जिनो॑ दे॒वबं॑धो॒र्वंक्री॒रश्व॑स्य॒ स्वधि॑तिः॒ समे॑ति ।
अच्छि॑द्रा॒ गात्रा॑ व॒युना॑ कृणोत॒ परु॑ष्परुरनु॒घुष्या॒ वि श॑स्त ॥


"The four-and-thirty ribs of the. Swift Charger, kin to the DEVTAS , the slayer's hatchet pierces. Cut ye with skill, so that the parts be flawless, and piece by piece declaring them dissect them"

"This suggests that the horse referred to in the Rig-Veda may have been a different species, such as the smaller and stockier Siwalik or...which often (not always) had 34 ribs

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Paul Manansala's book pg 447

As you can see there is a that VEIC horse was indeed siwalik variety (Equus sivalensis).

On the Unicorns in Ancient BHARATA and VEDIC YAJNA viz Gautama V. Vajracharya..

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"gradually the animal deities were absorbed in the Fire-God ... wherein the unicorn, itself a composite figure of horse and other animals, represented the Fire-God" S R Rao Quoted by Aravindan Neelakandan in his article

The ‘cult object’ before the SINDHU SARASVATI unicorn and the object placed before the horse in the punch-marked coins indicate the composite nature of unicorn which includes the horse Taken from Aravindan Neelakandan's article

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Mrugendra Vinod's about of unicorn seals :

https://twitter.com/hub_nationalist/status/1443617227412963331/photo/1

Natawar Jha and B.K. Jha have identified some of the unicorn seals as that of the EKA-shringi Varaha of the PURANIC literature.The Varaha has an alternative meaning 'bull'.In their view, the unicorn was a chimera which had the head and neck of a horse,and torso & tail of a bull

Refer to Premendra Priyadarshi's 2014 book pg 151

Meaning of ASHVA in RIGVEDA Taken from DANINO's documentations :

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https://twitter.com/hub_nationalist/status/1443617227412963331/photo/1

On the Dna of BHARAT's horse pay attention @Haldilal @Indo-Aryan @dazialsoku

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asaffronladoftherisingsun

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The legendary paper with over 10k sampling is work in progress will be published soon .

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The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has regarded this breed as ‘‘one of the purest and
prestigious breed of equines in India’


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The beauty of these two cluster trees that resulted from KM Devi and SK Ghosh's analysis is that anyone batting for a steppe origin of domestic horse needs to explain why the Thoroughbred, a proxy for the Arabian horse, is clustering within the Indian tree @Indo-Aryan @Haldilal @dazialsoku


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It's already known that Iranian breeds show lower nucleotide diversity compared to Indian and Chinese breeds. So now Iran can already be ruled out.


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These retarded aitcucks. @Haldilal @dazialsoku

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More on Asian horses :

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Note Marsha Levine confirmed about finding the first domestication event is intractable in sintashta petrovka south urals. Refer to The Oxford Companion to Archaeology from pg 17

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Of possible ancestors of the domestic breeds,the following may be mentioned :— Equus sivalensis, E. stenonis,E. gracilis(Owen’s Asinus fossilis), E. namadicus,E. fossilis and E. robustus" Refer The Possible Ancestors of the Horses living under Domestication by J.C.Ewart in 1909

Equus sivalensis, of the Siwalik deposits of Northern BHARAT, is the oldest true horse known to science"

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"There is hence no longer any reason for assuming that this ancient BHARTIYA species had no share in the making of domestic breeds" (ibid)
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Equus sivalensis, of the Siwalik deposits of Northern BHARAT, is the oldest true horse known to science" @Indo-Aryan @Haldilal @dazialsoku

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences by New York Academy of Sciences Pg 310

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Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan: The Golden Age (Vol. III) By Paul Kekai Manansala Pg 45


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The origin and influence of the thoroughbred horse pg 143

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"Equus sivalensis is the oldest true horse known, it has more highly specialised teeth than the Oreston and Newstead ponies" Refer to Animal Remains, in the Appendix II of A Roman Frontier Post and its People


Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan By Paul Kekai Manansala Pg 396

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The most of our Asian horses have high diversity values as compared to rest of the world.

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The same source which confirms that the arab barbs and thoroughbreds breeds come from Equus Sivalensis of BHARAT.

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Now we can continue about E.sivalensis Annual report of the Bureau of Animal Industry for the year 1910
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Equss sivalensis - The horse of BHARAT.jpg
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan: The Golden Age (Vol. III) By Paul Kekai Manansala Pg 46,47 See about 17 pairs if ribs in sulu horse and other quotations

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Now compare the above mentioned comments with what Michel Danino pointed out

"This suggests that the horse referred to in the RIGVEDA may have been a different species, such as the smaller and stockier Siwalik or...which often (not always) had 34 ribs"

"There is also a species of horse (Equus namadicus) which seems to be a survivor from the Siwaliks, and is allied to the existing species of the genus" Geological survey of BHARAT, Records of the geological survey of BHARAT, 1909 Quoted by both Paul Kekai and PRIYADARSHI in their books and documentations

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NICHOLAS KAZANAS
had already confirmed that there was no sudden or rapid increase in the amount of horse bones in the archaeological records after the supposed aryan arrival date that is 1500 bce So this must be kept in mind .
MICHEL DANINO points out


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We also look at possible Indo e words for horse and possible non-Indo e connections From the celestial works of SHRIKANT TALGERI.
Sanskrit: márya young man;stallion Nahali māv Old Tamil mā Telugu māvu Old Chinese *mraʔ Proto-Tibeto-Burman *m-raŋ Proto-Mon-Khmer *mraŋ Mongolian mori Thai máa
How can anyone explain the connection with Nahali (language isolate) spoken in deep insde BHARAT Spoken by just 2000 people? Also note the soth dravidian words(Tamil and Telugu) and Tibeto-Burman
SANSKRIT GHOTA “horse”, Hindi ghoṛā, Marāṭhī ghoḍā Scholars propose different possible origin for this word(ghota)


"in fact some linguists have even sought to establish that Sanskrit ghoṭaka, from which all modern Indo-aryan words are derived, is borrowed from the Kol-Munda languages" -Shrikant Talageri

"If there is to be a point of contact between pie and Proto-Austronesian, it is hard to imagine it in another location than India" Koenraad Elst

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This confirms ARYAS were already inside BHARAT for a quite a long time and did not come from outside.

This is good book 2019_ book of essays by Experts on "Equids and Wheeled Vehicles in the Ancient World" contains Expert Crouwel's essay "Wheeled Vehicles and their Draught Animals in the Ancient Near East—an Update".

Crouwel 2019 upholds Littauer & Crouwel 1996: No chariots in sintashta/steppyfags.

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Crouwel2019's summary of steppy Non-chariots repeats Littauer&Crouwel1996 (but references are up to date,, so -he Knows L&C1996 args Never Refuted=Still Hold -Anthony & echoes are Frauds.

Crouwel2019 mentions date of 2250-2000 bce as Usual for crossbar wheel in Iran's Tepe Hissar cylinder seal that per P.R.S Moorey was no later than 2350 bce : Still crucially earlier than convenient date 2000-1900 that cuck parpola plucked for same to Make it derivable from sintashta a huge fraud.

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In the above pic from book also notice mentions of bmac and afghanistan.

From Raulwing's essay "Hommage to Mary Aiken Littauer (1912-2005)" in same 2019 book. Revisits a newspaper interview. 1 Horse in early 3rd mill BCE Mesopotamia. So why does steppe (even Assuming source of horse diffusion) need to be source for BHARAT when BHARAT connected with Mesopotamia.

See -
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asaffronladoftherisingsun

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The Missing Horses Of SINDHU SARASVATI Seals Are Not Really Missing
AUTHOR : Aravindan Neelakandan -

The Missing Horses Of Harappan Seals Are Not Really Missing

Snapshot
  • The horse plays an important role in Vedic culture, but the puzzling absence of the animal in the famous Harappan seals, can be understood if one goes beyond the conventional perception of the Vedic-Harappan identity.
The horse has always been at the centre of a bitterly debated controversy in Indology. Almost close to a century, text books declared axiomatically that Harappan civilisation was distinguished from the Vedic by the absence of the horse. Horse domestication was said to have been done by Indo-European (IE) speakers of the Steppes. This horse riding culture is called the Yamnaya culture, which was supposed to have brought the horses and the Indo-European language. This stand is reinforced by the perceived paucity of horse representation in the cultural motifs of Harappa. Prof.Laurie L Patton in her scholarly introduction to the compilation of essays on the so-called Indo-Aryan controversy reflects the general academic consensus outside India when she says that ‘if the horse is ever discovered contemporaneous with early Indus Valley culture, or pre-Vedic South Asian civilization, the migrationist theories would have to change dramatically'. ('The Indo-Aryan Controversy', Routledge, 2005)
However, the picture has not always been clear with respect to horse remains and representations in Harappan culture because a large number of Indian archaeologists have always pointed out the presence of horses in Harappan civilisation.
Yet Another Study
Today, scholars involved in a detailed study of ancient DNA, seem to favour the Steppe horse riders bringing Indo-European language into the South Asian region. However, the possibilities of IE expansion through non-Yamnaya are also strong. Particularly there is the case of Hittites. These people who make their appearance with bronze age urban centres show a fusion culture of two linguistic streams - the Indo-European Nesite and the non-Indo-European Hattic. Now the interesting part is that recent studies have found no significant Yamnaya genetic influence among the Hittites. But in the case of India, it is assumed that the supposed Yamanya genetic influx gets correlated with Indo-European language expansion.

Hittite-Mittani peace treaty that invokes Vedic Deities like Varuna is the oldest peace treaty in the history of humanity. 

Hittite-Mittani peace treaty that invokes Vedic Deities like Varuna is the oldest peace treaty in the history of humanity.
The Hittite Puzzle:
There is also the case of Kassites who rose after the fall of Babylonian Empire, and were prominent between 1530 BCE and 1155 BCE. Dr Mario Liverani, Professor of Ancient Near East History at the University of Rome points out that the Hittite Indo-European terms linked to horse riding were more of eastern (Indo-Iranian) origin than Anatolian:
The ethno-linguistic innovation of the sixteenth century BC was rather brought about by the appearance of Indo-Iranian terms in the personal names from Mitanni and other states connected to it. Alongside these personal names, there was the appearance of a specific terminology linked to the breeding and training of horses for the two-wheeled horse-drawn chariot. These names had a clear Indo-Iranian etymology, very similar to Ancient Persian and Sanskrit, such as Shuwardata (given by the sky), Birtashshura (valiant hero) and Indaruta (supported by Indra). Moreover, new names of gods appeared, such as Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Nashatya (invoked in a treaty between Hatti and Hurri) and Shurya, the sun-god of the Kassites. Similarly, Indo-Iranian terms and phrases regarding the training of horses began to appear in treaties such as aika-wartanna (one turn), tera-wartanna (three turns), panza-wartanna (five turns) and so on. Even the etymology of the word used to indicate chariot warriors, maryannu, was of Indo-Iranian origins (from the Sanskrit marya, young warrior). This Indo-Iranian element was therefore very different from the Indo-European linguistic group found in Anatolia, since it was more recent and of eastern origins.
‘The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy’, Routledge, 2013
In a very important paper that has not received the attention it deserves, the eminent linguist Janos Harmatta (1917-2004), whose pioneering work in deciphering of Bactrian inscriptions solved many problems in ancient Iranian linguistics, narrows down the Indo-Iranian to what he calls ‘Proto-Indians'.
In the scanty linguistic material of the Kassites three important terms denoting deities occur: Surya-, Maruttas and Bugas corresponding to the Old Indian names of gods Surya, Marut and Bhaga. Surya and Marut are unknown in Old Iranian; this fact clearly points to the borrowing by the Kassites of these names from Proto-Indian. Thus, linguistic evidence speaks clearly for the assumption that the people of war-charioteers, which had induced the Kassites to invade Babylonia, belonged to the Proto-Indians. ... Proto-Indian linguistic influence was considerable on the vocabulary of horse-breeding, horse-training, social life and religion as shown by the following list of Proto-Indian terms borrowed by the Hurrians and other peoples of western Asia.
The Emergence of the Indo-Iranians: the Indo-Iranian languages’ in ‘History of Civilization of Central Asia’, Vo.I, Ed. by A.H.Dani & V.M.Masson, UNESCO, 1996, pp.357-378
So if we are to assume that the Steppe horse riders brought Indo-European culture into Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) in 1500 BCE as claimed, then we have to explain how the terms and deities which evolved from this branch of IE could spread to Hittites and Mittani - particularly those related to horses and war chariots. The absence of Yamnaya genetic influence in Hittites seen in this context, actually poses a serious question over the model of late Bronze age horse riders from Steppes bringing IE into India.
The Case For The Harappan Horse:
The Missing Horses Of Harappan Seals Are Not Really Missing

Surkatoda: excavated horse bones at Harappan levels. [ASI]
So were there domesticated horses in the Harappan society?
There has been a controversy going on between theoretically anchored historians and archaeologists here. The report of the archaeological survey of India when reporting about the faunal remains discovered at Surkotada, makes the following observations not just in terms of Harappan context, but also with relation to a chronologically longer and geographically vaster canvas:
At Surkatoda from all the three periods (IA, IB and IC ranging from 2315 BCE to 1700 BCE) quite a good number of bones of horse (Equus caballus Linn) and ass (Equus asinus Linn ... and Equus hamionus Linn) have been recovered. The parts recovered are very distinctive bones: first, second and third phalanges and a few vertebrae fragments. ... F.E.Zeuner reports that in Gujarat and elsewhere horse sacrifices were important part of religious rite from Neolithic age onward. ... The bones of horse (Equus caballus Linn) recovered from Surkatoda belong to the animal of medium height but strong build. Earlier evidence of horse was reported from a late level at Mohenjadaro. The finds from Harappa were earlier disputed but later on Bholanath reported (in the Proceedings of First all India Congress of Zoologists, 1959) the remains of horse (Equus caballus Linn) from the unworked collections from Harappa where he found the fragmentary mandible with teeth and limb bones belonging to true horse. He declared that it was the first report of true horse. He had also reported the presence of horse from the late period of Harappan culture at Rupar and Lothal. Subsequently after the discovery of the horse from Surkotada was declared, it has also been reported from Kalibangan. Dr. Alur reported the presence of horse from the Neolithic-Chalcolithic levels at Hallur (1600 BC). Alur and Sharma could identify some Equus caballus Linn. bones from the late-Harappan site of Malvan (Gujarat). At Surkotada the occurrence is almost evenly distributed throughout the period of occupation. ... The animal was mainly used for transportation and was possessed only by a few affluent ones as is the case even today in the area where till recently possession of a horse was considered a sign of status.
A K Sharma in JP Joshi, ‘Excavation at Surkotada and Exploration in Kutch’, ASI, 1990, pp. 381-2
Sajjan Kumar, ‘Domestication of animals in Harappan culture: a socio-economic study’, 2012

Sajjan Kumar, ‘Domestication of animals in Harappan culture: a socio-economic study’, 2012
Interestingly, this identification of horses in Harappan archaeological context (A K Sharma, 1990) was contested by the invasionist-migrationist school of historians. So Prof Sandor Bokonyi, an internationally renowned archaeo-zoologist from Hungary was asked to examine the evidence. After examining the material, the archaeo-zoologist who was also then the Director of the Archaeological Institute, Hungary, wrote to the then Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India thus:
The occurrence of true horse (Equus caballus L.) was evidenced by the enamel pattern of the upper and lower cheek and teeth and by the size and form of the incisors and phalanges (toe bones). Since no wild horses lived in India in post-Pleistocene times, the domestic nature of the Surkotada horse is undoubtful.
Yet the question remains why then the horse is not found in the Harappan seals. There have been equid terracotta figurines discovered from Harappan sites for a long time. These figurines were often initially considered as depicting the horses. Later as the horse-riding Aryans versus equid-ignorant non-Vedic Harappan binary became the major framework, the figurines were considered as being ambiguous. The scholars started saying that they might be actually members of other equid family (like Equus asinus or Equus hamionus). Dr Sajjan Kumar in his thesis gives a succinct picture of the situation, though he says that 'one would like to have much more evidence' to state that 'the horse was present in Harappan civilization and played a significant role in the Harappan economy':
The identification of a terracotta figurine from Mohenjodaro, as that of the horse is not without doubt. At the same time, it needs to be added that the Harappan levels at Nausharo have yielded doubtless terracotta figurines of horse. Also, the middle Harappan levels at Lothal have yielded a couple of terracotta figurines which have been identified as those of the horse. Lothal has yielded three terracotta models of horse, one of which resembles Mackay’s example. It has a long neck body and prick ears. The tail is damaged and the position of the legs suggests that the animal is running. Its mane is indicated by a slightly-raised band over the neck. A better specimen of the horse from Lothal comes from phase III. It has a short stumpy tail, long body and raised neck. In profile, it looks exactly like a horse. The third example consists of a disjointed head of a horse which must have been attached to the body. A transverse perforation behind the neck suggests that the head had to be manipulated with the string. The prick ears and snout are characteristic of the horse. This specimen is burnished and thus better treated than others. A terracotta figure of horse found at Rangpur has a more indented line over the neck.
Domestication of animals in Harappan culture: a socio−economic study’, 2012
The Missing Horses Of Harappan Seals Are Not Really Missing

Equid figurines: Mohenjadaro and Lothal
Kenoyer, a Harappan archaeologist who is skeptical about Harppan horse claims, in his entry about Indus civilization in a recent archaeology handbook has this to say:
Although only small-scale excavations have been carried out at Rakhigarhi on the Ghaggar-Hakra-Saraswati River plain in Haryana, one of the largest known urban Indus sites in India, a diverse set of figurines that are very similar to those discovered in Harappa has been recovered. These include figurines identified as zebu, water buffalo, dog, lion, leopard, rabbit, and horse. (emphasis added)
Sharri Clark & Mark Kenoyer, ‘South Asia - Indus Civilization’ in ‘The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Figurines’ (Ed.Timothy Insoll), Oxford University Press, 2017, p.510
Along with horse bones another innovation associated with horse riding, the spoked wheels too was known to Harappans. Terracotta wheels with spokes painted on them have been obtained from the Harappan sites of Banawali, Rakhigarhi and Bhirrana. Similarly, models of light weight chariots too were known to Harappans. All these taken together definitely poke a lot of holes in the model of Yamanya people bringing in horses and IE language, particularly into India.
(Left) Uzbek Petroglyphs dating from second and third millennium BCE showing chariots - this innovation was said to have spread both agriculture and IE languages. (T.V.Gamkrelidze & Ivanov, <i>Scientific American</i>, March, 1990) (Right) Both wheels with spokes and one-seater chariots were known to Harappan in the same second millennium BCE. 

(Left) Uzbek Petroglyphs dating from second and third millennium BCE showing chariots - this innovation was said to have spread both agriculture and IE languages. (T.V.Gamkrelidze & Ivanov, Scientific American, March, 1990) (Right) Both wheels with spokes and one-seater chariots were known to Harappan in the same second millennium BCE.
So actually the question boils down to not the representation of horses in Harappan art, but the very obvious absence of the animal in the famous Harappan seals. This question often gets inflated with ‘absence of domesticated horses’ in Harappan society, which is altogether different.
Coming to the question of the alleged absence of the horse in the seals, there are quite a few explanations. For example, eminent archaeologist Dr B B Lal who leans towards the identity of Vedic and Harappan civilisation asks, “But then the camel is also absent. So why should the horse be singled out on that count?” However, unlike the camel, the horse plays an important role in Vedic culture as we understand from the literature. Late archaeologist S P Gupta also took a similar line and pointed out that a whole lot of animals (camel, wolf, cat, deer, Nilgai, fowl, jackal) whose presence in Harappan milieu was attested by their bones were not depicted in Harappan seals.
Vedic Horse And The Harappan Unicorn
Michel Danino, a scholar of Indian culture and history, in his paper on the Harappan horse question quotes K D Sethna, who points out that the cow too was absent from depictions. Danino mentions in passing the conjecture put by eminent archeologist Dr S R Rao that the unicorn itself might be a composite animal in which horse was embedded. Actually what S R Rao proposed was a very plausible scenario in which ‘gradually the animal deities were absorbed in the Fire-God ... wherein the unicorn, itself a composite figure of horse and other animals, represented the Fire-God.’ ('Dawn and devolution of the Indus civilization', 1991) Gautama Vajra Vajracharya, a Nepali Sanskritist, in a 2010 paper titled 'Unicorns in Ancient India and Vedic Ritual', published in EJVS a journal edited by rabid pro-invasionist/migrationist Michael Witzel, drew attention to this aspect - that 'the neck of this (Harappan) unicorn is much more elongated than that of a bull and bears some similarity to that of a horse or an ass.'
In 1935, historian Charles Louis Fabri published a paper arguing for the continuity of Harappan civilisation to the later historical times through the study of imagery in the punch-marked coins with those in the Harappan seals. What 'immediately struck' him were 'certain animal representations' which were 'the humped Indian bull, the elephant, the tiger, the crocodile, and the hare'. He observed that the 'old tradition was kept alive up to proto-historic times' though the punch- marked coins even though they are separated from the Harappan seals by a very minimum period of thousand years. Interestingly, in his comparison of seals and punch-marked coins, Fabri did not compare horse representation in punched mark coins with Harappan seals. Instead he had drawn a parallel between bull and the unicorn.

The Missing Horses Of Harappan Seals Are Not Really Missing

C L Fabri, ‘The Punch-Marked Coins: A Survival of the Indus Civilization’, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (Apr., 1935), pp.307-318
A comparison of the representation of the horse in punch-marked coins and the unicorn however reveals a very remarkable similarity. What actually seems to connect the horse depiction in punch-marked coins and the Harappan unicorn seal is the remarkable similarity between the object shown before the unicorn (Harappan seal) and before the horse (punch-marked coins).
The ‘cult object’ before the Harappan unicorn and the object placed before the horse in the punch-marked coins indicate the composite nature of unicorn which includes the horse.

The ‘cult object’ before the Harappan unicorn and the object placed before the horse in the punch-marked coins indicate the composite nature of unicorn which includes the horse.[coin photographs and illustrations : ‘Dinamalar’ R.Krishnamurthy, 1990]
Indologist Irvatham Mahadevan, who incidentally believes that Harappan culture was linguistically Dravidian and culturally Vedic, connects the so-called 'cult object' before the unicorn to the Soma ritual. In his interview to ‘Harappa.com’ he explains:
According to me, the cult object is made of three parts, an upper cylindrical vessel, a lower cylindrical vessel with holes like a colander for example, and the whole thing is stuck on a staff. ... Since we know that the unicorn seals were the most popular ones, and every unicorn has this cult object before it, whatever it represents must be part of the central religious ritual of the Harappan religion. ... I am familiar with the RgVeda, and as I was looking at the zig zag lines flowing across the filter showing the filtering ritual and the coming out of the drops, I was reminded of the two most powerful images in the soma chapter of the RgVeda, Pavamana and Indu. Pavamana literally means the flowing one, the soma, as it flows down, and Indu are the drops which collect at the bottom of the filter. So I found that this could hardly be a coincidence.
Soma Ritual Non-Vedic?
Iravatham Mahadevan contends that the Indo-Aryans learnt the Soma ritual from the Harappans as the Soma ritual is not present in the so-called ‘Indo-European’ cultures in the West. But as early as 1882, Charles Francis Keary had pointed out how Soma ‘corresponded to the mystic millet water (kykeon) of the Eleusinian celebrations' ('Outlines of Primitive Belief Among the Indo-European Races'). Renowned Indo-European scholar Calvert Watkins pointed out further parallels. According to him, “the ritual of Vedic and Indo-Iranian, by men for men, but symbolically by women; the ritual act of communion of the Eleusinian mysteries, by women for women; and a warrior ritual in archaic Greece, by women for men; all of these must go back to a single common Indo-European liturgical cultic practice” because “the number and the precision of the agreements between Indo-Iranian and Greek, and their articulation as a structure, a total social fact, are too striking for a fortuitous resemblance to be plausible.” ('Selected Writings: Culture and poetics', 1994, p.601)
All these jigsaw puzzles solve themselves if one goes beyond the artificial binary classification and perceptions of the Vedic-Harappan identity. The Asvamedha, the Vedic horse sacrifice, is itself a three-day Soma sacrifice.
Sri Aurobindonian Solution:
Perhaps, one such solution may come if one uses Sri Aurobindo’s approach to the problem. In fact, Michel Danino, in his paper, 'The Horse and the Aryan Debate' points to Sri Aurobindonian approach and quotes a passage from 'The Secret of the Vedas':

Creating a framework based on Sri Aurobindo’s approach to Vedic literature can solve many self-inflicted puzzles and paradoxes of colonial Indology. 

Creating a framework based on Sri Aurobindo’s approach to Vedic literature can solve many self-inflicted puzzles and paradoxes of colonial Indology.
The cow and horse, go and ashva, are constantly associated. Usha, the Dawn, is described as gomati ashvavati; Dawn gives to the sacrificer horses and cows. As applied to the physical dawn gomati means accompanied by or bringing the rays of light and is an image of the dawn of illumination in the human mind. Therefore ashvavati also cannot refer merely to the physical steed; it must have a psychological significance as well. A study of the Vedic horse led me to the conclusion that go and ashva represent the two companion ideas of Light and Energy, Consciousness and Force...
Perhaps, this also gives us a reason why both cow and horse, both sacred and ritually important in Vedic culture, were not depicted separately in the Harappan seals. Perhaps they were combined in the unicorn. Throughout Hindu iconography, such combined animals representing the divine have intentional gender ambiguities. Hence, it is highly plausible that the Harappan unicorn may be the combination of horse as well as androgynous bull-cow with the cow being subsumed by the bull. Earlier we saw that Dr S R Rao had identified the unicorn with fire-deity. Incidentally, the fire-deity is also called “the bull who is also a cow” (RV. 10.5.7). Such iconography is subsuming of one gender by the other in gender-ambiguous divines is also common in Indian iconography. For example, Shiva while shown in the male form also has androgynous dimension shown in the form of differentiated earrings. Purusha-mirugam, which is a combination of a male seer and an animal is said in Hindu legends to yield milk.
The composite depiction of divine with the combination of horse and cow in a Vedic context is seen in a mandapam (pillared hall) of Adi Varaha Swamy temple in Sri Mushnam, Tamil Nadu, which was either built or renovated by Nayakkar chieftain Achyuta Nayyakar in the 16th century. The mandapam with 16 pillars representing the 16 hymns of Purusha Sukta of Rig Veda is called Purusha Sukta Mandapam. Here, Vishnu is shown in the form of a cow and a horse with a male Vishnu emanating from the top portion of this composite animal. Brahma the creator deity is shown drinking from the udder of this divine form.
Vishnu emanating from cow-horse composite animal (16th century CE); Unicorn - Horse-(androgynous) Bull composite? [2500 BCE]: Continuity and evolution in Hindu iconography?

Vishnu emanating from cow-horse composite animal (16th century CE); Unicorn - Horse-(androgynous) Bull composite? [2500 BCE]: Continuity and evolution in Hindu iconography?
To summarize:
  • The recent study on horse domestication despite pointing out that there was an independent earlier domestication of horses, still sticks on to the conventional invasionist/migrationist model for IE expansion and the introduction of the horse (by Yamnaya herders) in India. However the paper points out that Hittites were introduced the IE language without genetic influence of Yamnaya.
  • Many renowned Indologists have pointed out that the Hittites have what is called proto-Indian influence.
  • Horse remains have been discovered in many Harappan sites. Harappans also knew about wheel with spokes and chariots.
  • The unicorn depicted in Harappan seals may be a composite animal which incorporates in it the horse. This is further emphasized by the remarkable similarity between the way horses are depicted in later punch-marked coins and unicorns in Harappans seals.
  • There is a continuity of the composite nature of unicorn of Harappa extending to even 16th century. Perhaps the spiritual symbolism of Vedic literature when approached through the framework like that of Sri Aurobindo. It can also open our eyes to continuity of Harappan culture to our own times.
Most of the paradoxes and puzzles that Indology suffers from seem to be self-inflicted. For example, in the given case, all answers can be obtained by letting go of the false binary classification of Harappan as non-Vedic and of Vedic as the horse-riding Aryan bringing in the Indo-European culture. Once that is done most of the jigsaw pieces naturally fall in places. And what we then witness is a civilisation that has been flowing perennially for millennia, absorbing many streams, changing , adapting - yet never losing its basic core nature - which in turn is reflected from the discovered past remains to her experienced present.
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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SINDHU SARASVATI Harappan woman with her treasures: bangles, bindi on head, jewelry made of beads, semi precious stones etc, her copper mirror, beautifully dressed hair...Integration period. Date: 2500-2000 bce. Greet your ancestors fellow Indians and congratulations for mainting this remarkable cultural continuity for not submitting to pedophile desert cult.
Reconstruction on display at Harappa Museum.

DHARMA Triumphs.jpg
 

Vamsi

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SINDHU SARASVATI Harappan woman with her treasures: bangles, bindi on head, jewelry made of beads, semi precious stones etc, her copper mirror, beautifully dressed hair...Integration period. Date: 2500-2000 bce. Greet your ancestors fellow Indians and congratulations for mainting this remarkable cultural continuity for not submitting to pedophile desert cult.
Reconstruction on display at Harappa Museum.

View attachment 114819
Did they use use Gold and silver ornaments??
 

Coalmine

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Niraj Rai says Harappan people ate beefs because there are cut marks of animal bones. Is it true. Have we found butchered cow bones specifically ? I can agree with goat ,ship, chicken?. Not sure of cow
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Did they use use Gold and silver ornaments??
Yes. Sindhu Sarasvati Civilisation ornaments include necklace made of Gold. Archaeological Survey of Bharat has confirmed Bharat being also home to the diamond and invented the diamond drill, which was then taught to the romans. The 5000 years old before present necklace made of gold from mohan jodaro is available in Delhi museum.
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Niraj Rai says Harappan people ate beefs because there are cut marks of animal bones. Is it true. Have we found butchered cow bones specifically ? I can agree with goat ,ship, chicken?. Not sure of cow
Should know that beef is basically culinary meat from cattle not necessarily cows alone.
What percentage of cut marks was present?Approx 1.3% indicates a very rare use of the meat of the large animals in that society.
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Should also remember Goladhoro was a large cosmopolitan industrial city and we can understand that outsiders from west of Asia who traded with the SINDHU SARASVATI cities lived there.
 

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Why Rig Veda is composed the way it is?

Mandala 1 and 10 were composed later whereas Mandala 2-7 form the oldest layers 😖

What was the basis behind order of the mandala?
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Why Rig Veda is composed the way it is?

Mandala 1 and 10 were composed later whereas Mandala 2-7 form the oldest layers 😖

What was the basis behind order of the mandala?
RIGVEDA and all of the VEDIC tradition presents conclusion..... not the beginning of literary activity and in this collection we find the glimpses going back up to the late glacial and earliest holocene times including those descriptions of plants and trees and climate and mountains pertaining to those periods.
 

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RIGVEDA and all of the VEDIC tradition presents conclusion..... not the beginning of literary activity and in this collection we find the glimpses going back up to the late glacial and earliest holocene times including those descriptions of plants and trees and climate and mountains pertaining to those periods.
I am reading something.
Need guidance

When we turn to the accounts of these early authors regarding their knowledge of the Indians, we observe that very few accurate informations of them have reached us.

However a distinction between the Arayans and the people of non-Arayans stock can be guessed in Scylax’s reference of Indian king as of superior race than those of his subjects1; in Herodotus’s segregation of the warlike peoples of Kaspatyros and peoples with primitive customs1 2; and in Ktesia’s differentiation of the white Indians from those of the dark-skinned3.
 

Indo-Aryan

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Reading Greek accounts of Indians
You may find it interesting.

In Homer’s Odyssey there is a mention of the dark-skinned Ethiopians as remote peoples, one part of them living towards the setting sun, while the other towards the rising1. The latter, i.e., the Eastern Ethiopians have been identified by some as Homer’s conception of the Indians1 2. It is true the Indians were often confused with the Ethiopians in Ancient Greek literature3, but to speculate of them in Homer’s reference of Eastern Ethiopians is untenable. It seems to be poet’s imagination, for it was thought that the sun being closer to the Earth at its rising and setting points, would darken the complexion of the people in those areas.


When we turn to the accounts of these early authors regarding their knowledge of the Indians, we observe that very few accurate informations of them have reached us. However a distinction between the Aravans and the people of non-Arayans stock can be guessed in Scylax’s reference of Indian king as of superior race than those of his subjects1; in Herodotus’s segregation of the warlike peoples of Kaspatyros and peoples with primitive customs1 2; and in Ktesia’s differentiation of the white Indians from those of the dark-skinned3.


Herodotus’s account of the primitive tribes seems to be reliable, but references to them in Scylax and Ktesias are not made in an intelligent form which is indicative rather of contact with the stories than their knowledge of the people. From the survived fragments of these early authors India seems to be a country of many races, mainly dark- skinned, with peculiar customs and habits. The dark colour was generally considered as the result of the sun, but on account of having seen some white Indians also Ktesias raised his doubts against this conjecture4.

When we come to the account of Alexander’s companions we find them mentioning the Indians as a tall and dark people. «Tall and slender and much lighter in movement than the rest of mankind»

The phenomenon of considering Indians as the dark and tall people was repeated by the authors, succeeding the companians of Alexander. Dionyus periegetes, a Geographer of the Roman-age reported Indians as «dark in complexion, their limbs exquisitely sleek and smooth and the hair of their surpassing soft, and darkblue like the hyacinth»8.


King, Poros was reported by Arrian over five cubits in height1 2. He also described the Indians as of darker skin than the rest of mankind, except the Ethiopians3. Various authors of the Roman age thought that the Indians who lived in the South bore a somewhat closer resemblance to the Ethiopians, because of their black complexion and black- hair although they were not so snub-nased nor had the hair so curly. But the Indians who lived in the North were more similar to Egyptians in their colour4.
 

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The Brahmanas, Gymnosophists, Philosophers, or Sophists, as variously named were preeminent in the writings of the classical authors. The first reference of them is probably echoed in Herodotus’s description of the people who were neither killing any creature, nor sowing any crops, nor living in houses and were subsisting on herbs and on some millet sized grain only5.
 

Indo-Aryan

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In the accounts of Alexander’s companions the Brahmanas appear in two guises, firstly as inspiring the revolts of peoples, i.e., appearing as a group or community who were in a position to be troublesome to Alexander and secondly as a group of «wise-men» who had greatly influenced the invaders. Nearchos’s statement that some of them were involved in the political life while the others were engaged in the study of nature6, is in agreement with the Indian evidences.
 

Indo-Aryan

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The naked sadhus of Taxila, with whom Alexander and his companions had conversed might be Jain sages, among whom the practice of remaining naked is common even today in one of their sects. The self-immolation, as stated in the case of Brahmana Kalanos1 2 by the companions of Alexander finds support in some of the Indian texts.
 

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