Achievements, inventions and discoveries of ancient india

timmy

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rockets

Indians probably developed one of the first rockets, greek sources state the Brahmins between hydaspis and ganges threw flaming thunderbolts from the walls of their forts which made Alexander's army frightful, this was a citation of alexander's letter to some scholar back in greece.

The flaming arrows must have known to the greeks but the word thunderbolts was used which seems to indicate the novelty of the weapons and the noise of the thunder (these were frequently used by chinese, greeks to decribe the loud noise of their greek fire and gunpowder, we also know that since arthashastra indians had explosives).
 

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Block printing

the indians probably knew and developed block printing since Indus valley civilization (priest king's dress shows recurring trefoil patters indicative of printing and alexander's historians remarking of the colourful printed indian clothes)
 

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using pigoeans as messengers

Atharvaveda talks about pigeon messangers, this also indicates presence of a writing system, although the pigeons are used as messengers of goddesses, which may cloud anthropomorphic use of animals in indian literature.
 

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Musical notes

Although traced to the mesopotamians as early as 1600 BC, the hard and fast evidences f musical notations are from Hurrians from 13th century, early Indian texts samaveda also provides one of the earliest evidences of musical notation.
 

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Passports

Arthashastra mentions the exit and entry stamps of the visitors, before that it is said that persians carried letters which enabled them pass to foreign domain, but modern day type passports are first mentioned with double stamps are mentioned in arthashastra
 

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Coins

Indian coinage can be traced to the Indus valley civilization, the indus seals had fixed weights (characteristic of a coin) and they also resemble later indian square shaped coins. earliest indian coin dates back to 855 BC, which is a copper cast coin, excavated from kausambi, it resembles the indus seal style and shape, pieces of silver with fixed weights are also reported from mohenjo daro DK area, but some scholars of the view that mesopotamians and minoans also knew of metal currencies.
 

timmy

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Composite bow

An indus seal from Shortugai with indus script, an indus copper plate from Harappa depict composite bows.
 

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proclamation of love

love proclamation is first observed at sitabenga caves, Chattisgarh, India, dated to 3rd century BC
 

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Stadium

Dholavira stadium is the most ancient stadium in the world, it has rectangular plan, provided with entries and exits and steps to sit on and even a smaller stadium which has been declared as theatre hence the most ancient theatre in the world.
 
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timmy

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fire safety

one of the earliest or the earliest instructions on fire safety comes from Arthashastra. (Im not sure but the earliest greco roman statements are from early centuries AD and not hellenistic period)
 

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Drama companies

The Indian text such as Natyashastra describes drama companies(long before the west) it had a producer which was probably the lead/senior most actor, hence the drama plays were full fledged businesses the ancient equivalent of WB, universal etc.
 
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Sauna/steam baths

although it has multiple origins (native americans, iceland etc), Buddhist texts mention steam baths long before the rest. the concept of buddhist steam bath was transmitted to china, korea and japan and probably turkish steam baths trace their origins to buddhist steam baths as well.
 

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Blindfold chess

list of games prohibited by buddha includes ashtapada game being played in sky, an american chess bullitain has declard it earliest mention of blindfolded chess. Hence chess existed since period of Buddha.
 

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Guilds/corporations

mentioned in the vedas and popularly used snce Mauryan empire, the islamic anjuman evolved from south indian guilds/corporations.

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