World Wide Aircraft Carrier Analysis

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by A.V., May 12, 2010.

  1. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    There is no hard and fast precise definition of an "aircraft carrier" and some smaller aviation related ships are not included here. The Italian San Giorgio class small dock landing ships and Japan's Osumi class Landing Ship Tank (LST) resemble diminuative aircraft carriers, but lack a hangar deck which would provide an enclosed maintenance area. Although Helicopter Destroyers such as Italy's Vittorio Veneto and Japan's Haruna and Shirane have hangars, these hybrid vessels are clearly outside any reasonable definition of an aircraft carrier.

    The United Kingdom plans construction of a pair of CVF Queen Elizabeth class CTOL big deck carriers, and France has decided to build a conventionally-powered Second Aircraft Carrier to pair with the Charles de Gaulle. These ships will have a displacement of upwards of 60,000 tons, surpassing American amphibious assault ships.

    Negotiations between Russia and India began in 1994 for the sale of the 45,500 tons full load Admiral Gorshkov, and on 20 January 2004 it was announced that India and Russia had signed a $1.6 billion deal finalizing the sale, with delivery expected in 2008 [by 2007 delayed to possibly 2011]. In April 2005 India began construction of the 37,500-ton displacement Air Defense Ship indigenous carrier, with delivery expected no sooner than the year 2012.

    A number of medium sized amphibious assault ships are currently under construction, including the Italian Luigi Einaudi [NUM], four "13,500 ton" [light] ships in Japan, a pair of Mistral [NTCD] in France, and the Buque de Proyección Estratégica in Spain. In early 2004 the Netherlands expressed interest in acquiring an underway replinishment ship with features similar to those of the Spanish Buque de Proyección Estratégica and the UK's e Ocean. In August 1994 Australia announced plans to evaluate the Mistral [NTCD]and Buque de Proyección Estratégica for possible purchase of a pair of units, with delivery expected around 2012. These ships all have a displacement of roughly 20,000 tons.

    Argentina no longer operates an aircraft carrier, having paid off the 25° de Mayo in January of 1999, at which time she was towed away for scrapping in India by March 2000. Australia no longer operates an aircraft carrier, having decommissioned HMAS Melbourne (ex HMAS Majestic) 30 June 1982. She was sold in February 1985, to China United Shipbuilding Company, and reportedly broken up. But in January 2001, it was reported that China has been using her flight deck for pilot training. Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands also operated carriers in the mid-20th century, but gave it up many decades ago.

    Despite a great deal of speculation, there is scant evidence that China is actively working on an aircraft carrier. Altough the Shichang Multi-Role Aviation Ship is one of the largest vessels in the People's Liberation Army Navy fleet, it would be a bit of a stretch to class this ship as an aircraft carrier.


    http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/carriers.htm

    [​IMG]
     
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  3. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    Queen Elizabeth class

    A new larger class of Aircraft Carrier, as a replacement for the three existing Invincible Class ships. Initial estimates are that the ships could be 300 metres long and displace about 40,000 tons capable of carrying up to 50 aircraft, resulting in a ship that would be twice as large as the current Invincible class. These carriers are likely to be among the biggest ships ever built for the Royal Navy.

    CVF is a flagship programme for the UK and central to the commitment in the Strategic Defence Review to modern, flexible and highly capable forces. The two larger and more capable vessels will replace the current Invincible class aircraft carriers. Assessment work is investigating aircraft carrier design options. These include designs capable of accommodating short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) and conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) aircraft.

    They will be conventionally powered. The carrier design taken forward will be dependent on the final choice of aircraft that the UK buys. There are two carrier-borne versions of JSF planned: one taking off using a ski-jump and landing vertically; the other launched with a catapult and landing with the aid of an arrestor wire.

    The requirement for the Future Aircraft Carrier (CVF) was endorsed in the Strategic Defence Review (SDR). The need for rapidly deployable forces with the reach and self-sufficiency to act independently of host-nation support confirmed the requirement for aircraft carriers, but SDR also concluded that the ability to deploy offensive air- power would be central to future force projection operations, with carriers operating the largest possible range of aircraft in the widest possible range of roles.

    The current Invincible Class of carriers were designed for Cold War nti-submarine warfare operations. With helicopters and a limited air-defence capability provided by a relatively small number of embarked Sea Harriers, it was judged that this capability would no longer meet future UK requirements. It was therefore decided to replace the Invincible Class with two larger and more capable aircraft carriers able to operate up to 50 aircraft, both fixed-wing and helicopters.

    It is planned that CVF's offensive air-power will be provided primarily by the Future Carrier Borne Aircraft (FCBA). The carrier air group will also operate the Future Organic Airborne Early Warning (FOAEW) system together with helicopters from all three Services in a variety of roles.
     
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    Deuxième Porte-Avions / DPA / PA2

    France has lacked the capacity to ensure long-distance air coverage during the Charles-de-Gaulle’s maintenance cycles or during other periods when the carrier is not available for active duty (approximately 35% of the time). In 2015, the Charles-de-Gaulle will be taken out of service for an extensive maintenance overhaul. By beginning the construction of a second carrier in 2005/6, the French hope to take delivery by 2014, meaning the new ship is likely to be operational by the time the older vessel goes off line for repairs.

    The use of two aicraft carriers guarantees a permanence presence in a zone of conflict withough interfering with rotations or training. The aero-naval group scheduled for 2015, will be composed solely of the "Rafale" aircraft, equiped with fighting capabilities far superior to ones currently available. These aircraft require an aircraft carrier adapted to not only to them but also the the eventual mutations in embarked aviation capabilities in the foreseable future for the horizon 2050, specifically as far as the use of UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles) are concerned.

    Two aircraft carriers are necessary to ensure the operational permanence of the air and sea group which makes it possible the political authority to have a capacity sovereign and always available of projection of power starting from the sea.

    With the "Charles Of Gaulle", France has such a capacity during as well as possible 65% of time, situation which will perdurera for ten years more and will have to be taken into account by the political and operational decision makers. For the periods of programmed maintenance or in the event of unavailability of the " Charles Of Gaulle ", the second aircraft carrier ensures the permanence of the capacities of projection of power long distance starting from the sea and the control of the air-sea field.

    The placement of two aircraft carriers guarantees the permanence of the action on the zone of engagement. The transits for the changings as well as the activity of drive can also be carried out without obérer the operational capacities.

    Although sometimes described a a sister ship to the "Charles Of Gaulle", the second aircraft carrier will in fact be considerably larger, with a larger landing deck and hangar. It will also incoporate ammunition stores and munition preparation areas adapted to the need for the operations being conducted, with heavily charged configurations, adpated fuel storage volumes, aeronautic workshops, and areas specifically tasked with the stockpiling of aeronautical materials in support of the vessel's aerial group. This results in a fully loaded displacement of 59,000 tons, versus 40,600 tons for the CDG.

    On 13 February 2004 the French government announced that it had selected the conventional propulsion option for its second aircraft carrier, rather than building an additional nuclear propulsion carrier. The need for an aicraft carrier of larger in size than the Charles de Gaulle, able to achieve a speed of 27 knots, would have necessitated important modifications in the propulsion system as a result of the increased tonnage. This modification would have resulted as well in modifying the safety norms established for the Charles de Gaulle either through the use of existing boiler rooms with expanded capacities or an increase in the number of boiler rooms. That particular option, while technically feasible, was not judged financially viable as a result of the potentially high developmental costs involved.

    The analysis of the recent uses of a modern carrier group having shown, that the frequency of resupplying and the average duration of each operation are only slightly increased with conventional propulsion, while being rather determined by the resupplying of fuel for the aircraft, munitions and food.

    "This choice ...offers the best perspectives for cooperation with the United Kingdom," Chirac said at the time. But BAE, under contract to build two aircraft carriers for the Royal Navy, told the UK Ministry of Defence that bringing the French into the project could cause long delays and would upset America.

    The decision for conventional vs. nuclear propulsion was driven largely by the desire to achieve economies of scale; the U.K. is currently building 2 aircraft carriers, via a working partnership between the French firm Thales and British BAe. Sharing the costs of ship design, commonly procuring large equipment like the propulsion systems and holding common equipment trials brings down the per-ship cost substantially. After numerous comparative studies, it became apparent that the overall costs for the construction of a conventional vessel would be 10% less than for a nuclear vessel, due also to long-term lower maintenance and crew support costs. Finally, the conventional design was more adaptable over time to suit the needs of future aircraft and missions, with an outlook to 2050.

    France and Britain have a long-standing desire to maintain their strong bilateral cooperation in the naval defense area, and the opportunity to collaborate on building an aircraft carrier certainly was politically attractive; Franco-British defense cooperation is considered a key element of European defense capability.

    The UK’s requirement is for ships designed for the short or vertical take-offs of their F-35 JSFs, whereas the French plan on equipping their carrier with Rafales and future drones. However, at the time when the British Navy made its decision, it purposely chose a design that could easily be adapted to permit either vertical or catapulted take-offs. The French MoD also found many other areas of convergence in terms of requirements with the British design, not least of which is the delivery calendar.

    Finally, France and the U.K are actively seeking areas in which to improve fleet interoperability, especially during EU or NATO exercises. France’s flagship firms Thales and DCN (Direction des Constructions Navales) will play a major role alongside BAe in the construction of the vessel, and claim to be able to deliver the ship for less than 2 billion euros.

    Many decisions still needed to be made; the issue has been more determining overall operational requirements rather than precise size, level of self-protection, off-load capability onto escort frigates and level of systems capability. Notification of the main contract would be made by the end of 2006, with contracts for definition studies issued earlier, starting in 2004.

    There had been talk of an international production program involving PA 2 and the British CVF or Queen Elizabeth class, however, there are believed to be too many differences in requirement. However, areas of industrial cooperation are emerging and a joint industrial report is being used to examine these.

    While both sides have still to confirm the final propulsion arrangements they both agree that an electrical propulsion system based upon combined gas turbines and diesels and joint procurement of machinery seems extremely likely.

    The second area of potential cooperation appears to be in aviation support systems. These could include equipment such as elevators and landing aids.

    The third area appears to be in ship infrastructure such as fire fighting systems and hotel equipment, and here a considerable number of systems and equipment have been identified. It is even possible that joint accommodation modules could be produced.

    In June 2004, DCN and Thales announced their decision to combine their strengths and set up an integrated Prime Contract Office to jointly lead the future French aircraft carrier programme. A jointly owned company will assume the role of prime contractor on this programme. This company will have a four-member board of directors, with equal representation by DCN and Thales, chaired by a DCN nominee. This company, which is currently being set up, will lead the PA2 program from conception to completion and support implementation of cooperation with the United Kingdom’s future aircraft carrier programme. The new joint company will be 65% owned by DCN and 35% owned by Thales Naval France.

    On 25 January 2005 the French defence minister, Michèle Alliot-Marie, announced the launch of the design phase for France’s second aircraft carrier (PA2). This important step marked the end of the preparatory study phase, in which DCN and Thales have been closely involved. The studies, which began in June 2004 and were completed in the summer of 2005, include risk reduction studies and an evaluation of opportunities for cooperation between the British and French aircraft carrier programmes. Once these studies have been completed, the final design definition phase will begin.

    The Juliette project consists of a ship of 60,000 tons purely French design, inherited the Romeo project. The Juliette project ship has a single small island. It is 285 meters long with a beam of 72 meters. Its has a displacement of 60,000 tons and a speed of 27 knots. The aeronautical installations are similar, but the personnel more than on the CVF FR (a crew of 1,770 people).

    The studies undertaken since early 2005 have focused on the opportunities for cooperation between the French PA2 and the British CVF programs. The studies undertaken since early 2005 concluded that the basic 55,000-65,000t CVF design by the BAE-Thales Alliance team could meet the French Navy's requirements with only limited tailoring. The proposal for an arrangement based on joint procurement - with the CVF design as the baseline - was presented to the DGA and the UK Defence Procurement Agency (DPA) on 26 September 2005. The hull would be built by Chantiers de l'Atlantique at Saint Nazaire, with fitting out by DCN at Brest. Chantiers de l'Atlantique can build larger ships than a CVF -- in 2003 they built the 345 m Queen Mary 2. This allows the whole ship to be built, rather than using superblock assembly construction techniques.

    The CVF FR is a large vessel equipped with two small islands with a displacement of 65.000 tons fully loaded. It is 283 meters long with a beam of 78 meters. Compared to the Charles of Gaulle, this aircraft carrier is 60% larger (40,000 tons for the CDG and 261.5 meters length). Its crew will be on the other hand is smaller with 1650 people against 1950. Equipped with two elevators and two longer catapults (90 meters), it can embark an air group made up of 32 Rafales (against 24), 3 Hawkeye and 5 heavy helicopters. The propulsion, entirely electric, is planned for a speed of 26.3 knots.

    For its future aircraft carrier, France will obviously use the Rafale. As of 2004 a total of 10 version F1 (interception), were on line. They belong to the first order with Dassault in 1999. As of 2005, and until 2008, a second contract will see the delivery of 16 other planes. A third section (2008-2012) will relate to 12 more. There will remain 22 apparatuses to deliver to reach 60 airliners (including 15 F2 standard with air-to-ground and air-to-sea vocation and 35 with the F3 standard, i.e. general-purpose). On the other side of the English Channel, the situation is definitely more complicated. London had envisaged to be equipped from 2012 with an about sixty Join Combat Aircraft (the British name of the American JSF) in the F-35B short take-off and landing version (). The use of this aircraft involves one of the principal differences between the French and Royal Navy carriers -- the later must be equipped with a ramp and had neither catapults, nor arresting cables.

    On 12 December 2005 French defence procurement agency DGA formally awarded DCN and Thales a "relay contract" to continue their work on the design of the planned 'PA2' aircraft carrier. This marked a major milestone in the design of the second carrier for the French Navy. The new contract, worth €20 million, will enable the PA2 team to proceed with a detailed preliminary design of a "tailored CVF". These studies will be undertaken by MOPA2, the integrated DCN/Thales prime contract office. The milestone marking the end of the design phase and the start of the production phase is scheduled for late 2006. France announced 15 December 2005 a consolidation of its two main warship makers in a move that could pave the way for wider consolidation in Europe's shipbuilding sector. Defense electronics company Thales SA agreed to transfer its naval assets to state-owned DCN and pay up to 150 million euros ($180 million) for a 25 percent stake in the company. Under the terms of the deal, to be completed in mid-2006, DCN will acquire Thales' naval assets including its stakes in their existing joint ventures, Armaris and MOPA2 - the unit established to build a second aircraft carrier for the French navy.
     
  5. A.V.

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    Deuxième Porte-Avions / DPA / PA2

    France has lacked the capacity to ensure long-distance air coverage during the Charles-de-Gaulle’s maintenance cycles or during other periods when the carrier is not available for active duty (approximately 35% of the time). In 2015, the Charles-de-Gaulle will be taken out of service for an extensive maintenance overhaul. By beginning the construction of a second carrier in 2005/6, the French hope to take delivery by 2014, meaning the new ship is likely to be operational by the time the older vessel goes off line for repairs.

    The use of two aicraft carriers guarantees a permanence presence in a zone of conflict withough interfering with rotations or training. The aero-naval group scheduled for 2015, will be composed solely of the "Rafale" aircraft, equiped with fighting capabilities far superior to ones currently available. These aircraft require an aircraft carrier adapted to not only to them but also the the eventual mutations in embarked aviation capabilities in the foreseable future for the horizon 2050, specifically as far as the use of UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles) are concerned.

    Two aircraft carriers are necessary to ensure the operational permanence of the air and sea group which makes it possible the political authority to have a capacity sovereign and always available of projection of power starting from the sea.

    With the "Charles Of Gaulle", France has such a capacity during as well as possible 65% of time, situation which will perdurera for ten years more and will have to be taken into account by the political and operational decision makers. For the periods of programmed maintenance or in the event of unavailability of the " Charles Of Gaulle ", the second aircraft carrier ensures the permanence of the capacities of projection of power long distance starting from the sea and the control of the air-sea field.

    The placement of two aircraft carriers guarantees the permanence of the action on the zone of engagement. The transits for the changings as well as the activity of drive can also be carried out without obérer the operational capacities.

    Although sometimes described a a sister ship to the "Charles Of Gaulle", the second aircraft carrier will in fact be considerably larger, with a larger landing deck and hangar. It will also incoporate ammunition stores and munition preparation areas adapted to the need for the operations being conducted, with heavily charged configurations, adpated fuel storage volumes, aeronautic workshops, and areas specifically tasked with the stockpiling of aeronautical materials in support of the vessel's aerial group. This results in a fully loaded displacement of 59,000 tons, versus 40,600 tons for the CDG.

    On 13 February 2004 the French government announced that it had selected the conventional propulsion option for its second aircraft carrier, rather than building an additional nuclear propulsion carrier. The need for an aicraft carrier of larger in size than the Charles de Gaulle, able to achieve a speed of 27 knots, would have necessitated important modifications in the propulsion system as a result of the increased tonnage. This modification would have resulted as well in modifying the safety norms established for the Charles de Gaulle either through the use of existing boiler rooms with expanded capacities or an increase in the number of boiler rooms. That particular option, while technically feasible, was not judged financially viable as a result of the potentially high developmental costs involved.

    The analysis of the recent uses of a modern carrier group having shown, that the frequency of resupplying and the average duration of each operation are only slightly increased with conventional propulsion, while being rather determined by the resupplying of fuel for the aircraft, munitions and food.

    "This choice ...offers the best perspectives for cooperation with the United Kingdom," Chirac said at the time. But BAE, under contract to build two aircraft carriers for the Royal Navy, told the UK Ministry of Defence that bringing the French into the project could cause long delays and would upset America.

    The decision for conventional vs. nuclear propulsion was driven largely by the desire to achieve economies of scale; the U.K. is currently building 2 aircraft carriers, via a working partnership between the French firm Thales and British BAe. Sharing the costs of ship design, commonly procuring large equipment like the propulsion systems and holding common equipment trials brings down the per-ship cost substantially. After numerous comparative studies, it became apparent that the overall costs for the construction of a conventional vessel would be 10% less than for a nuclear vessel, due also to long-term lower maintenance and crew support costs. Finally, the conventional design was more adaptable over time to suit the needs of future aircraft and missions, with an outlook to 2050.

    France and Britain have a long-standing desire to maintain their strong bilateral cooperation in the naval defense area, and the opportunity to collaborate on building an aircraft carrier certainly was politically attractive; Franco-British defense cooperation is considered a key element of European defense capability.

    The UK’s requirement is for ships designed for the short or vertical take-offs of their F-35 JSFs, whereas the French plan on equipping their carrier with Rafales and future drones. However, at the time when the British Navy made its decision, it purposely chose a design that could easily be adapted to permit either vertical or catapulted take-offs. The French MoD also found many other areas of convergence in terms of requirements with the British design, not least of which is the delivery calendar.

    Finally, France and the U.K are actively seeking areas in which to improve fleet interoperability, especially during EU or NATO exercises. France’s flagship firms Thales and DCN (Direction des Constructions Navales) will play a major role alongside BAe in the construction of the vessel, and claim to be able to deliver the ship for less than 2 billion euros.

    Many decisions still needed to be made; the issue has been more determining overall operational requirements rather than precise size, level of self-protection, off-load capability onto escort frigates and level of systems capability. Notification of the main contract would be made by the end of 2006, with contracts for definition studies issued earlier, starting in 2004.

    There had been talk of an international production program involving PA 2 and the British CVF or Queen Elizabeth class, however, there are believed to be too many differences in requirement. However, areas of industrial cooperation are emerging and a joint industrial report is being used to examine these.

    While both sides have still to confirm the final propulsion arrangements they both agree that an electrical propulsion system based upon combined gas turbines and diesels and joint procurement of machinery seems extremely likely.

    The second area of potential cooperation appears to be in aviation support systems. These could include equipment such as elevators and landing aids.

    The third area appears to be in ship infrastructure such as fire fighting systems and hotel equipment, and here a considerable number of systems and equipment have been identified. It is even possible that joint accommodation modules could be produced.

    In June 2004, DCN and Thales announced their decision to combine their strengths and set up an integrated Prime Contract Office to jointly lead the future French aircraft carrier programme. A jointly owned company will assume the role of prime contractor on this programme. This company will have a four-member board of directors, with equal representation by DCN and Thales, chaired by a DCN nominee. This company, which is currently being set up, will lead the PA2 program from conception to completion and support implementation of cooperation with the United Kingdom’s future aircraft carrier programme. The new joint company will be 65% owned by DCN and 35% owned by Thales Naval France.

    On 25 January 2005 the French defence minister, Michèle Alliot-Marie, announced the launch of the design phase for France’s second aircraft carrier (PA2). This important step marked the end of the preparatory study phase, in which DCN and Thales have been closely involved. The studies, which began in June 2004 and were completed in the summer of 2005, include risk reduction studies and an evaluation of opportunities for cooperation between the British and French aircraft carrier programmes. Once these studies have been completed, the final design definition phase will begin.

    The Juliette project consists of a ship of 60,000 tons purely French design, inherited the Romeo project. The Juliette project ship has a single small island. It is 285 meters long with a beam of 72 meters. Its has a displacement of 60,000 tons and a speed of 27 knots. The aeronautical installations are similar, but the personnel more than on the CVF FR (a crew of 1,770 people).

    The studies undertaken since early 2005 have focused on the opportunities for cooperation between the French PA2 and the British CVF programs. The studies undertaken since early 2005 concluded that the basic 55,000-65,000t CVF design by the BAE-Thales Alliance team could meet the French Navy's requirements with only limited tailoring. The proposal for an arrangement based on joint procurement - with the CVF design as the baseline - was presented to the DGA and the UK Defence Procurement Agency (DPA) on 26 September 2005. The hull would be built by Chantiers de l'Atlantique at Saint Nazaire, with fitting out by DCN at Brest. Chantiers de l'Atlantique can build larger ships than a CVF -- in 2003 they built the 345 m Queen Mary 2. This allows the whole ship to be built, rather than using superblock assembly construction techniques.

    The CVF FR is a large vessel equipped with two small islands with a displacement of 65.000 tons fully loaded. It is 283 meters long with a beam of 78 meters. Compared to the Charles of Gaulle, this aircraft carrier is 60% larger (40,000 tons for the CDG and 261.5 meters length). Its crew will be on the other hand is smaller with 1650 people against 1950. Equipped with two elevators and two longer catapults (90 meters), it can embark an air group made up of 32 Rafales (against 24), 3 Hawkeye and 5 heavy helicopters. The propulsion, entirely electric, is planned for a speed of 26.3 knots.

    For its future aircraft carrier, France will obviously use the Rafale. As of 2004 a total of 10 version F1 (interception), were on line. They belong to the first order with Dassault in 1999. As of 2005, and until 2008, a second contract will see the delivery of 16 other planes. A third section (2008-2012) will relate to 12 more. There will remain 22 apparatuses to deliver to reach 60 airliners (including 15 F2 standard with air-to-ground and air-to-sea vocation and 35 with the F3 standard, i.e. general-purpose). On the other side of the English Channel, the situation is definitely more complicated. London had envisaged to be equipped from 2012 with an about sixty Join Combat Aircraft (the British name of the American JSF) in the F-35B short take-off and landing version (). The use of this aircraft involves one of the principal differences between the French and Royal Navy carriers -- the later must be equipped with a ramp and had neither catapults, nor arresting cables.

    On 12 December 2005 French defence procurement agency DGA formally awarded DCN and Thales a "relay contract" to continue their work on the design of the planned 'PA2' aircraft carrier. This marked a major milestone in the design of the second carrier for the French Navy. The new contract, worth €20 million, will enable the PA2 team to proceed with a detailed preliminary design of a "tailored CVF". These studies will be undertaken by MOPA2, the integrated DCN/Thales prime contract office. The milestone marking the end of the design phase and the start of the production phase is scheduled for late 2006. France announced 15 December 2005 a consolidation of its two main warship makers in a move that could pave the way for wider consolidation in Europe's shipbuilding sector. Defense electronics company Thales SA agreed to transfer its naval assets to state-owned DCN and pay up to 150 million euros ($180 million) for a 25 percent stake in the company. Under the terms of the deal, to be completed in mid-2006, DCN will acquire Thales' naval assets including its stakes in their existing joint ventures, Armaris and MOPA2 - the unit established to build a second aircraft carrier for the French navy.
     
  6. A.V.

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    BPE Buque de Proyección Estratégica
    The Spanish newspaper El Pais reported 01 March 2010 that Spain was also being considered as a potential supplier to Russia. According to the Spanish newspaper, Paris and Madrid are conducting a tough competitive battle. While the Spanish ship is better than the French one in a number of ways, France is more influential, and is trying to use its influence to obtain a profitable contract with Moscow. The newspaper reported that Russia is choosing between French BPC (The Mistral-class landing platform dock ships) and Spanish BPE (a strategic projection vessel) Juan Carlos I. A delegation of high-ranking Russian Navy officials had recently visited Ferrol shipyards of Navantia, manufacturing company, located in La Coruna. Some see the Spanish vessel as having better technical features, it is larger and has a bigger capacity than the French one. The Juan Carlos I won a competition with in 2007, during an international competition held by the Australian Navy. At the end of the competition Australia decided to purchase two ships similar to the Spanish one.

    In the international organisations where Spain participates, the enhancement of the strategic projection capability is a priority within the military defence planning process which has been translated into the Strategic Defence Review. In order to carry out these missions, it is necessary to promote the procurement of adequate means, among them, the shipbuilding of a Strategic Projection Ship. The Project Definition of a warship is a complex engineering process due to the great number of activities involved. The PAPS method (Phased Armaments Programming System) was used.

    The Spanish Navy and Izar defined the technical and operative requirements for a ship that will be essentially multipurpose: its construction was developed in an historical frame characterized by decreasing budgetary availability and the gradual assumption of international responsibilities on the part of Spain, that are materialized in the unfolding of their Armed Forces in scenes in many distant occasions of the national territory.

    The Buque de Proyección Estratégica - Ship of Strategic Projection (well-known also by abbreviations LL or BPE) is called on to play an important role in the Fleet. This platform not only supports the mobility of the Marines (it will replace the popular "cornudas", L-41 Hernán Corte's and L-42 Pizarro), but that will possibly act as a platform for carrier-based aviation, and as a strategic transport of the Ground forces is required.

    According to the ship's characteristics, the cargo capacity of personnel of the ship will be of around 900 Naval infantry, with their equipment and elements of support. The Juan Carlos I will count on multi-functional areas of garage and hangar of light material (standardized vehicles, containers, helicopters, etc.) of 3,000 ms 2 of surface, with capacity for 6,000 load t. In the immediately inferior level is a garage for heavy vehicles, of 3,000 ms2, that communicates to stern with the dock, that has capacity similar to the one of the LPD of the Galicia class, being able to lodge up to four LCM-1e boats or one LCAC.

    In addition to that first and main mission, the Juan Carlos I could be used as a complementary platform with the aircraft carrier Prince of Asturias in air operations, or alternatively, during the periods of immobilization programmed for the ship standard of the Navy. For it, the Ship of Strategic Projection will count on a flight deck of 185 ms of length with Ski-jump at the prow, 6 points for airplanes of the Harrier /JSF types, or medium helicopters, or 4 points for heavy helicopters of the Chinook type. The main armament will be the Harrier airplanes and in addition it will have capacity to embark 1,200 soldiers and 12 helicopters, with an internal dock for landing craft.

    This new ship is an intelligent mixture of aircraft carrier and assault ship and gives the Spanish Navy an operational capacity of enormous strategic importance. The novel aspect of this ship is that the ship has been designed for the first time taking care of the possibility of operation with elements and material of the Ground forces, being prepared to operate from its cover and to transport in its hangars heavy apparatuses of the Airmobile forceses of the Tierra Army (FAMET) or to transport in its warehouses and to disembark to heavy vehicles of the bearing of the cars battle Leopard that will equip the Army.

    As far as technical innovations, this project contemplates for the first time in a unit of the Spanish Navy the use of diesel-electric propulsion, connected - for the first time also not to helices, but to a pair of azimuthal pods. The use of POD type propellers is not new in the Spanish Navy. The aircraft-carrier “Príncipe de Asturias” and the FFG frigates use the same systems but are just auxiliary mechanisms and are less powerful. In agreement with current shipbuilding trends which demand high manoeuvrability and the initial feasibility studies, the ship is conceived as a “totally electric ship” (AES) with POD-type azimuthally propulsion propellers operated by alternating current electric engines. The propulsion electric engines are fuelled by two diesel engine generators and a gas turbo-generator group.

    In the naval scope, the strategic projection meant a real capacity to take to the naval action and its influence on earth to the chosen coastal scene, to be able to act in him with freedom of action and during the necessary time, and to cooperate to the projection and support of specific means of other Armies, specially the one of Earth. This capacity constitutes the fundamental contribution of the Navy to the joint and combined strategy as far as dissuasion, crisis management and answer in case of training.
     
  7. A.V.

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    San Giorgio
    San Giorgio class small dock landing ships provide roll-on/roll-off landing capability for land embarkation; air lift through the use off high capacity aircraft such as Chinook-type helicopters; and transportation by sea to shore, using the ship's own systems and landing ships for landing on unprepared shores.

    The units of the San Giorgio class have been conceived to function as the transport of staff, means and materials for operations of military character but also for the aid of populations hit from natural calamities. They have the ability to transport, beyond to just the crew, approximately 350 men of the Saint Regiment Mark, together to 36 " VCC1 " (armored vehicle from combat) along with vehicles of varied types.

    The lodging, with relative accessories and services, destined to the transported staff, can be employed for the shelter of evacuated persons. The ships are in a position to supplying all the sanitary services, necessary hospital workers and of catering in case of ready participation. They have a allagabile river basin for the spillage of the MTM (Motion Transport Average). The hidden of prow and the door concurs the disembarkation express of all self-moving means is on beach is on equipped docks. They are equipped, moreover, of a system of reclamation of the surface of the usable sea in case of serious episodes of pollution and of a system of distilation of sea water for sweet water production.

    The Italian San Giorgio class Landing Platform Dock Amphibious Transport Dock ship provides roll-on/roll-off landing capability for land embarkation; air lift through the use off high capacity aircraft such as Chinook-type helicopters; and transportation by sea to shore, using the ship's own systems and landing ships for landing on unprepared shores. The ship has hospital and accommodation facilities which provide the capability for peace time rescue and humanitarian operations. The ship is also fitted for transporting logistic equipment, for embarking trailers, containers and other materials. The San Giorgio is equipped for civil defence missions with drinking water production plant to produce 210 tons per day, facilities for the co-ordination of pollution control for decontamination of heavily oil polluted seas and capacity for expansion of the ship's hospital and medical facilities.

    The ship's armaments consist of a main gun, the OtoBreda 76/62 gun, which is installed on the gun deck at the bow of the ship. The gun fires 6 kg rounds at a maximum firing rate of over 80 rounds per minute to a target range of 8.5 nautical miles. The ship is also armed with two Oerlikon 20 mm machine guns for close defence. The bridge deck is accommodated in the island on the starboard side. The main flight deck which runs almost the length of the ship, has three helicopter landing spots. The ship can accommodate three Sea King SH-3D helicopters or five Agusta Bell AB-212 helicopters.

    The San Giorgio can lift a battalion of fully equipped troops, with up to 30 medium tanks such as the Leopard, or up to 36 tracked armoured vehicles type VCC-1. The stern floodable dock, measuring 20.5 x 7 metres, can accommodate three LCM (or MTM) landing craft each capable of transporting 30 tons of materiel. While the dock is not in use, a movable cover installed over the dock allows the passage of vehicles through the stern ramp to the pier. Three davits on the main deck are provided for the deployment of three LCVP (or MTP) landing craft and a patrol boat. A 30 ton lift and a two- hook travelling crane, each hook rated to carry 40 tons, are installed on the ship providing the capability of autonomous loading and unloading operations completely independent of harbour facilities.

    The San Giorgio is fitted with a bow ramp for missions involving amphibious (beach) landings. The stern door is constructed in two sections, the lower section is the dock gate providing direct access to the floodable dock. The upper section of the stern door is hinged at the level of the vehicle or garage deck and acts as the stern ramp for embarking or disembarking from the pier. The propulsion system provides a maximum continuous speed of 21 knots. At the economical speed of 16 knots the maximum range of the ship is 7500 nautical miles.


    Specifications
    Country ITALY
    Displacement 6,000 t
    Length 133.3 m
    Beam 20.05 m
    Draft 5.25 m
    Speed 22 kts
    Crew 17 fficers, 163 ratings
    Propulsion
    2 total Diesel motors GMT for 16.800 HP
    2 variable pitch blade propellers
    1 prow ducted propeller
    Armament
    1 76/62 milimeter gun OTO MELARA
    2 20/70mm machine-gun
    Capacity
    350 men, 36 tracked vehicles
    3 MTM, 3 MTP, 1 CPL;
    Aircraft 3 / 4 helicopters


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  8. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    Vittorio Veneto
    Third unit of the Andrea Doria class but strongly modified, begun service in 1970. Can carry up to 9 Agusta-Bell AB212 or 6 Agusta-Sikorsky ASH-3H Sea King. The characteristics of the the ship provide flexibility of employment in multiple assigned tasks, which include antiaircraft protection, antisubmarine and antiship protection of naval forces and convoys; antisubmarine warfare; and antiaircraft defense of a zone.

    Vittorio Veneto was refitted in the late 1980s. Six 40mm guns in twin turrets were added, and the Terrier missiles were removed and replaced by 40 Standard SM1 and 20 ASROC ASM. Two SPG-55C Standard fire control systems were added, as were 4 Otomat SSM launchers.

    She was decommissioned by 2002.

    Specifications
    Country ITALY
    Displacement 7,500 t
    Length 179.6 m
    Beam 19.42 m
    Draft
    Speed 31 kts
    Crew 53 Officers + 504 sailors
    Propulsion 4 boilers for one total power of approximately 73,000 HP
    Armament
    1 launcher TERRIER + ASROC
    1 TESEO missile system with 4 launchers
    8 76/62 MMI guns
    3 DART anti-missile systems with twin 40/70 machine-gun
    2 light torpedo MK 32 triple A7S torpedo
    1 105 milimeter SCLAR rocket launcher
    Helicopters 6 helicopters AB-212 A/S
     
  9. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    FORD CLASS



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    Designation: CVN
    Length: App 1100 ft
    Width: 250+ ft
    Beam: 135+ ft
    Displacement: 102,000 tons
    Propulsion: 2 nuclear reactors,
    4 shafts
    Speed: 30+ knots
    Crew: App. 4,600 (includes air crew)
    Airwing: 85 fixed, UAV, rotary
    Armament:
    - 2 X 16 ESS SAM
    - 2 X 21 RAM SAM
    - 4 X CIWS
    - 4 X .50 cal MG
    Elevators: 3
    Catapaults: 4
    Ships in class: 1
    CVN-78 USS Gerald R. Ford (Building)
    The new CVN21 aircraft carrier class has been designated the USS Gerald R. Ford class, and the first of class will be CVN-78, USS Gerald R. Ford. They will be the largest warships ever built. They will gradually, one by one in five to seven year increments, take over for the US Nimitz class carriers as the mainstay of the US Navy's power projection and sea lane protetction capabilities.
    Each of these vessels will carry an airwing of fixed wing aircraft, VSTOL aircraft, helicopters, and unamanned arial vehicles (UAV) that is larger and more powerful than many nation's complete air force. By having the resources, the experience, and the capability to operate eleven such vessels (where each vessel is surrounded by an extensive force of other surface and sub-surface combatants that make up each Carrier Strike Group (CSG)), the United States will remain the unchallenged, dominant sea force on earth.

    The USS George HW Bush, CVN-77, was christened on October 7, 2006, and replaced the USS Kitty Hawk, CV-63, in 2008. Although officially listed as a Nimitz class carrier, CVN-77 also represents a transformation step in US carrier development from the Nimitz class towards the CVN-21 program.

    http://www.jeffhead.com/worldwideaircraftcarriers/cvn21.htm

    Initial steel cutting for the USS Gerald R. Ford was accomplished in August of 2005. The keel laying is expected to occur in late 2009 or early 2010 and the vessel is expected to be commissioned in 2015. CVN-78 will replace the USS Enterprise, CVN-65, America's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier in that year. Among the innovations contemplated for the Ford class carriers, are:

    A much more efficent nuclear reactor system providing three times more power.
    Electromagnetic aircraft launch and recovery replacing current steam catapaults and current arrestor systems.
    A redesigned, more efficent, and more stealthy island.
    More automated systems, providing for reduced manpower requirements and more efficent aircraft weapons handling, battle management, and damage control operations.
    Potential exotic defensive weapons systems operating off of the increased electrical power.
    20% more sortie capability for the embarked airwing.
    25% more operational availability of the carrier.
    With these innovations, and the many others that will be developed into the new carrier, the US Navy is making a direct statement that its 21st century, next-generation carrier fleet will continue to have as its centerpiece large-deck, nuclear-powered vessels that can project power and protect sea lanes anywhere in the world, at any time
     
  10. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    NIMITZ CLASS

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    Designation: CVN
    Length: 1092 ft
    Width: 252 ft
    Beam: 134 ft
    Displacement: 102,000 tons
    Propulsion: 2 A4W Nuclear Reactors,
    4 shafts
    Speed: 30+ knots
    Crew: 5,984 (includes air crew)
    Airwing: 85 fixed, rotary
    Armament:
    - 3 X 8 Sea Sparrow SAM
    - 4 X 20mm Phalanx CIWS
    Elevators: 4
    Catapaults: 4
    Ships in class: 10
    CVN-68 USS Nimitz
    CVN-69 USS Dwight D. Eisenhower
    CVN-70 USS Carl Vinson
    CVN-71 USS Theodore Roosevelt
    CVN-72 USS Abraham Lincoln
    CVN-73 USS George Washington
    CVN-74 USS John C. Stennis
    CVN-75 USS Harry S. Truman
    CVN-76 USS Ronald Reagan
    CVN-77 George HW Bush
    The Nimitz class aircraft carriers are the largest warships ever built. They are the mainstay of the US Navy's power projection and sea lane protetction capabilities. Each of these vessels carries an airwing that is larger and more powerful than many nation's complete air force. By having the resources, the experience, and the apability to operate twelve such vessels (where each vessel is surrounded by an extensive force of other surface and sub-surface combatants that make up each Carrier Strike Group (CSG), the United States remains the unchallenged, dominant sea force on earth.
    The USS George HW Bush, CVN-77, represents a transformation step in US carrier development. In connection with her christening, the USS Kitty Hawk, CV-63 was retired from service. Many new features have been added to the USS Geroge HW Bush, leading to the more complete transformation represented by CVN-78 or, what is called the CVN-21 Class for the 21st Century, which will replace the USS Enterprise, CVN-65, America's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier in 2013. Among the inovations contemplated are:

    A much more effecient nuclear reactor system providing three times more power.
    Electromagnetic aircraft launch and recovery replacing current steam catapaults and current arrestor systems.
    A redesigned, more effecient, and more stealthy island.
    More auomated systems, providing for reduced manpower requirements and more efficient aircraft weapons handling, battle management, and damage control operations.
    Potential exotic defensive weapons systems operating off of the increased electrical power.
    20% more sortie capability for the embarjed airwing.
    25% more operational availability of the carrier.
    With these innovations, and the many others that will be developed into the new carrier, the US Navy is making a direct statement that its 21st century, next-generation carrier fleet will continue to have as its centerpiece large-deck, nuclear-powered vessels that can project power and protect sea lanes anywhere in the world, at any time.
     
  11. A.V.

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    ENTERPRISE CLASS




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    Designation: CVN
    Length: 1123 ft
    Width: 252 ft
    Beam: 133 ft
    Displacement: 89,900 tons
    Propulsion: 8 nuclear reactors, 4 shafts
    Speed: 30+ knots
    Crew: 5,830
    Airwing: 85 fixed, rotary
    Armament:
    - 3 X 8 Sea Sparrow SAM
    - 4 X 20mm Phalanx CIWS
    Elevators: 4
    Catapaults: 4
    Ships in class: 1
    CVN-65 USS Enterprise
    The USS Enterprise was the world's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, having eight reactor powering four shafts, two of those reactors reactors powering each shaft. With nuclear power came the ability for aircraft carries to sustain operations longer, have more endurance themselves, and the many other capabilities and innovations now common to the Nimitz class nuclear aircraft carriers.
    CVN-65 is the eighth American warship to be christened the USS Enterprise, following a long, illustrious history that dates back to the Revolutionary war, and includes the most highly decorated warship of World War II, the Big "E", CV-6.

    The new nuclear powered era in aircraft carrier operations ushered in by the Enterprise, gave her a maximum speed of 35 knots and an estimated endurance of five years. By eliminating the need for oil storage and stacks it also provided her, and follow-on nuclear carriers, with over twice the aviation fuel capacity of their largest predecessors.

    The phased array radar (PAR) mounted on the sides of her distinctive square island at the time, led the way to the now common PARs seen on many ships throughout the world, not the least of which are the AEGIS cruisers and destroyers that help protect her. Over the years the Enterprise has received numerous major upgrades to her machinary, aircraft, weapons, and electronics system, including four refuelings of her nuclear reactor cores, itself a testament to her design and the good care and maintenance given her by her charges.

    At the time of her launch, the Enterprise marked a new plateau in the US Navy’s development of shipboard aviation, a development that has led to even higher vistas, including the innovation contemplated for CVN-78, the first of the CVN-21, next-generation carriers, which will replace the Enterprise in 2013. That overall development, begun in 1922, with the old 15-knot Langley as an experimental aircraft carrier, progressed to the nuclear powered Enterprise within the service lives of quite a few individuals that were still on active duty at the time the Enterprise was launched.

    Since her launch in 1961, the USS Enterpise has blazed the trail for almost 45 years, protecting sea lanes and freedom, and projecting America's security interests all over the world. When she is replaced in 2013, after an astounding 52 years of service, the Enterprise will have more than earned the name of the "grand old lady of the seas".
     
  12. A.V.

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    CHARLES DE GUALLE



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    Designation: CVN
    Length: 860 ft
    Width: 203 ft
    Beam: 113 ft
    Displacement: 40,600 tons
    Propulsion: 2 PWR Type K15 nuclear reactors,
    2 shafts
    Speed: 27 knots
    Crew: 1,950
    Airwing: 40 fixed, rotary
    Armament:
    - 2 X 16 Aster SAM
    - 2 X 6 Sadral SAM
    - 8 X 20mm GIat CIWS
    Elevators: 2
    Catapaults: 2
    Ships in class: 1
    R91 Charles De Gaulle
    Next to the United States, the French have mantained conventional carrier operations for longer than any other nation, and have gained the experience associated with it. Operating the two Clemenceua class carriers for years, they were able to keep a carrier and its embarked airwing deployed for much of the last 40 years. As those two carriers aged, the French planned to replace them with two nuclear carriers.
    The first of that class, the Charles De Gaulle, was launched in 1994, but not commissioned until 2000, suffering from numerous delays and problems with the nuclear reactors and overall design. After completion, the flight deck had to be lengthened to accomodate the E-2 Hawkeyes the French had purchased from the United States for AEW duties

    When finally commissioned, on her first major trial voyage, the vessel developed cracks in the propeller and had to go back into the yards. Finally, in 2001 she was pronounced fully healthy and then helped take part in Operation Enduring Freedom against the Taliban in Afghanistan. She has been sailing and conducting operations ever since with the normal maintenance and repair layovers.

    With the successful launch, commissioning, and operations (albeit delayed) of the Charles de Gaulle, the French have joined an elite club with nuclear aircraft carrier operations that contains only two countries, themselves and the United States.

    The French have since decommissioned both of their other carriers, the Clemenceau has been scrapped and the Foche was sold to Brazil where it has been refitted and recommissioned in the Brazilain navy as the Sao Paulo, the flagship of their fleet.

    The French plan to build another large carrier of the De Gaulle class, but have opted to make it conventionally powered and are now working woith the British in conjunction with their new carrier program.
     
  13. A.V.

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    QUEEN ELIZABETH



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    Designation: CV
    Length: 920 ft
    Width: 224 ft
    Beam: 127 ft
    Displacement: 65,000 tons
    Propulsion: 2 MT30 gas turbines (IFEP),
    4 Diesel Generators
    2 shafts
    Speed: 25+ knots
    Crew: 1,450
    Airwing: 40 VSTOL (JSF), Rotary
    Armament:
    - 3 X 30mm CIWS
    - 3 X 20mm CIWS
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 1 (+1)
    HMS Queen Elizabeth
    The UK is building two, large, fixed wing carriers, the Queen Elizabeth and the Prince of Wales. 1st steel for the HMS Queen Elizabeth was cut on July 7, 2009 at at the BVT Surface Fleet shipyard in Govan, Glasgow, Scotland.
    The existing 22,000 ton Invincible class carriers were designed for Cold War anti-submarine warfare as part of combined NATO fleet operations and were too small to carry a very large STOVL wing of aircraft. However, the 1982 Falklands War demonstrated the need for the UK to maintain aircraft carriers to support its own foreign policy apart from NATO.

    Since that time the Invincible class ships have operated in a more traditional aircraft carrier role of power projection. As a result the Royal Air Force's Harrier GR7s have been routinely deployed on the carriers which were modified to carry more aircraft and ammunition. Despite the shortcomings of the Invincible class in this role, it wasn't until 1994 that official studies into the replacement of the ships began.

    In May 1997, the Labour government launched a Strategic Defence Review (SDR) to evaluate every weapon system outside the Eurofighter Typhoon and the Vanguard ballistic missile submarines. The report was published in July 1998 and concluded that new aircraft carriers could offer the UK all of the following:

    1 - The ability to operate offensive aircraft abroad when foreign basing were either not available or had been denied.
    2 - Immediate access to the battle space, where traditional air force basing would require significant logistics and time.
    3 - More effect amd efficient deterent when deployed to a trouble spot.

    This 1988 SDR concluded: that "the emphasis is now on increased offensive air power, and an ability to operate the largest possible range of aircraft in the widest possible range of roles. When the current carrier force reaches the end of its planned life, we plan to replace it with two larger vessels. Work will now begin to refine our requirements but present thinking suggests that they might be of the order of 30,000–40,000 tonnes and capable of deploying up to 50 aircraft, including helicopters."

    In January 1999 six companies were invited to bid on the assessment phase of the project; Boeing, British Aerospace, Lockheed Martin, Marconi Electronic Systems, Raytheon and Thomson-CSF. In November 1999 the detailed assessment studieswas awarded to two consortia, one led by BAE Systems (British Aerospace) and one led by Thales Group (Thomson-CSF). The contract required up to six designs from each for airgroups of 30 to 40 Future Joint Combat Aircraft (FJCA), and split into phases; The first £5.9 million phase was for design assessment for part of the aircraft selection, the second £23.5 million phase involved risk reduction on the preferred carrier design option

    In January 2001 the UK signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the U.S. Department of Defense for full participation in the Joint Strike Fighter programme, confirming the JSF as the FJCA. This gave the UK input into aircraft design and selection between the Lockheed X-35 and Boeing X-32. In October 2001 the US Department of Defense announced that Lockheed Martin had won the JSF contract.

    In September 2002 it was announced that the Royal Navy would operate the STOVL F-35B variant. It was also announced that the carriers would be large, conventional carriers, initially adapted for STOVL operations. At the same time, the carriers would be designed for, to allow for catapults and arrestor wires. This made the carriers "future proof", allowing them to operate CATOBAR aircraft later if required.

    In January 2003 the UK Defence Secretary announced that the Thales Group design had won the competition but that BAE Systems would operate as prime contractor.

    As a result, the vessels will displace approximately 65,000 tonnes each, over three times the displacement of the current Invincible class. The vessels will be the largest warships ever built in the UK and the most capable aircraft carriers outside of the U.S. Navy super-carriers.

    The carriers will feature two small island structures, one devoted to ship navigation, and the other to air operations. This allows for optimal navigation forward (as on the French, Charles De Gaulle), while air operations are conducted abaft (as on the US Nimitz class). Two deck lifts will be used, both on the starboard side.

    The carriers will carry 40 fixed wing and rotary aircraft. This will consist of 36 F-35B strike fighters as well as helicopters or V-22 Osprey aircraft. The UK Defence Equipment and Support Organisation COO stated in January 2008 that the carriers will initially operate Harrier GR9s because there will not be enough fully prepared, trained and equipped F-35s in 2014.

    In March 2008 Contracts for 80,000 tonnes of steel were awarded for the vessels, with an estimated value of £65 million with £8 million worth of contracts for other equipment to be used in the ships. In April 2008 contracts for the lifts, or elevators for the ships were awarded. In October 2008, contracts for the gas turbines for the gas turbines and other power and propulsion portions of the vessels were awarded.

    In late December 2008, it was announced that initial construction on early steel had begun, with a projected initial delivery of the Queen Elizabeth in 2014-2015, followed by the Prince of Wales in 2016-2017.
     
  14. A.V.

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    INVINCIBLE



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    Designation: CVL
    Length: 695 ft
    Width: 118 ft
    Beam: 118 ft
    Displacement: 23,000 tons
    Propulsion: 4 TM3B gas turbines (COGAG),
    2 shafts
    Speed: 29 knots
    Crew: 1,270
    Airwing: 22 VSTOL, rotary
    Armament:
    - 3 X 30mm CIWS
    - 2 X 20mm guns
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 3
    HMS Invincible (R05)
    HMS Illustrious (R06)
    HMS Ark Royal (R07)
    The Invincible class carriers, all three commissioned between 1980 and 1985, were initially dubbed as "through deck cruisers" for political and funding purposes, and were the first successful VSTOL carriers in the world, employing the British Harrier aircraft.
    Threatened with cancellation and selling by politicians, the miltary planners garnered enough support to see the task through and complete the development, launching and commissioning of these vessels.

    The concept proved very useful and successful in the 1982 Falklands War with Argentina where the United Kingdom sent down two aircraft carrier groups, one consisting of the Hermes (later sold to India to become the INS Viraat), and the other of the newly completed Invincible, which was rushed through final trials in time to participate in the war. By MAy of that year (1982) the task force had accomplished two of its main tasks; the movement of the troops safely to the South Atlantic and the establishment of control of the seas around the Islands.

    The role of the carriers, HMS Hermes and HMS Invincible, was crucial through all stages in providing air defence and the means of attacking enemy ships and ground positions, while their helicopters provided constant anti-submarine protection. The Invincible and her air wing performed well, despite some losses to both aircraft and supporting ships from Argentine air attack, and the islands were recaptured and the Argentine forces defeated.

    The carriers were originally designed without the now characteristic ski ramp. However, during operational tests it was discovered that using the ski ramp provided the Sea Harrier with much better performance, allowing it to carry more fuel and weapons, making it a far more versatile aircraft for fleet defense, attack at sea, and ground support missions. The upgrade to the F/A 2 Sea Harrier has been a great success for the fighter, and it will continue to do its job for a few more years until replaced by the Joint Strike Fighter slated for use on HMS aircraft carriers..

    The Invincible carriers are slated to be replaced in the 2012 and on time frame as the two new, full deck, conventional carriers the United Kingdom is now building come on line.
     
  15. A.V.

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    KUZNETSOV



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    Designation: CV
    Length: 992 ft
    Width: 237 ft
    Beam: 116 ft
    Displacement: 65,000 tons
    Propulsion: 8 boilers, 4 shafts
    Speed: 32 knots
    Crew: 2,625
    Airwing: 50 fixed, rotary
    Armament:
    - 12 Granit SSM
    - 8 X 24 Kinock SAM
    - 8 X 32 Kashtan SAM/CIWS
    - 8 X 30mm CIWS
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 1
    063 Kuznetsov
    The former Soviet Union worked for decades to try and produce their own aircraft carrier capability. Starting with the Moskva class helicopter carriers, that were a crusier forward of the superstructure with a large flight deck aft of the superstructure (similar to the French Jeanne d'Arc), progressing through the Kiev class, which had a full flight deck that came along side a massive Island, but still had missiles, guns, and ASW weapons forward, the Soviets finally, near the end of their life, produced the Kuznetsov.
    The Kuznetsov pioneered a carrier capability known as "Short take-off, arrested landing" (STOAL) and had an inclined front flight deck to assist aircraft into the air, taking a note from the UK Invincible class. Most believe that this was more a matter of necessity coming from the Soviets inability to proiduce a working catapault system. Whatever the reason, the carrier was produced and the launching system worked. Aircraft are recovered with arresting landing per conventional carriers on the angled flight deck from the rear.

    At 65,000 tons and with an airwing of fifty aircraft, the Soviets finally had their large deck carrier and started a second, the Varyag, before their time came to an end. After the fall of the communist regime and the split up of the former Soviet Union, the Russians retained control of the Kuznetsov, and as funds have allowed, have continued to train with her and develop their capability. The SU-33 aircraft she embarks are very capable multi-role (attack and air defense) aircraft. The large carrier lacks in a truly effective AEW airraft, using helicopters in that role like the British on their VSTOL carriers.

    The Ukraine retained control of the Varyag and were incapable of finishing her, ultimately selling her to China where she has been towed and is undergiong a refit to unstated purposes to this day...although it is apparent that the Chinese PLAN has a desire to develop carrier operations themselves with the Varyag, and have the funding, the relationship with the Russians, and the know how to do so
     
  16. A.V.

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    SAU PAULO


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    Designation: CV
    Length: 873 ft
    Width: 167 ft
    Beam: 104 ft
    Displacement: 33,600 tons
    Propulsion: 6 La Valle boilers,
    2 shafts
    Speed: 32 knots
    Crew: 1,920
    Airwing: 40 fixed, rotary
    Armament:
    - 2 X 8 Crotale SAM
    - 2 X 6 SAM
    Elevators: 2
    Catapaults: 2
    Ships in class: 1
    Sao Paulo
    The Brazilian government purchased the former French carrier Foch in 2000 and and refitted her and recommissioned her the Sao Paulo. The Fock was orignally commissioned in 1963 and served a long and successful career with the French before being sold to Brazil after the successful commissioning and operation of their new nuclear powered aircraft carrier, the Charles de Gaulle.
    The Brazilians had purchased and operated a fomrer British Colossus class carrier, the Minas Gerais, for many years and were experienced in catapault take-offs and arrested landing. Since purchasing the Sao Paulo, the Minas Gerias has been retired and decommissioned.

    The acquisition of the Sao Paulo has incresed the capability and the effectiveness of Brazilian naval air operations. A wing of twenty former Kuwaiti, former US, A-4M Skyhawks have been purchased and are now operating off of the carrier.
     
  17. A.V.

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    VARYAG CLASS



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    Designation: CV
    Length: 992 ft
    Width: 237 ft
    Beam: 116 ft
    Displacement: 65,000 tons
    Propulsion: 8 boilers, 4 shafts
    Speed: 32 knots
    Crew: 2,500
    Airwing: 50 fixed, rotary
    Armament:
    - Unknown
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 1
    PLAN (Unknown designation as yet)
    The Chinese purchased the former Soviet carrier, Varyag, from the Ukraine in 1998 for about $20 million dollars (US). The Varyag was the newer, sister ship to the Russian Kuznetsov. But the Ukraine government had never finished the carrier after the fall of the Soviet Union and had tried to sell it to various concerns. As a result, the carrier fell into a state of disrepair. The Chinese bought the carrier and indicated that the holding company that had purchased it planned to tow it to China and make it a floating casino.
    The Chinese could not get permission from the government of Turkey to pass threough the Sraits of Istanbul until 2001, at which time the Varyag was towed to China, a cruise that the big ship, now without rudders or engines, made in surprisingly good condition passing through the Mediteranean, the Suez Canal, by the Cape of Good Hope headland, across the Indian Ocean, through the Straits of Malacca, into the China Sea and finally to Dalian, China in mid 2002. It was ultimately docked at the Naval Shipyards in Dalian where it has been under tight security ever since. The holding company, which had ties to the PLAN, went out of business.

    The Varyag has been undergoing significant work at Dalian ever since. This has included an intital stint in dry dock where she emerged in 2005 having been painted in the offical PLAN combatant colors. It has included significant time at pier side with work going on internally throughout the period, and the application of a primer and then full non-skid sirface to the deck. Most recently, in April 2009, it has involved the move of the vessel once again to dry dock for what appears to be final outfitting. It certainly appears at this point that she will be made operational, if for no other reason, as a training ship for the PLAN, to gain experience while the Chinese build their own carriers (which is their stated intention to build two indigenous, large carriers in the 20-teens).

    The Chinese have been engaged over the last five to seven years in one of the most astounding and ambitious modern naval shipbuilding programs since World War II. Although they are retiring some older vessels, the shear rapidity with which they are replacing them with very efficient modern combatants is amazing. Those combatants include all of the necessary ingredients to create and field a major carrier battle gropup of their own...if they had the carrier to go with it.

    If made operational, with a wing of SU-33 fighters, and/or carrier modified J-10 aircraft, the Varyag could represent a significant shift in the balance of naval power in the area.
     
  18. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    HYUGA CLASS


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    Designation: CVH (DDH)
    Length: 650 ft
    Width: 108 ft
    Beam: 108 ft
    Displacement: 20,000 tons (full load)
    Propulsion: 2 GE LM2500 COGAG, 2 shafts
    Speed: 30+ knots
    Crew: 350 (+ Air Wing)
    Airwing: Up to 18 helo (vstol)
    Armament:
    - 1 X 16 Cell Mk 41 VLS
    - 2 X 2 20mm Phalanx CIWS
    - 2 X Triple 324mm topedoe tubes
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 2
    DDH-181, Hyuga
    DDH-182, Ise
    On August 22, 2007, the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force launched the Hyuga, a new, large, flat deck vessel which had been laid down in May of 2006. The vessel was then commissioned into the JMSDF on March 18, 2009. On 21 August, 2009, the JMSDF launched the second in class, the DDH-182, Ise, to be commissioned in early 2011.
    This vessel, which was called the 16DDH project, has a large, flat-deck, and has been designated as a DDH, or helicopter carrying destroyer, for political purposes. The Japanese will build two vessels and they will replace two of the current, traditional DDH vessels in two of the JMSDF escort flotillas. It is contemplated that the JMSDF will then order two more such vessels to replace their other two DDH once these first two are commissioned into the fleet.

    The Japanese currently list the carrying capabilitiy of these vessels as 4 small ASW helos or up to 11 large Chinook helicopters. Clearly, if capable of carrying 11 Chinooks, the carriers will be able to operate qutie a few more small helicopters, probably 18-24.

    In addition to their aircraft carrying capabilities the vessels will have extensive command and control and communications capabilities to allow them to function as flagships and command ships for the other vessels in their flotillas. In addition, with modern Phased Array Radars (PARS), an integrated combat system, a 16 cell VLS carrying 64 Evolved Sea Sparrow anti-air missiles, and with two 20mm Phalanx CIWS, the vessels will be very capable of defending themselves against air attacks.

    To anyone looking at the vessel, it is clear that the ship is in fact a small aircraft carrier along the lines of the United Kingdom's Invincible Class carriers without the ski-jump bow. The 16DDH will in fact be very close in size and displacement to the Invincible class which can carry up to 22 aircraft (rotary and vstol) using two elevators similar to those depicted on this ship. It is clear that the capabilities of these vessels will far exceed the four helicopters currently being listed by the JMSDF.

    As suggested, it is likely that the vessel will be able to carry a minimum of 18 helicopters, and probably be capable of a mixed air wing that could include VSTOL jets, like the Harrier II jets, or the new F-35B Joint Strike Fighter being developed by the United States for deployment on US flat-deck amphibious assault vessels if the Japanese deck has been built to withstand vertical take-off jet exhaust.

    The Hyuga has no stated provisions for amphibious assault, no well deck, but could clearly be utilized to conduct over the horizon air assaults as the ships size makes it clear that it could carry far more than the 350 crew identified by the JMSDF. This 350 number is, in all likelihood, the naval crew of the vessel alone and other air wing or marine troop capabilities are simply not being published for political purposes.

    The vessel is powered by two GE Transportation power trains, each consisting of two LM2500s in a COGAG configuration, driving their respective propeller through a gearbox and shaft. The ship has two shafts. The engines each provide 25,000 shaft horsepower.

    The Japanese are now approving a budget for two follow-on much larger vessels, the the 22DDH project which will displace over 30,000 tons and will be almost 800 ft. long. Here's a picture comparing the two.
     
  19. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    JUAN CARLOS 1



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    Designation: LHD
    Length: 755 ft
    Width: 107 ft
    Beam: 97 ft
    Displacement: 27,000 tons
    Propulsion: 2 gas turbines,
    2 Electrical PODS
    Speed: 24 knots
    Crew: 1,450
    Airwing: 30 VSTOL, rotary
    Armament:
    - 1 X ESSM or RAM Missile System
    - 4 X 20mm Oerlikon CIWS
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 1
    Juan Carlos I
    The new Spanish Strategic Projection carrier, the L61, Juan Carlos I, started construction in May 2005 and was launched on March 10, 2008. She will be commissioned in 2009. The vessel is meant to be a multi-role vessel suited for either the Sea Control role with VSTOL aircraft, or the Amphibious Assault role with helicopters, air cushion craft, landing craft and supporting VSTOL attack aircraft.
    In the Sea Control role the vessel will be able to carry up to thirty aircraft, though the normal airwing would consist of 22. In the Amphibious assault role, the vessel will be able to land up to 900 troops and all of their equipment through air and/or sea assault, carrrying a mixed airwing of 22 helicopters and VSTOL aircraft.

    The vessel is intended to be complimentary to the current Principe de Asturia carrier and not replace it.

    The revolutionary propulsion system for the vessel (similar to the French Navy's Mistral Class of LPH) requires no shafts, instead using electrically driven POD devices for both props, thereby also eliminating conventional rudder systems, the PODs acting in that role as well.

    Combined with the Principe de Asturias carrier and the F100 AEGIS frigates the Spanish have built to protect them, the Spanish Navy will, with this larger carrier have developed into a significant regional force capable of projecting Spanish interests and protecting sea lanes around the world.
     
  20. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    Principe de Austurias



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    Designation: CVL
    Length: 645 ft
    Width: 104 ft
    Beam: 90 ft
    Displacement: 17,000 tons
    Propulsion: 2 LM 2500 gas turbines (COGAG),
    1 shaft
    Speed: 25 knots
    Crew: 830
    Airwing: 29 VSTOL, rotary
    Armament:
    - 1 X 8 Harpoon SSM
    - 4 X 20mm Oerlikon CIWS
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 1
    Principe de Austurias (R11)
    The Principe de Asturias aircraft carrier was commissioned by the Spanish Navy in 1988. The layout of the ship was partially derived from the older design of the US Navy Sea Control Ship. The hull was laid down in 1979 and the ship was launched in 1982. But the integration of a Tritan Digital Command and Control System and the installation of a Flag Bridge to meet the requirements of the Spanish Navy delayed the commissioning ofuntil 1988.
    The Spanish Navy is planning a mid-life upgrade for the vessel to make it more effective for littoral warfare. The upgrades will include improving anti-ship defenses and the command and control system.

    The ship supports up to twelve AV-8B Harrier II Plus aircraft. The Harriers are armed with AIM-9L Sidewinder and AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles and AGM-65E Maverick air-to-ground missiles, in addition to GAU-12U cannon. The carrier also has facilities to support up to twelve helicopters, usually six Sikorsky Sea King SH-3H, four Agusta AB-212 and two Sikorsky SH-3 AEW helicopters.

    The carrier supports a maximum of 29 fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft with up to twelve on deck and 13 aircraft in the hangar. In an emergency a maximum of 17 aircraft can be stored in the hangarwhich is accessed by two elevators.

    With its Spanish F100, AEGIS frigate escorts, the carrier Asturias stands ready and able to defend Spain's maritime and strategic interests in the high seas.
     
  21. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    CAVOUR


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    Designation: CVL
    Length: 800 ft
    Width: 128 ft
    Beam: 108 ft
    Displacement: 26,000 tons
    Propulsion: 4 LM2500 gas turbines (COGAG),
    2 shafts
    Speed: 28 knots
    Crew: 1,210
    Airwing: 20 VSTOL, rotary
    - 32 VLS Aster SAM
    - 3 X 25mm OtaBreda CIWS
    - 2 X 76mm guns
    Elevators: 2
    Ships in class: 1
    MM Cavour C550
    MM Cavour (C550) is the next generation Italian VSTOL aircraft carrier. Construction began in 2001 and the Cavour was launched from the Riva Trigoso shipyard in Genoa on July 20, 2004. She was commissioned in March of 2008.
    The ship is designed to combine VSTOL and helicopter air operations, amphibious operations, and the transport of military or civil personnel and heavy vehicles. She will have extensive command and control facilities and will take over as the flagship for the Italian Navy from the carrier, MM Garibaldi C551, which currently holds that distinction.

    The hanger can double as vehicle parking, fitting up to 24 tanks or many more lighter vehicles. The hangar has side access ramps for ROR operations as as well as two elevators to the flight deck.

    Cavour has been named after the Italian politician Count Camillo Benso di Cavour.
     

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