Achievements, inventions and discoveries of ancient india

shiv

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alright daredevil i will provide links from now on,but read my earlier post on why i am abstaining on giving links and why i am providing them on request.
 

shiv

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Stepwell: Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilization's archaeological site at Mohenjodaro. The three features of Indian stepwells are evident from one particular site, abandoned by 2500 BCE, which combines a bathing pool, steps leading down to water, and figures of some religious importance into one structure. The early centuries immediately before the common era saw the Buddhists and the Jains of India adapt the stepwells into their architecture.Both the wells and the form of ritual bathing reached other parts of the world with Buddhism.Rock-cut step wells in India date from 200-400 CE.Subsequently the wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) were constructed.

Stepwell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

shiv

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Stirrup: The earliest known manifestation of the stirrup, which was a toe loop that held the big toe was used in India in as early as 500 BCE or perhaps by 200 BCE according to other sources.This ancient stirrup consisted of a looped rope for the big toe which was at the bottom of a saddle made of fibre or leather.Such a configuration made it suitable for the warm climate of most of India where people used to ride horses barefoot.A pair of megalithic double bent iron bars with curvature at each end, excavated in Junapani in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh have been regarded as stirrups although they could as well be something else.[130] Buddhist carvings in the temples of Sanchi, Mathura and the Bhaja caves dating back between the 1st and 2nd century BCE figure horsemen riding with elaborate saddles with feet slipped under girths.Sir John Marshall described the Sanchi relief as "the earliest example by some five centuries of the use of stirrups in any part of the world". In the 1st century CE horse riders in northern India, where winters are sometimes long and cold, were recorded to have their booted feet attached to hooked stirrups.However the form, the conception of the primitive Indian stirrup spread west and east, gradually evolving into the stirrup of today.

Stirrup - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

shiv

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Urban planning: Remains of major Indus cities (mature period c. 2600–1900 BCE) display distinct characteristics of urban planning such as streets crossing each other at right angles, well arranged rows of structures as well as neatly built, covered drainage and sewage lines, complete with maintenance sumps, running along backlanes. Drains in the ancient maritime city of Lothal for example, designed to be able to take out the city’s entire domestic sewage and storm-water were mostly underground, and built to high levels of uniformity, whereby the slopes never exceed 1 in 10,000.In terms of segregation, Lothal was divided into three districts: the citadel, the lower town and the dockyard, which were further divided into smaller administration centres, all having well planned infrastructure such as wide, straight roads along neatly arranged buildings to suit their purpose.Such planning is also evident from remains of Mohenjo-Daro, a city to the north-west of Lothal, which appears to have been built adhering to a complex level of city grid planning.This leads archaeologists to the conclusion that these cities were conceived entirely if not to a large extent before they were built—the earliest known manifestation of urban planning.

Urban planning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

shiv

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Wootz steel: Wootz originated in India before the beginning of the common era.Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe, China, the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it became known as Damascus steel. Archaeological evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the Christian era.

Wootz steel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

shiv

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Water wheel, Watermill, and Noria: Ancient Indian texts dating back to the 4th century BC refer to the term cakkavattaka (turning wheel), which commentaries explain as arahatta-ghati-yanta (machine with wheel-pots attached). On this basis, Joseph Needham suggested that the machine was a noria. Terry S. Reynolds, however, argues that the "term used in Indian texts is ambiguous and does not clearly indicate a water-powered device", and Thorkild Schiøler argues that it is "more likely that these passages refer to some type of tread- or hand-operated water-lifting device, instead of a water-powered water-lifting wheel.

Water wheel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Watermill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Noria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

shiv

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with this guys we complete the know inventions of ancient india,i will start the discoveries when invincible transfers these posts to the new thread.
 

timmy

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder was actually invented in India, Arthashastra gives a recipe for explosives which is very similar to the chinese gunpowder (with only two exceptions, fertilizer is used instead of saltpetre and sulphur is absent in arthashastra). Indian texts such as Sukraniti refine this formula and their formula is almost the same as the chinese one, so chinese must have picked it up from there.
 

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Diamond drills

Diamond drills were probably used as early as 1200 BC, Diamond polishing was known to the Indians Muhammad Ghauri's ring contained diamonds whichhad been polished, Persians record inscribed diamonds durnig the periof of Khusrow 2. Indian text from 6th century ratnaprasika also records ''best diamons were not to be cut''.
 

timmy

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Glass

Indus Valley civilization provides evidence of glass making even before the middle east from a period as early as 1900 BC, the orange coourd glass beads seem to imitate the orange colour of Carnelian beads. The glass beads of middle east are known prior only in connection with faience and glass was a procedural by product.
 

timmy

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English bond

a technique of construction using bricks was called English bond, this provides strength to the walls/construction. This was first used in the indus valley civilization.
 

timmy

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Saw and Needle

modern saws with perticular shape of their teeths or grooves are an invention traced to the indus valley civilization, modern needle are also due to the Indus civilization
 

timmy

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Pointed arch

The Islamic architecture frequently uses pointed arches, but they ar pre islamic, pointed arches have been traced to the assyrian and babylonian reliefs, but true arches appear for the first time at Palace of Kausambi.
 

timmy

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Double dome

Taj Mahal and other Islamic and central asian architecture frequently used double dome principle, this elivated the dome to make it prominent without elivating the celing, this can be traced to Gumbatuna vihara of Swat, Gandhara
 

timmy

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Public toilets

Mohenjodaro provides evidence of public toilets, much before the romans. (I read this in one website but couldn't confirm it otherwise from any other source)
 

LurkerBaba

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder was actually invented in India, Arthashastra gives a recipe for explosives which is very similar to the chinese gunpowder (with only two exceptions, fertilizer is used instead of saltpetre and sulphur is absent in arthashastra). Indian texts such as Sukraniti refine this formula and their formula is almost the same as the chinese one, so chinese must have picked it up from there.
Can you give references from the Arthashastra ? Online links and not an image please
 

timmy

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Lost wax casting

This very crucial metallurgical process can be traced to a wheel like amulet from Mehrgarh.
 

timmy

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Can you give references from the Arthashastra ? Online links and not an image please

pp 209-2011

although the author doesnt admit that arthashastra explosive recipes are explosives but declares them incendiaries, but on two occasions in the book, he concedes that arthashastra recipes resemble the medieval firecraker and gunpowder recipes (but also states that he must have taken that from the chinese). But the arthashastra recipes are indeed explosives, Kautilya talks about using them to demolish fort walls which are well protected, secondly the author denies use of salt even though fertilizers are mentioned.
 
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