Okay this topic I'm pulling out from my gut feeling and is a bit absurd perhaps. But my hypothesis is that through history the Mughals attacked and the settled in India. The brains among that community leaving their country of origin mostly and being a fabric of India. Now this is not an absolute statement- but when I look at Pakistan and Middle East mostly- where are the innovators (others than odds and ends) compared to India? -- gone are the greatest civilizations of science and commerce from those areas. If it was not for OIL then the middle east and most 99.99% of the islamic countries would be Rawanda. Did India benefit from the " brainer" class coming to India? This is NOT about opening your markets - Look at Pakistan- they actually emulated the American system with open markets way before India, they even call their politicians senators (am I right about that) - were heavily influenced by America. Yet there isnâ€™t any innovators there (again not the odd and end cases). I feel looking at India and its Muslims they seem to have way more innovators, business minded folks and just smarter of any Muslim population anywhere. Question: You think it had to do with India in an absurd way getting the advantage of the brain drain from way back in that era. That the smart Muslims stayed back instead of going to Pakistan too?