Space exploration and technology

Discussion in 'Science and Technology' started by pyromaniac, Feb 24, 2009.

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Is Solar Electrification Good for Military??

  1. Very Good

    56.0%
  2. Usable

    40.0%
  3. Bad

    4.0%
  4. Harmful

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Multiple votes are allowed.
  1. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    [​IMG]

    New Shenlong View: On December 12, 2007 another Chinese web poster offered this computer generated rendering of the Shenlong with a vertical stabilizer, using a curious “trapeze” suspension from an H-6 bomber. It cannot be confirmed that this will be the final configuration for an H-6 launching of the Shenlong. Source: Chinese Interent

    Within 24 hours of the posting of the initial photo, more apparent details had emerged on Chinese military issue websites. While interesting, much of this data cannot be confirmed in the absence of any official Chinese government, military or corporate disclosures. Nevertheless, various posters have suggested that the Shenlong space craft is a program funded by the famous “863 Program” for dual-use high-technology research established in 1986 to advance China’s military modernization. The Shenlong carries the program number “863-706,” and as such, is likely a PLA-priority program. Other posters revealed that the No. 611 Design Institute usually associated with the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation was involved in some design and testing aspects of the Shenlong. Another poster revealed an article from mid-October 2007 claiming to show the digital control center created by the 611 Institute to test the Shenlong. Mark Wade has noted that the 611 Institute may have gained insights regarding space planes from cooperative programs with France during the 1980s, which was developing the Hermes space plane.[2]

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    Possible 611 Institute Shenlong Control Center: One Chinese web poster states that this facility was created by the 611 Institute to conduct the test flights of the Shenlong. Source: Chinese Internet

    Another interesting aspect of the Shenlong program is that it provides a rare example of how a state and military funded program is assisted by Chinese technical universities. One web poser revealed that the Nanjing University for Astronautics and Aeronautics (NUAA) was likely involved in devising early digital “computer-aided-design” (CAD) for the spacecraft, which likely used a version of the French Dassault CATIA design software, used throughout China’s military industries. NUAA researchers may have also led the design of the control computer and re-entry control system. Northwest University, which also does extensive 863 Program funded research, is said to have helped design the INS/GPS (Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning Navigation Satellite) control system for the 863-706 program. The Harbin Technical University, a key center for PLA-funded military-technical research, is said to have helped design composite structures for the Shenlong.

    However, these websites were not clear regarding the status of the Shenlong program. It appears that much of the design work took place between 2000 and 2004. One Internet source indicates the original December 11 picture may have been taken in late 2005, but this cannot be confirmed. The existence of the 611 Institute run test facility might indicate that some degree of flight testing has occurred. In early 2007 a French publication noted that Western intelligence agencies were very interested in the first test flight of a “secret super-scramjet demonstrator” which was tested in late 2006 and landed in the Indian Ocean.[3] Indeed, China is pursuing the development of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles,[4] but it is also possible this may have been a test of the Shenlong.

    These same Chinese websites also did not offer details regarding the performance of the Shenlong. Even if launched from a new H-6K bomber, which reportedly will be powered by Russian D-30K turbofans and capable of higher launch altitudes, the Shenlong does not appear to be large enough to reach sustained Low Earth Orbit (LEO) flight. As such, it may only be capable of short-duration LEO flight over Chinese territory, which would be consistent with a technology test and validation mission. The Shenlong would also likely help China with the development of hypersonic aircraft. The initial photo of the Shenlong does not indicate that it can carry a payload other than its motor, liquid fuel and its guidance system. That said, the Shenlong is broadly similar to U.S. and other unmanned space planes designed to test new technologies. These would include the U.S. Orbital Sciences X-34, Boeing X-37 and Japan’s HOPE-X. A larger version presumably would be able to carry a payload and be capable of sustained LEO flight.

    China’s Interest In Space Planes

    China’s interest in space planes began in earnest with the arrival of Dr. Qian Xueshen, who was the co-founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology and made enormous contributions to early U.S. rocket programs. But in 1950 he was suspected of spying for China, lost his security clearances, put under house arrest, and then deported to China in 1955 as part of post Korean War prisoner exchanges. Controversy has since raged over whether Qian’s prosecution was justified, or an example of McCarthy-era paranoia causing a travesty of U.S. justice.[5] But on his return, Qian became a key ally of Mao Zedong and led the creation of China’s modern missile and aerospace sector. The release of the Shenlong picture occurred on his 96th birthday, and was thus likely intended as an unofficial tribute to Qian’s profound contributions to China’s missile forces, missile defense and anti-satellite programs, and broad manned and unmanned space capabilities.[6] It was Qian’s 1949 concept for a space plane that formed the basis for the U.S. Air Force’s “Dynasoar” military space plane concept of the early 1960s,[7] which led to the U.S. Space Shuttle. Qian also proposed another space plane concept in the late 1970s that closely resembled the Dynasoar.

    Spacecraft expert Mark Wade has noted that in 1988 Chinese designers proposed three space plane concepts. The Chang Cheng 1 was proposed by what is now the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight technology, and was a 2/3 shuttle-size space plane atop three large boosters. What is now the China Academy of Launch Technology proposed a much smaller space place atop Long-March size booster. Finally, the 601 Institute, connected to the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, proposed a small space plane atop an air-breathing hypersonic launcher. Only the later would have involved a truly reusable space access system, but all were deemed beyond China’s capabilities. But had they been implemented these proposals would have resulted in space planes flying in this decade.[8]
     
  2. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Military Potential of Unmanned Space Platforms

    The Shenlong could validate technologies and form the basis for a range of unmanned and manned space vehicles, which both could serve civil-commercial as well as military missions. However, it appears be sufficient Chinese literature and statements to justify concern that China’s space planes are being developed for military missions in space and to attack targets on Earth. In his recent review of Chinese literature on Chinese military views toward space warfare, Dr. Larry Wortzel noted that China was exploring a list of potential space weapons, which included “space planes that can transit and fight ‘up or down’ in the upper atmosphere or space.”[14]

    In May 2002 Dr. Zhuang Fenggan gave an interview to the Beijing Youth Daily in which he revealed new information on China’s space plane plans. In this article Zhuang suggested that a space plane was intended to be a “space combat weapons platform” and serve “dual use” missions. He also noted that a mere “space shuttle” did not meet China’s needs, which required a space plane that could move “freely” between space and the upper atmosphere. Zhuang also identified a number of technologies China would have to master for its space plane, to include hypersonic, high mobility, and advanced materials. But it is also curious that Zhuang would identify “high stealth” and “precision strike” technologies as important for China’s space plane.[15]

    n 2005 three Chinese researchers from the Center for Precision Guidance Technology of the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Aeronautics indicated that China may have already been developing a space capability for attacking targets on Earth. In one article they noted, “The greatest advantage of a space-based ground attack weapon system is its high speed and short reentry time. It is extremely difficult for the enemy to intercept such a weapon.”[16] While this article does not identify Chinese space plane or space shuttles as a potential space based “ground attack weapon,” one cannot discount that China may be designing its unmanned or manned space plane for this purpose.

    Space Bomber Concept

    The concept of a space bomber is not new. During World War Two Germany’s Dr. Eugene Albert Sanger proposed a 100 ton rocket powered bomber that would skip atop the upper atmosphere to attack the United States.[17] There has also been recent U.S. debate over making greater military use of space. In 1999 U.S. Congress created The Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, which was led by former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. In its February 2001 report the “Space Commission” concluded:

    “The nation’s vital interests depend increasingly on the capability of its military professionals to develop, acquire and operate systems capable of sustained space combat operations…It is also possible to project power though and from space in response to events anywhere in the world. Unlike weapons from aircraft, land forces or ships, space missions initiated from earth or space could be carried out with little transit, information or weather delay. Having this capability would give the U.S. a much stronger deterrent, and in combat, an extraordinary military advantage.”[18]

    After he took office as Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld tried to advance the goal of developing a sub-orbital hypersonic bomber that could reduce the response time for U.S. strikes anywhere on the Earth to a few hours. But from the partisan atmosphere that greeted the Commission, to Congressional opposition to the hypersonic bomber, and then the change in national priorities that followed the September 11, 2001 attacks, Rumsfeld’s ambition for such a hypersonic or space combat platform has not been realized.[19] To compensate, the Department of Defense has also proposed outfitting intercontinental ballistic missiles with non-nuclear warheads, which has also been opposed by the Congress. But following China’s 2007 successful ASAT demonstration the Bush Administration has sought additional funding for programs designed to protect U.S. space assets, as well as new funding for a hypersonic strike aircraft.[20]

    Implications for the United States

    China appears to have made significant progress toward the development of an unmanned trans-atmospheric vehicle. While it has obvious commercial and scientific uses, it is also clear that much of the purpose behind the development of this craft is military. The comments of Chinese officials indicate that their rocket powered space plane program may be a reaction to U.S. and Indian ambitions to develop hypersonic transports and bombers. But the comments of some of these officials plus those of Chinese military academics indicate that a space plane may also form the basis for a space combat platform. This space combat platform may be intended to attack targets on Earth or it could carry out counter-space combat missions. In addition, China is aggressively pursuing air-breathing hypersonic propulsion technologies, which may provide another avenue to developing very rapid long-range “deep strike” weapons.

    China’s successful test of a direct-ascent anti-satellite interceptor on January 11, 2007, following two or three previous tests starting in late 2005, have provided one warning of China’s intention to build a robust military space combat capability. The development of the Shenlong should be viewed as a second warning of China’s commitment to building combat capabilities in space. The Shenlong program may also indicate that China intends to field a stealthy “space bomber” within the next decade. China’s government has refused to discuss its ASAT test in any detail and shows no willingness to reveal its larger plans to develop military space combat capabilities. Meanwhile, the United States, which decided in the late 1980s not to deploy its own anti-satellite interceptor, today lacks a defense against China’s ASATs and cannot deter China with corresponding space combat systems.

    As such, it is critical that the U.S. proceed with current programs to protect U.S. military and civil space assets. In addition, the U.S. must now develop a range of capabilities necessary to deter Chinese military attacks in space or from space. This may require reconsideration of the decision to retire the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet in 2010. It may instead now be necessary to consider retaining one or two Shuttles and to develop defensive and offensive payloads for them, until a less expensive and perhaps smaller unmanned or manned space plane can be developed. Such a new multi-role space plane could be based on an existing air-launched rocket-powered experimental space plane, or be based on a hypersonic platform with the ability to go in and out of space. But instead of leading the world with this technology, the politics of Washington and the War on Terror may be putting the U.S. in a position of having to catch up to China.
     
  3. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Kehler: Spherical Battlespace Is New Theater Of Operations

    http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Kehler_Spherical_Battlespace_Is_New_Theater_Of_Operations_999.html
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    Kehler: Spherical Battlespace Is New Theater Of Operations


    by Capt. Ben Sakrisson
    Air University Public Affairs
    Colorado Springs CO (AFNS) Apr 04, 2009
    The world is no longer flat and information is no longer static. Neither can military operations confine focus to one area of a conflict while remaining oblivious to interconnections with the larger picture. It is time the view of the battlefield is turned upside-down.

    This is the message of the commander of Air Force Space Command.

    Speaking before a crowded conference hall here March 31 at the 25th National Space Symposium, Gen. C. Robert Kehler laid out his vision of the redefined theater of operations - the spherical area of operations.

    "I am going to define that as an area starting at the geostationary distances from the earth and extending down," General Kehler said.

    "I think for far too long we have looked at our conception of future battlespace by standing on the ground and looking up. I think that might be the wrong way to look."

    While the concept of always seeking the high ground is as old as military doctrine itself, seeking to understand this newly defined area is a daunting task.

    "The spherical battlespace is constantly changing as on-orbit objects transverse across a volume that is 6,000 times larger than the airspace of the earth below," General Kehler said.

    The seemingly trivial decision of what domain to cover, in fact, results in a great degree of study and debate on the extent of a given space that should be covered by a single asset.

    "In our headquarters, we're combing through the different layers of space, high altitude, air and terrestrial to better understand how a degree of adequate redundancy and complementing capability can be achieved to preclude an overinvestment in one domain which creates vulnerability for our operating forces," said Army Lt. Gen. Kevin T. Campbell, commanding general of U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command and commander of Joint Functional Component Command-Integrated Missile Defense of U.S. Strategic Command.

    While the connection between space and cyberspace may be unclear to many outside of these career fields, to those within the space community, the connection is clear.

    "Nearly 100 percent of the product from space is information," said Col. Sean D. McClung, the director of Air University's National Space Studies Center.

    To this end, the vital cyberspace link to troops in the field is connected via space assets.

    "Space capabilities provide intelligence that would otherwise be lost, warnings that would otherwise be undetected, and communications that would otherwise be impossible," General Kehler said.

    Perhaps one of the most difficult pieces of the puzzle to get right, though, is the determination of how many assets are required from private industry at a given point in time and how to balance the need for increased bandwidth in a contingency against the need for operational security.

    "You have to have a way to talk about capacity reallocation and reprioritization. When you get into a real hot battle what happens is, unless you have already planned it, there is no capacity," said Richard DalBello, vice president of legal and government affairs at Intelsat General Corporation, the largest provider of satellite services in the world.

    "If this stuff is not worked out in advance, it is not going to be worked out in a conflict."

    Likewise, with respect to space-based assets, the ability to determine with certainty and react in a timely manner to threats in their orbital paths is still in its infancy.

    "Straight-line thinking no longer works; objects are always in motion," General Kehler said. He further advocated for better situational awareness in both space and cyberspace.

    The effort to build a national space situational awareness, or SSA, architecture is underway, though it is not yet up to full operational capability.

    Currently, "we have space situational awareness, (but) it is not as good as we would like it to be," said Col. Dustin A. Tyson, the chief of the Space Control Division at the Pentagon's National Security Space Office.

    The future goal with the development of a national SSA architecture, according to Colonel Tyson, is to "evolve SSA from what we have a tendency to do today, forensic, to predictive knowledge."

    Once this critical process is complete, the military will be one step closer to having advanced warnings of possible collisions in space rather than investigating the cause in the aftermath. In the spherical area of operations, that determination is made at 11,000 meters per second.
     
  4. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India wants military space program to defend its satellites

    Nation & World | India wants military space program to defend its satellites | Seattle Times Newspaper

    India wants military space program to defend its satellites

    By GAVIN RABINOWITZ
    The Associated Press
    NEW DELHI — India said that it needs a military space program to defend its satellites from threats like China's newly revealed ability to shoot down targets in orbit.

    The comments by India's army chief raise the possibility of a regional race that could accelerate the militarization of space and heighten tensions between the Asian giants, which have been enjoying their warmest ties in decades.

    India urgently needs to "optimize space applications for military purposes," Gen. Deepak Kapoor said Monday at a conference in New Delhi on using space for military purposes.

    He noted that "the Chinese space program is expanding at an exponentially rapid pace in both offensive and defensive content." His remarks were first reported by The Indian Express newspaper and confirmed by the Defense Ministry's spokesman on Tuesday.

    China destroyed one of its own defunct weather satellites with a ballistic missile in January, becoming the third country, after Russia and the U.S., to shoot down an object in orbit.

    In February the United States shot down a satellite that it said posed a threat as it fell to Earth. Kapoor did not mention that, singling out China in a statement analysts said was designed to send a clear message to Beijing.

    "In an unsubtle way this is related to China," said Ashok Mehta, a retired Indian army general and leading strategic analyst.

    Kapoor said that while militarization of space by India was at "a comparatively nascent stage," there was an urgent need for a military space command for "persistent surveillance and rapid response."

    Army spokesman Lt. Col. Anil Kumar Mathur said, "We are not talking about deploying weapons, but about self-defense." Neither man elaborated on their remarks.

    The Indian military does not have its own dedicated spy satellites and uses civilian ones to gather imagery and other intelligence. India has an advanced civilian space program and frequently launches both types of satellites for other countries, including an Israeli spy satellite in January.

    Other Indian generals speaking at the conference said a military space race was almost certain.

    "With time we will get sucked into a military race to protect our space assets, and inevitably there will be a military contest in space," the Indian Express newspaper quoted Lt. Gen. H.S. Lidder as saying.



    Ties between India and China — which together have one-third of the world's population — are at their closest since China defeated India in a brief 1962 border war. Last year, trade between India and China grew to $37 billion, and their two armies conducted their first joint military exercise.

    But the two nations remain sharply divided over territorial claims dating back to the war. China claims India's northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh and occupies a chunk of territory in Kashmir that India regards as its own.

    Talks on the disputed border have gone nowhere, and Kapoor's "statement is in relation to what is happening on the border dispute and the Chinese taking an uncompromising position," Mehta said.

    This, along with China's heavy military spending and a growing rivalry for regional influence, has alarmed the Indian military, which has been increasingly gearing up for possible conflict.

    India has announced plans to have aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines at sea in the next decade and recently tested nuclear-capable missiles that put China's major cities well in range. It is also reopening air force bases near the Chinese border.
     
  5. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Let The Planet Hunt Begin


    Let The Planet Hunt Begin


    Kepler will hunt for planets by looking for periodic dips in the brightness of stars - events that occur when orbiting planets cross in front of their stars and partially block the light.
    by Staff Writers
    Moffett Field CA (SPX) May 14, 2009
    NASA's Kepler spacecraft has begun its search for other Earth-like worlds. The mission, which launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on March 6, will spend the next three-and-a-half years staring at more than 100,000 stars for telltale signs of planets.
    Kepler has the unique ability to find planets as small as Earth that orbit sun-like stars at distances where temperatures are right for possible lakes and oceans.

    "Now the fun begins," said William Borucki, Kepler science principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. "We are all really excited to start sorting through the data and discovering the planets."

    Scientists and engineers have spent the last two months checking out and calibrating the Kepler spacecraft. Data have been collected to characterize the imaging performance as well as the noise level in the measurement electronics. The scientists have constructed the list of targets for the start of the planet search, and this information has been loaded onto the spacecraft.

    "If Kepler got into a staring contest, it would win," said James Fanson, Kepler project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    "The spacecraft is ready to stare intently at the same stars for several years so that it can precisely measure the slightest changes in their brightness caused by planets." Kepler will hunt for planets by looking for periodic dips in the brightness of stars - events that occur when orbiting planets cross in front of their stars and partially block the light.

    The mission's first finds are expected to be large, gas planets situated close to their stars. Such discoveries could be announced as early as next year.

    Kepler is a NASA Discovery mission. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., is the home organization of the science principal investigator, and is responsible for the ground system development, mission operations and science data analysis. JPL manages the Kepler mission development. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. of Boulder, Colo., is responsible for developing the Kepler flight system and supporting mission operations.
     
  6. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India's manned space mission will have IAF men

    India's manned space mission will have IAF men- ET Cetera-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times

    India's manned space mission will have IAF men

    NEW DELHI: When India's first manned mission to space takes off, possibly in 2017, it will have Indian Air Force (IAF) personnel on
    board.

    "Let me promise you one thing, if there is a (Indian) man on moon (read space), it will be from the Indian Air Force," IAF chief Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major told reporters here.

    According to sources, the IAF is to train two of its personnel for the mission, in collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The proposed manned mission will follow India's successful lunar probe launch last year.

    Major added that the IAF's Institute for Aerospace Medicine is working closely with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on the project.

    The mission is likely to carry a two-member IAF crew. India's Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma, who was part of the joint space programme between India and the erstwhile Soviet Union in 1984, was the first Indian to go into space.

    Though ISRO wanted one of its scientists on the mission along with an IAF pilot, the air force proposed that both should be IAF personnel.

    "The crew will consist of two members. We had a meeting with the ISRO scientists and they insisted on sending one scientist and one air force pilot, but we have proposed to depute one of our engineers also with them for training till the mission happens," a senior IAF official said requesting anonymity.

    Under the ambitious $2.5 billion plan, India's space agency has proposed to put two people into space orbit at 274 km above the earth for seven days.

    If the mission takes off, India will be the fourth country - after the US, Russia and China - to send a manned mission to space. India is not the only Asian country in the new space race - Iran recently announced it will attempt a manned space flight by 2021.

    Dismissing the criticism of the huge costs involved in the mission, another senior IAF official listed its military advantages. He said it will help India acquire Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) capability.

    "To place a spacecraft in orbit, we will require a bigger rocket booster. This large rocket booster will help India acquire ICBM capability," the senior official added.


    He also said it would boost the country's reconnaisance capability. "To be in constant touch with the astronauts as they revolve around the earth, we will need to interlink our satellites, which in turn will boost our reconnaissance capability. Presently, we are able to get 15 minutes' feed daily from our satellites. The space mission will give us 90 minutes' feed," he said.

    The decision to send astronauts into space follows the launch last October of India's first unmanned lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, which signalled the country's entry into an elite club of nations that have reached the moon. Chandrayaan-1 is now orbiting the moon to compile a 3-D map of its surface, among other things. India is planning to launch its second unmanned lunar mission - Chandrayaan-2 - in 2011.

    India's decision to go for a manned mission into space comes in the wake of China making great strides in its space pursuits. China completed its first space walk last year, and also shot down one of its own satellites in 2007.
     
  7. p2prada

    p2prada Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    Yes, the expected yield was 250Kilotons. But, what we got was 45Kilotons. Or that's how the story goes.
     
  8. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    P2P...Dont we already have a 250kt plutonium based fission bomb? Then why should we go for a low yield Fusion bomb?...There is something fishy and I smell it.
     
  9. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    45 KT is not a tactical nuke. It is a full fledged nuke. Tactical nukes are single digit Kt nukes not 45 Kt.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Feb 3, 2010
  10. p2prada

    p2prada Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    250kt Atomic Bomb?? I doubt it. We have to achieve our targets of Minimum Credible Deterrence quickly. So, we will focus on employing 20kt to 100 kt bombs until we reach the target and disperse all the missile warheads.

    Maybe after that, we may focus on building much larger yields.

    Our H-bomb capabilities is completely under wraps. Zero information. Even the H bomb tests are based on merely speculations through seismic data. Some analysts say, it was just a very big atomic bomb.

    Secondly, we do not have effective delivery systems like ICBMs to carry a 20 ton payload etc. Our Agni series carry upto 1 ton. So, even our H-bomb will be of lower yields than the US and Russian warheads.

    250kt is too powerful as of now. 500kt is the limit for fission weapons(atomic bomb).

    But, US, Russia etc have H-bomb warheads with yields of more than 1Megaton. In tests, USSR once detonated a H bomb of 50 Megatons(it was downgraded from 100Mt to prevent massive fallout).

    During Pokhran II, our highest yield was 15kt after the H-bomb. The other tests were all less than 1kt and were experimental designs.
     
  11. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    AGNI 2 is reported to be 200KT

    Agni - India Missile Special Weapons Delivery Systems

    but rather than focusing on yield we should focus on producing more MIRV AGNI3'S
     
  12. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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  13. p2prada

    p2prada Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    That's right. But, it does not mention the weight of the warhead or the nature of the warhead. 200KT just indicates the nuke's yield is equal to 200,000 tons of TNT. The weight Agni I and II can carry is 1 ton. So, an equivalent A-bomb weighing 1 ton will have a lower yield than a H-bomb weighing 1 ton. Anyways these are only official figures.

    @Satish
    The H bomb tested in Pokhran was 200KT and not 250KT. It was downgraded to 45KT to reduce seismic activity. Success or failure is speculation. Officials say it was a success.
     
  14. p2prada

    p2prada Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    Agni Series.Past, Present and Future :D

    [​IMG]
     
  15. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    15KT was enough to take out nagasaki and hiroshima so 200kt should be sufficient,nice to be able to choose if we should go with the nuke or the hydrogen bomb.
     
  16. p2prada

    p2prada Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    LF: The bomb dropped on Hiroshima had a Uranium core(little boy) while fat man dropped on Nagasaki had a Plutonium core. The Plutonium version was more powerful.

    Pak cities, except Karachi, are quite small. A 50KT bomb is enough.

    The 200KT on Agni is only a speculation. It could be more or less. The 1 ton payload is more accurate. Future versions of atomic bombs can have increased yields while weighing only 1 ton because of better designs and better trigger mechanisms.
     
  17. Sridhar

    Sridhar House keeper Moderator

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    We don't need 200KT as a single device, since the power of it diminishes by the square of the distance . A payload of 1 ton with multiple smaller MIRV can disperse to greater area and can inflict greater damage to multiple targets and can be effective against ABM systems.
     
  18. Known_Unknown

    Known_Unknown Devil's Advocate Stars and Ambassadors

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    'Neutron bomb capability exists'

     
  19. p2prada

    p2prada Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    As of date, we do not have MIRV. Agni III still has to be completely tested.
    So, we can focus on firing a salvo of 20KT warhead equipped missiles at a single large target like Lahore or Karachi. Even this will help flooding the enemies EW systems on a localized area cause they have to act against 4 or 5 missiles coming in at once.
     
  20. Sharp

    Sharp New Member

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    Our naughty neighbours know this.
     

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