Focus- - DRDO RADAR Power

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by JAISWAL, Feb 8, 2012.


    JAISWAL Senior Member Senior Member

    Mar 13, 2010
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    Radar power
    FOCUS:- DRDO Radar power
    The LRDE, a premier laboratory of the DRDO, develops a range of radar systems to meet the requirements of the defence forces.

    THE scene is a “bunker” on the wooded campus
    of the Electronics and Radar Development
    Establishment (LRDE), one of the premier
    laboratories of the Defence Research and
    Development Organisation (DRDO), in Bangalore.
    A radar is positioned near the bunker's window
    to face the road. Its piercing eyes detect and track
    a man walking a few kilometres away and the
    image immediately looms into view on a
    computer monitor. When the moving target
    quickens its pace, the rhythm is reflected on the
    monitor. When a man is caught crawling a few
    100 metres away, the image on the monitor
    captures the slow motion.
    The man-portable, battery-operated Battlefield
    Surveillance Radar – Short Range (BFSR-SR), has
    become a hit with the Army. Weighing just 30
    kg, it can be brought into operation in a battlefield
    in about five minutes. It can detect, track and
    classify a variety of ground-surface targets within
    a detection range of 700 metres to eight
    kilometres. So far, 1,441 BFSRs have been
    delivered to the Army and 90 to the Border
    Security Force (BSF). Bharat Electronics Limited
    (BEL), Bangalore, manufactures this radar.
    “We developed the BFSR in two years to the
    specific requirements of the Army. The mandate
    was that it should be deployable in hilly, snow-
    bound high-altitude areas, should withstand very
    low temperatures, and be light in weight,” said S.
    Varadarajan, Director, LRDE. There was a felt
    need during the Kargil conflict in 1999 to develop
    a short-range radar to alert the Army about
    enemy intrusions on high-altitude terrain.
    “Driving Rain Chamber”, reads the quizzical
    legend on a box-like contraption in a building that
    houses the many-chambered Quality and
    Reliability Assurance Division on the campus. As
    the doors of the “Driving Rain Chamber” swing
    open, we find the central processing unit (CPU),
    the heart of a radar system, being drenched in
    the “rain” that issued forth from within the
    chamber. The CPU was being battered as part of
    the quality and reliability check to prove the
    radar's ruggedness. The CPU processes the data
    received by the radar, senses the target with the
    help of an antenna, and sends it for display. It can
    classify the enemy too.
    The building contains Combined Altitude,
    Temperature and Humidity (CATH) chambers,
    thermal shock chambers, dust chambers,
    corrosion chambers, and so on, where the
    various parts of radars are tested thoroughly
    before the systems are deployed in the field. The
    thermal shock chamber has three compartments.
    In the “cold” compartment, the temperature
    ranges from -700 Celsius to +800 C and in the
    hot cell, it ranges from 00 C to 2000 C. The third
    compartment has ambient temperature. The
    airborne radar systems are tested in these
    temperatures because when an aircraft climbs to
    an altitude of 40,000 feet (12,000 metres), the
    transition time from the ambient temperature to
    freezing cold is only 10 minutes. The airborne
    radar systems should withstand these thermal
    shocks. Even the gear box of India's Light Combat
    Aircraft (LCA), Tejas, was tested in the CATH
    The 60-foot long, 40-foot broad and 32-foot tall
    anechoic chamber was set up in 1987 to test the
    equipment on the Arjun battle tank and later that
    in Tejas and in India's nuclear-powered
    submarine, Arihant. It is now used to test the
    radar equipment. “Any equipment should be
    compliant with electromagnetic interference [EMI],
    which cannot be eliminated,” explained D.C.
    Pandey, Outstanding Scientist, LRDE, who is also
    India's foremost expert in EMI and
    electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). “You can
    reduce the EMI to a particular level and that level
    depends on the platform [on which the
    equipment is integrated].” These platforms are
    ships, aircraft, submarines, satellites and the
    ground. In the anechoic chamber, the
    electromagnetic field is amplified and measured.
    “We amplify the field and measure the effect, and
    make sure that the equipment is immune to the
    harsh electromagnetic environment,” Pandey
    With the radar systems undergoing such a
    battery of tests, it is not surprising that
    Varadarajan asserted: “The radars, developed by
    the LRDE, are performance-wise on a par, if not
    better than, with the best in the world. The armed
    forces place repeat orders with BEL for a range of
    radars, including BFSR-SR, Rohini and Rajendra.
    Today, we are totally focussed on the
    development of radars for the three armed
    forces. We want the radars we develop to
    become globally competitive because the Army
    has the option to shop anywhere,” he said. The
    LRDE has developed the primary radar for the
    indigenous Airborne Early Warning and Control
    System (AEW & CS), which helps in tactical
    missions against enemy aircraft or in deep
    penetration strikes. The AEW & CS was tested
    during its maiden flight on a modified Embraer
    aircraft in Brazil on December 6, 2011. Tejas uses
    the antenna developed by the LRDE.
    W. Selvamurthy, Chief Controller (Life Sciences),
    DRDO, is proud of the galaxy of radar systems
    developed by the LRDE. They include the BFSR-
    SR; the weapons-locating radar (WLR) Swathi; the
    lightweight Bharani for the Army's air defence;
    Aslesha for the Indian Air Force (IAF); Rohini, the
    backbone of India's air defence; Revathi, the
    surveillance radar for the Navy; Rajendra, a
    phased-array radar, which is the core of Akash,
    India's surface-to-air missile system; the airborne
    maritime patrol radar, which has been integrated
    into India'a Advanced Light Helicopter; the Navy's
    Kamov-25 helicopter and the Coast Guard's
    Dornier aircraft; and the ground-penetration radar
    for locating buried mines, improvised explosive
    devices (IEDs) and unexploded ordnances (UXOs).
    BEL is the LRDE's “production buddy” for all the
    radars. The LRDE has now plunged into the
    development of a “through wall looking radar”,
    which can do remote three-dimensional (3D)
    imaging of terrorists hiding behind walls and
    detect even their heartbeats.
    The DRDO, with 52 laboratories located in
    different parts of the country, is one of the largest
    enterprises of its kind catering to the Indian
    armed forces. Selvamurthy estimated that the
    production value of the products developed by
    the DRDO in the last eight years was around
    Rs.1,60,000 crore. The Army has placed orders
    for 124 Arjun-Mark I main battle tanks, developed
    by the DRDO's Combat Vehicles Research and
    Development Establishment (CVRDE) situated at
    Avadi near Chennai. Each Arjun tank cost Rs.18
    crore, Selvamurthy said. The Army has placed
    orders for a batch of 124 Arjun-Mark II battle
    tanks too, which will feature a number of
    modifications on Mark-I. The IAF has placed
    orders for 40 Tejas aircraft, each costing more
    than Rs.150 crore.

    JAISWAL Senior Member Senior Member

    Mar 13, 2010
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    part- 2
    Production orders in the past eight years for
    products developed by the DRDO to counter
    nuclear, biological and chemical warfare agents
    are valued at Rs.800 crore. They include gamma
    flash sensors, dosimeters, roentgenometers,
    reconnaissance vehicles, water purification filters,
    nerve-agent detectors and underground shelters.
    In the field of radars, the DRDO's customers are
    well-defined: the Army, the Navy and the Air
    Force. The Army's requirements are demanding:
    the radars should be light enough to be
    transported and capable of being assembled or
    dismantled quickly.
    Varadarajan said: “Today, there is an inclination
    among the Services to use Indian radars because
    we match their requirements. The goal of our
    laboratory is to develop the key technologies
    required for radars, keeping in view the products
    required over the next decade, and to synergise a
    partnership between public sector and private
    units and quickly develop the products.” This
    requires the right blend of engineering and
    electronics and an understanding of the specific
    environment in which the radars have to be
    deployed. LRDE engineers are engaged in
    concurrent engineering with their counterparts in
    the private sector. The LRDE is partnering a
    network of private units, which had invested in
    the development of specific subsystems,
    including microwave tube assemblies, fabrication
    of material needed for antennae, compact and
    rugged power packs, and cooling units.
    Varadarajan said: “These private units
    manufacture quality products needed for radars,
    benchmarking themselves against established
    foreign vendors. Today, these industries are able
    to design subsystems against stringent
    requirements by the armed forces. The net result
    is that there is a public-private sector partnership
    and the items produced in this country,
    particularly radars, remain globally competitive.
    We have been able to cut down the development
    time for many of the radars because we unearth
    private partners who can take part in the
    development, we adhere to concurrent
    engineering, and there is a mechanism for
    production. We are very much on track. ”
    The roles of the various radars developed by the
    LRDE are impressive.
    R. Kuloor, Outstanding Scientist, LRDE, explained
    that the BFSR located the position of the target
    with the help of electromagnetic waves and
    displayed the image of the target on the control
    and display unit. So the radar can be left
    unattended, he said. “We can see the action in
    real time.” As he was talking the audio Doppler
    picked up the sound of the siren of an ambulance
    that came within its range.
    To detect aerial targets such as helicopters,
    unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), remotely
    piloted vehicles (RPVs) or fighter aircraft, the LRDE
    has designed a radar system called Bharani. The
    radar can be transported in a vehicle, as an
    under-slung of a helicopter, or on a mule. The
    Army was keen that this kind of short-range
    radar should be developed for deployment in
    mountainous terrain in Jammu and Kashmir and
    in the north-east region, M. Ramanjeneyulu, LRDE
    scientist, said.
    Bharani weighs 165 kg and its petals can be
    assembled in 10 minutes. The Army has accepted
    the radar and it is under production. “Bharani can
    be installed in any place, even in a bunker and in
    uneven places. It can withstand strong winds in
    hilly areas,” Ramanjeneyulu explained.
    The backbone of India's air defence is the vehicle-
    mounted Rohini medium-range radar, which can
    detect 200 targets simultaneously. It can detect
    fixed-wing aircraft flying at a distance of 200 km
    at a height of 18 km. It can be deployed and
    decamped in 30 minutes. “If Sagar Samrat [the
    Oil and Natural Gas Corporation's offshore oil rig
    production platform] has to be protected against
    aerial attacks, we need this type of radars,”
    Varadarajan said.

    JAISWAL Senior Member Senior Member

    Mar 13, 2010
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    part- 3
    Revathi is a 3D medium-range radar installed on
    naval ships. It can detect sea-surface targets 80
    km away, fighter-aircraft 150 km away, and
    cruise missiles at a distance of 40 km. The
    Tactical Control Radar (TCR), an avatar of Rohini,
    is built to suit the Army's requirements.
    Any modern radar searches for, detects and
    tracks a target precisely and provides information
    on its speed and height. It does this by
    mechanical scanning or by rotating its antenna. In
    a phased-array radar, the requirements are even
    more stringent.
    Rajendra boasts of an electronic scanning array. It
    can perform multiple functions – it keeps
    surveillance over the sky, searches for the target,
    acquires it and tracks it. It can guide in real time 12
    Akash missiles towards intruders until the
    warhead explodes. Rajendra can simultaneously
    do precision tracking of four targets. Its
    instrumented range is 80 km and height
    coverage is 18 km. It has an IFF system to
    identify a target as a friend or foe.
    “Rajendra is a success story. The Army and the
    Air Force have placed bulk orders for it, probably
    the biggest such orders. It has given a fillip to the
    Indian defence industry,” said Varadarajan.
    A derivative of Rajendra is Swathi, which was
    developed in the aftermath of the Kargil conflict.
    When shells are fired from an enemy artillery gun
    or mortar, the WLR will track their trajectory and
    thus identify the gun's location. It can locate, in a
    few seconds, large mortars positioned 20 km
    away and guns positioned 30 km away. “This
    radar can see up to seven shells at the same time.
    The WLR, in its secondary role, can track the fall
    of shots from our own weapons to give
    corrections to our fire,” said R.V. Narayana,
    Project Director of Swathi. Swathi went through
    extensive trials at the Army's test range in
    Pokhran in Rajasthan and its performance was
    found to be among the best in the world, he
    added. “We went for concurrent engineering
    where the development, user and production
    agencies worked together from day one. Within
    two months of proving the prototype, the
    production model went for user trials,” he said.
    Swathi has been cleared for production and is
    being inducted into the Army.
    An ambitious programme under way is the
    development of the Arudhra radar system for the
    IAF. It has a rotating, electronic scanning array. It
    can detect intruding aircraft flying more than 300
    km away and at altitudes ranging from 30 m to
    30 km. Arudhra is vital for India's air defence and
    will be useful for network-centric warfare.
    Under development against specific requirement
    is a low-level, transportable radar called Ashwini,
    for automatic detection and tracking of
    helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, UAVs and RPVs.
    Ashwini will take the place of Rohini when the
    latter's production is completed.
    The LRDE is developing a Coastal Surveillance
    Radar (CSR) to track shipping vessels, small boats
    and trawlers in rough sea and bad weather
    conditions. “This is a challenging area,” said
    Kuloor. The challenge is in resolution of small-
    sized, closely spaced targets in a sea clutter. The
    CSR can track even catamarans, which do not
    have a big radar cross section. The CSR's
    purpose is to track ultra-small objects, resolve
    and identify them, Kuloor added. The radar's
    coverage is 30 km.
    Aslesha has been developed for deployment in
    high-altitude areas such as Leh and Kargil. The
    system was tested in -300 C in Leh. “It has been
    designed in such a way that it can be deployed in
    a place where there is no human access,” said
    Anil Kumar Singh, Scientist, LRDE, and Project
    Director, Aslesha. The radar can be assembled in
    20 minutes without using a tool. Its various parts
    can be snapped together into place. It can be
    dismantled into small parts and transported.
    Aslesha has 18 antennae and its height coverage
    is 20,000 feet (6,000m). “If it is installed on a
    hilltop, it can look down. If it is deployed in a
    valley, it can look up. What is special is that this
    radar is 100 per cent indigenous. All technologies
    [that went into its making] were developed in
    India,” Anil Kumar Singh said. A fibre-optic cable
    connects the radar to the operator's computer in
    the bunker a kilometre away. It has an IFF
    system. The IAF has ordered the supply of 21
    Aslesha radars.
    Anil Kumar Singh, who is also Project Director for
    the Active Electronically Scanning Array (AESA)
    radar, called it “an ambitious project”. The project
    was approved in January. The main role of the
    radar, which will be integrated with the fighter
    aircraft, is to direct the fire accurately from the
    aircraft. It will feature advanced electronic
    counter, counter measures (ECCMs). The radar
    will direct the fire from air-to-air, air-to-ground
    and air-to-sea missiles.
    “We have taken a lot of initiatives to bring out
    several contemporary radars to meet the
    requirements of the Services,” Varadarajan said.

    JAISWAL Senior Member Senior Member

    Mar 13, 2010
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    now from the above artical in part-3 in last para.--
    Anil Kumar Singh, who is also Project Director for the Active Electronically Scanning Array (AESA) radar, called it “an ambitious project”. The project was approved in January. The main role of the
    radar, which will be integrated with the fighter aircraft, is to direct the fire accurately from the aircraft. It will feature advanced electronic counter, counter measures (ECCMs). The radar will direct the fire from air-to-air, air-to-ground and air-to-sea missiles.

    In here we can see that it is first time an offical confermation of ongoing AESA project and implementation is acknowledged.
    A chauhan likes this.
  6. sayareakd

    sayareakd Moderator Moderator

    Feb 17, 2009
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    too bad they didnt post any info about LRTR which is crown jewel of our radar.

    JAISWAL Senior Member Senior Member

    Mar 13, 2010
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    ASLESHA, THE LOW-LEVEL light-weight radar
    THE VEHICLE-MOUNTED mediumrange Rohini radar.

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