Hypersonic Vehicles/Scramjets

Discussion in 'Strategic Forces' started by LETHALFORCE, Feb 23, 2009.

  1. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Pentagon successfully tests hypersonic flying bomb

    Pentagon successfully tests hypersonic flying bomb

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    The Pentagon on Thursday held a successful test flight of a flying bomb that travels faster than the speed of sound and will give military planners the ability to strike targets anywhere in the world in less than a hour.

    Launched by rocket from Hawaii at 1130 GMT, the "Advanced Hypersonic Weapon," or AHW, glided through the upper atmosphere over the Pacific "at hypersonic speed" before hitting its target on the Kwajalein atoll in the Marshall Islands, a Pentagon statement said.

    Kwajalein is about 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers) southwest of Hawaii. The Pentagon did not say what top speeds were reached by the vehicle, which unlike a ballistic missile is maneuverable.

    Scientists classify hypersonic speeds as those that exceed Mach 5 -- or five times the speed of sound -- 3,728 miles (6,000 kilometers) an hour.

    The test aimed to gather data on "aerodynamics, navigation, guidance and control, and thermal protection technologies," said Lieutenant Colonel Melinda Morgan, a Pentagon spokeswoman.

    The US Army's AHW project is part of "Prompt Global Strike" program which seeks to give the US military the means to deliver conventional weapons anywhere in the world within an hour.

    On August 11, the Pentagon test flew another hypersonic glider dubbed HTV-2, which is capable of flying 27,000 kilometers per hour, but it was a failure.

    The AHW's range is less than that of the HTV-2, the Congressional Research Service said in a report, without providing specifics.

    The Pentagon has invested 239.9 million dollars in the Global Strike program this year, including 69 million for the flying bomb tested Thursday, CRS said.
     
  2. Dovah

    Dovah Untermensch Moderator

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    Its the same one they lost contact with missing a couple of months back, right?
    Gotta give it to the Americans, they get things done.
     
  3. SPIEZ

    SPIEZ Senior Member Senior Member

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    The USA is following along the lines of Dr. Abdul Kalam :)
     
  4. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    yes I wonder how they can control something moving so fast?? Also it will probably be only flying straight??
     
  5. SPIEZ

    SPIEZ Senior Member Senior Member

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    You should probably ask the Russians, they are operating a range of RAMJET missiles, though range is limited. There was also a plan for a RAMJET IC missile. However, due to some treaty it was closed.
     
  6. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    This is faster than a ramjet, any extreme course change will tear up the missile.
     
  7. SPIEZ

    SPIEZ Senior Member Senior Member

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    Yes ! I forgot my bad ! It's a SCRAMJET I was talking about, India plans to co-develop one with Russia. But I guess, they only answer would be similar to the way they control other hypersonic vehicles like Anti-missiles(PAC3,SM3) etc.
    But my knowledge on aerodynamics is very poor.
     
  8. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India's ATV-D01 rocket to use atmospheric oxygen as fuel - Brahmand.com

    India's ATV-D01 rocket to use atmospheric oxygen as fuel

    NEW DELHI (PTI): India seeks newer horizons in space as it readies to test launch its first air-breathing rocket soon, a step that would make satellite launches cheaper.

    In his 'Report to the People', Prime Minister Manmohan Singh noted the successful flight testing of a new rocket designed to test futuristic air-breathing propulsion technology.

    "Successful flight testing of new generation high performance sounding rocket (ATV-D01), conducted on 3rd March 2010 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), SHAR, has provided a test bed for demonstration of Air-Breathing propulsion technology," said the report presented by Singh on achievements of the first year of UPA-II government.

    The ATV-D01 carried a passive scramjet engine combustor module designed to test air-breathing propulsion technology.

    The new rocket will drastically reduce the cost of launch vehicles as scramjet engines use oxygen in the atmosphere to propel the spacecraft unlike conventional rockets that carry both oxygen and chemical fuel on board.

    Singh also listed the success of the static tests of next generation satellite launch vehicle GSLV Mark III among achievements of the government in the fields of science and technology.

    "The large solid stage motor S-200, which successfully underwent static tests at SDSC on 24th January 2010 is the third largest solid booster in the world. S-200 is used in Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III," it said.
     
  9. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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  10. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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  11. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    The Hindu : News / National : Advanced Technology Vehicle successfully flight-tested

    Advanced Technology Vehicle successfully flight-tested


    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on Wednesday successfully flight-tested its new-generation, high-performance sounding rocket at the spaceport in Sriharikota, near here.

    The Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV- D01), weighing three tonnes at lift-off, is the heaviest sounding rocket developed by the ISRO. It carries a passive scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engine combustor module as a test-bed for a demonstration of the air-breathing propulsion technology. An ISRO release said the rocket successfully flew at a velocity of more than Mach 6 (six times the speed of sound) for seven seconds. These conditions were required for a stable ignition of active scramjet engine combustor module planned in the next ATV flight.

    “The successful flight-testing is a step ahead towards the advanced technology initiative from the ISRO in the area of air-breathing propulsion,” the release said.

    The air-breathing rocket systems used the atmospheric oxygen from their surroundings and burned it with the on-board fuel to produce the forward thrust. This was in contrast to the conventional chemical rocket systems, which carried both oxygen and fuel on board, a rocket technologist said.

    The air-breathing rockets, therefore, are much lighter and more efficient than the conventional rockets, leading to reduction in the cost of space transportation. That is, the cost incurred to put a satellite in orbit will be much lower.

    The development of scramjet engine was complex and it involved a number of technological challenges. They included mixing of very high speed air (velocity around 1.5 km a second) with fuel, achieving stable ignition and holding the flame in addition to ensure efficient combustion within the length of the combustor, the rocket technologist said.
     
    blueblood, rahulrds1 and trackwhack like this.
  12. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    DRDO works on hypersonic vehicle | The Asian Age

    DRDO works on hypersonic vehicle

    In future, you could reach New York from New Delhi in a just couple of hours. It sounds unbelievable, but with the Defence Research and Development Organisation working on the Hypersonic Transportation Vehicle, the dream journey is sure to become a reality.

    Dr Tessy Thomas, project director, AGNI, Advanced Systems Laboratory, DRDO, Hyderabad said that the work on the project had already started and technology is under development. She said, “The work of the project is on, thorough testing is required for this project as it is for passenger travelling. It can also be extended to space tourism.”
    Dr Thomas who is popularly known as Missile Woman, was interacting with school and college students at a progamme “Women achievers in science” organised by the Women's Cell, Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment (KSCSTE). She said the Agni V, the 5,000-km range Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile, will be ready soon.

    Dr Thomas said that most students take up these subjects and start research but after getting married they just discontinue work or shift work base. “These days there is no need to talk or argue about gender discrimination.
    I joined in 1988 and at that time there were just about two per cent of women in our field. But today DRDO has about 20 percent of women working in it,” she added.

    She, however, said that more women should be involved in the decision-making process. “A woman scientist may face opposition and multiple challenges throughout her life. But the key to success is to remain focused on your goals and be confident of your abilities. Never stop learning,” she advised and urged the women scientists to become role models for younger generation.

    It was a unique opportunity for the students to interact with Dr Thomas and other personalities. Most students were from standard 11 and first year MSC.

    Dr Lakshmi S. Nair, assistant professor, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Connecticut Health Centre, Farmington, spoke about biomaterials for medical devices and regenerative engineering.
     
  13. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    How low can costs go using chemical propulsion?

    How low can costs go using chemical propulsion?


    Elon Musk claims that, using fully reusable hardware, the cost of launching payloads to space could eventually go as low as $10 per pound. Other low-cost proposals for putting payloads into orbit have been covered by Next Big Future, including airships to orbit as well as laser propulsion and startram. Aerospace engineer Dr. Ajay Kothari of the Astrox corporation has spent the past decade thoroughly studying various concepts for reducing space costs. In an interview with Sander Olson for Next Big Future, Kothari argues that vertically launched scramjet vehicles may be the best way in the short run to inexpensively launch payloads into space. Kothari believes that scramjet or fully reusable rockets could eventually bring the cost to Low Earth Orbit down to $100 per pound.

    Ajay Kothari

    Question: You founded the Astrox corporation in order to study, analyze, and create spacecraft and propulsion designs. How many designs have you examined?

    I have been studying various propulsion and spacecraft designs since 1987. This research has included detailed theoretical studies of Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles, Two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles, trans-atmospheric vehicles, various rocket-engines, and missiles. Astrox has developed a series of software programs, called HySIDE, SpaceSIDE and SuperSIDE, designed to allow the user to determine which designs are viable and which will never fly. We at Astrox have studied about 50 different designs and looked at more than 200 different concepts

    Question: You seem to favor a propulsion system using a scramjet approach. What advantage does this scramjet approach have over competing paradigms?

    The mistake the country made with the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) about 2-3 decades ago was to use horizontal takeoff for this hypersonic SSTO concept. Our analysis using HySIDE shows that this is not possible. However, if we had opted to consider vertical takeoff at that time, we would have been in a different paradigm now - with a flying hypersonic plane. We pinpointed where and what was causing the problem. We now have two approaches here - both of them are vertical takeoff. First we should develop TSTO system and then transition to SSTO (if that is possible). This was presented at the last AIAA International Spaceplane and Hypersonics Conference at San Francisco. The scramjet approach I favor uses a combination of rockets and a scramjet. The scramjet takes off vertically using a rocket stage initially accelerating via rocket propulsion. At Mach 3.5, the scramjet stage separates, becomes operational, and accelerates the spacecraft to Mach 9.5. At Mach 9.5 either hydrogen or methane rockets fire to bring the craft to orbital velocity. The advantage of this approach is that the scramjet engines have higher ISP (specific impulse) of up to 3500, compared to 455 for the best chemical rockets. So the rockets would only be needed at the beginning and end of the ascent to orbit. Having thoroughly examined a number of competing approaches, I am convinced that the TSTO fully reusable rockets option or the rocket boosted scramjet option are the best approaches for getting payloads to orbit with the lowest cost, in the shortest timeframe. The all rocket option would be easier to do, but the scramjet option brings something else to the table that rockets cannot.

    Question: How much research has gone into scramjets?

    There have been significant R&D programs during the past decade. In 2007 a scramjet was successfully tested to Mach 10. The Air Force/Boeing X-51 is a technology testbed for scramjet development, has been tested at Mach 5, and has a maximum speed of Mach 7. So progress is being made, and with sufficient funding scramjets could be the enabling technology for low-cost space access.

    Question: How much would it cost to develop such a scramjet?

    We have computed the numbers using software that we have developed, and I am confident that a prototype, operational vehicle could be produced for about $5 billion dollars, within five years. That would include design, testing, development, and first flight. A billion dollars per year makes up less than 6% of NASA's budget, and could result in the first relatively low-cost craft capable of daily flights to orbit.

    Question: How exactly would your single-stage-to-orbit scramjet system work?

    The scramjet would contain built-in hydrogen/oxygen rockets. The craft would launch vertically like a rocket (thus reducing the weight/sizes of wings, gears and takeoff system), and at mach 3.5 the rockets would shut down and the scramjet would start. The scramjet would accelerate the craft from Mach 3.5 to Mach 9.5, at which point the rockets would fire again to bring the craft to orbit. Upon reentry, the craft would land like a plane, just as the Space Shuttle Orbiter did,, so it would be capable of high throughput. It would have thermal shielding to allow it to survive reentry. The system would be completely reusable, which is key in keeping costs down, and would not require any technological breakthroughs. I have meticulously examined a number of different schemes for getting to orbit, and I'm convinced that these two are the only two approaches that plausibly could reach fruition within the next decade.

    What cost-per-pound could a scramjet spaceplane achieve?

    Using liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen, the fuel costs alone would be $50 per pound to orbit. So with high-throughput flights, I'm confident that the cost could be only $350 per pound using the near term technologies. Compared to the thousands of dollars per pound costs of using only the expendable rockets with chemical propulsion, such as EELV, this would be real bargain and could quickly open up the field of space. With time, more experience under our belt and further advancements, the price can be further reduced to about $100 per pound to orbit


    Question: So $100 per pound is the lowest price that could be achieved using chemical propulsion?

    Yes. This means that orbital flights could be offered for perhaps $50,000. But that number is low enough to open up space, to have lunar tourism, asteroid mining, and large-scale space stations in orbit. The number of individuals who are willing and able to pay $50,000 for an orbital trip is sufficient to create a large, thriving industry. Even at the $340 per pound cost, which meant $250-500,000 per ticket, we showed (at the FAA Commercial Space Transportation Conference last month) that it would "close" a business case. So $100 per pound would be even more eminently possible to get to a thriving industry..


    Question: There are other approaches to space that are claiming even lower costs. For instance, the Startram concept of using magnetically levitated craft accelerated through evacuated tubes could theoretically result in $10 per pound costs.

    I do not believe that the Startram system will ever be feasible, even if they could somehow come up with the $40 billion needed to develop it. The main challenge in achieving orbit isn't attaining altitude, it is attaining speed. When the craft exits from the tunnel, it will immediately hit the atmosphere and encounter enormous drag. And building 50 mile tunnels into mountains is inherently difficult and self-limiting. The point is we do not need any of this stuff if we are willing to go with reusable rockets and/or scramjets AND are willing to abandon horizontal takeoff for the scramjet for now - not forever.


    Question: The Lasermotive corporation proposes to propel objects into space by employing ground-based lasers to heat the fuel in the spacecraft.

    I have studied using lasers as a propulsion method. The problem with lasers is that if the laser is even slightly off, the craft is damaged or even destroyed. Given the velocities and altitudes required, I do not believe that a laser based propulsion system will work effectively under such constraints.


    Question: Are you familiar with the JP Aerospace proposal to use airships and a hybrid ion/chemical propulsion system?

    Although I am not familiar with that particular approach, I have studied ion propulsion. Ion propulsion has very high specific impulse, but produces minute quantities of thrust. So it is better suited to craft that are already in orbit. But even at 140,000 feet, atmospheric drag exists. So the hybrid propulsion system would need to provide substantially more thrust than an ion motor. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) concept is intriguing, it can provide either high ISP with low thrust, or higher thrust with lower ISP. The key to any such concept would be developing a propulsion system that can overcome the atmospheric resistance, which exists even at those high altitudes.


    Question: What about Skylon unmanned, reusable spaceplane concept? Proponents are claiming that it could be developed within a decade, and put 12 tons into orbit.

    I am skeptical of any single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO)concept that is horizontal-takeoff-horizontal-landing (HTHL). I have run the numbers, and it turns out that HTHL SSTOs have zero or even negative payload capacity. So they cannot reach orbit even without any payload. The key to the skylon concept is the SABRE engine, which employs a hybrid airbreathing/rocket engine. System level analysis of this concept does not give about 600K GTOW they claim, but 3-5 times that making it unable to takeoff from runways.

    Question: SpaceeX is aiming for a completely reusable rocket. Is such an aim feasible?

    It is. Although fully reusable rockets present a variety of technical difficulties, none of those challenges are intractable.

    As per their vertical landing idea, the orbiter will need to carry some fuel all the way to orbital velocity for the eventual ground landing with retro thrusters, which can be expensive, and landing gear will need to be added.. Then there would need to be a control system to keep the stages properly positioned when returning to the ground. With proper funding all of those challenges are surmountable but I would have elected to go with horizontal landing.

    Question: It appears that the Government is not making space exploration a high priority. Without Government funding, could private venture capitalists fund the development of your scramjet spacecraft?

    I do not believe so, even though it is theoretically possible. Jeff Bezos, the founder/CEO of Amazon and a space enthusiast, is funding a company called Blue Origin. This company has been rather secretive, but does have plans for reusable spacecraft. Bezos has a net worth of about $18 billion, so he could single-handedly fund the development of a scramjet. If that were to happen, we could have a fully functional, tested scramjet vehicle within a decade, and the door to space would finally be wide open but I do not think it is fair for us to expect him to do that..

    I believe it should be the role of the Government (NASA, DOD) to develop the technologies, in this case the reusable rocket and hypersonic propulsion technologies, almost to completion, and then pass it on to the space venture entities like SpaceX, Virgin Galactic, XCOR, Armadillo and of course Blue Origin. They can be innovative beyond that, and devise many concepts for far cheaper orbital access. That would open up new business markets and associated jobs as well
     
  14. ptltejas

    ptltejas Regular Member

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    well i heard that the test of hypersonic machine and nirbhay will be soon but unfortunately its not their. it was told to be done last yr in this yr in january. the hypersonic missile should have to fired from the plane but yet not done. hope it shall be done in recent.
     
  15. ptltejas

    ptltejas Regular Member

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    well more than this

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    [​IMG]
     
  16. ptltejas

    ptltejas Regular Member

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  17. ptltejas

    ptltejas Regular Member

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  18. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    X-51 Scramjet Test Exceeded Thrust Expectations: AFRL | Defense News | defensenews.com

    X-51 Scramjet Test Exceeded Thrust Expectations



    The second X-51 supersonic combustion scramjet test vehicle actually produced more thrust than expected before the test flight ended in failure, a U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) official told a U.S. House Aerospace Luncheon on Sept. 15.

    Scramjets would enable flight at hypersonic speed of more than Mach 5.

    "The neat thing that happened on the second flight is that … we made too much thrust, we made too much power," said X-51 program director Charles Brink.

    The thrust difference between the first test vehicle and the second vehicle was large and had not been seen before in ground tests. Scientists working on the program were mystified and have yet to fully understand what happened, Brink said

    "That's really making us scratch our bearings and say 'how did that happen?' " he said.

    Brink said there were big differences between how the ground test articles worked and how the vehicle performed in-flight. Brink said his disappointment has been tempered by the knowledge that the engine produces more power than previously thought.

    "If we can harness that thrust, that's the trick," he said.

    The program hopes to fly a third test vehicle in the spring. Additionally, the AFRL is hoping to embark up on a new "robust scramjet" project, which would create a normal fighter-sized engine.

    Richard Aboulafia, an analyst with the Teal Group, Fairfax, Va., said that the less-than-stellar test results were not a huge surprise because scramjet technology has been researched for decades without tangible results.

    "It's not really clear that this is a technology that can be matured," he said.

    Numerous scramjet projects have come and gone over the last 25 years, and most likely more will come and go over the next 25, Aboulafia said. Nor is he particularly optimistic about the AFRL prospects to develop a larger scramjet engine that would actually work.

    "This might be one of those cold fusion moments," Aboulafia said.

    But if scramjet technology could be perfected, he said, it would be very useful.
     
  19. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    World expert outlines the future for air space travel

    World expert outlines the future for air space travel

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    One of the world's leading figures in future air space travel, Dr Mark J Lewis, will visit the University of Strathclyde to highlight the progress in technology that could see round-the-world flights taking a fraction of the time that they do currently.

    Dr Lewis's public lecture, Progress in Hypersonic Flight: Pushing the Envelope Higher and Faster, is closely linked to the work of the University's Centre for Future Air-Space Transportation Technology (cFASTT), a research centre dedicated to revolutionising future air and space travel.

    A professor of aerospace engineering at the University of Maryland, Dr Lewis is Director-elect of the Science and Technology Institute, Institute for Defense Analyses, Virginia, USA. He was the longest-serving Chief Scientist in US Air Force history and is also Immediate Past President of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the foremost technical society of aerospace engineers.

    His visit to the University will see him deliver the second James Weir Lecture, part of a series of lectures on engineering and technology that aim to inform, educate and challenge current thinking.

    Professor Richard Brown, Director of cFASTT said: "Hypersonic technology is on the cusp of revolutionising the way we travel around the world. Although there are still major challenges in materials science, propulsion and aerodynamics that need to be resolved, tantalizing progress has been made.

    "The ten seconds of flight of the X-43 unmanned hypersonic aircraft may seem short compared to the sustained performance that one day will be required to wing us in comfort to Tokyo in two hours, but it is an auspicious start. We do need to remember that the first flight by the Wright brothers was shorter than the wingspan of the jumbo jets that now routinely carry us from one corner of the globe to the other.

    "Here at Strathclyde we are contributing to the work of the international community that is grappling with the huge scientific and technological challenges that Dr Lewis has described. The promise is that future hypersonic vehicles will help create a world where Sydney or Cape Town or Beijing are only as far away as London is by domestic flight today."

    Dr Lewis obtained his professional degrees at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautics and astronautics and Bachelor of Science degree in earth and planetary science (1984), Master of Science (1985) and Doctor of Science (1988) in aeronautics and astronautics.

    Dr Lewis is the author of more than 280 technical publications, and has been adviser to more than 60 graduate students. He is active in national and international professional societies and has served on various advisory boards for NASA and the US Air Force.
     
  20. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    ISRO's design of reusable launch vehicle approved - Bangalore - DNA

    ISRO's design of reusable launch vehicle approved

    India’s dream of joining the select group that possesses reusable launch vehicles is close to realisation. The design of the winged vehicle by Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), the Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), has been approved by the National Review Committee.

    An Isro official said design-related issues have been addressed and presented to the National Review Committee and clearance obtained to go ahead to build the RLV-TD.

    The space agency, as a first step towards realising a Two-Stage To Orbit (TSTO) re-usable launch vehicle, has developed a winged RLV-TD.

    Isro, in its recently released annual report, stated that design options have been finalised. Besides, the mission design has been completed with a revised vehicle mass. The RLV-TD will act as a flying test-bed to evaluate various technologies — hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air breathing propulsion.

    The first in the series of trials is the hypersonic flight experiment (HEX) followed by the landing experiment (LEX), return flight experiment (REX) and scramjet propulsion experiment (SPEX).

    During HEX, the vehicle will take lift off in the form of a rocket with a booster. Later, it can be recovered from sea. Though the trials for the first experiment are slated to take place this year, an Isro official said the launch date for carrying out HEX from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota has not been fixed. The development and flight testing of the Reusable Launch Vehicles-Technology demonstrator missions leading to Two-Stage To Orbit (TSTO) is part of India’s Space Vision 2025 and is expected to bring down cost significantly.

    Isro, in January 2007, conducted the Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1). Launched by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C7) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on January 10, 2007, the capsule was successfully recovered on January 22, 2007, from the Bay of Bengal.
     

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