What ails Muslim education in India?

Discussion in 'Politics & Society' started by Yusuf, Mar 16, 2010.

  1. Yusuf

    Yusuf GUARDIAN Administrator

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    There is an increasing realisation in Muslim circles of the pressing need to focus on the economic and educational concerns of the community and to desist from playing into the hands of Hindutva forces by remaining engrossed in identity-related concerns. How this will impact the dismal educational conditions of the Muslim masses remains to be seen

    Educationally, Muslims rank among the most marginalised communities in India. Numerous official surveys and documents have admitted this fact, but the state as well as community leaders have done little to redress the situation.

    There are several causes of educational backwardness among Muslims. A large proportion of Indias Muslims are descendants of low caste converts. Despite conversion to Islam their social and economic conditions remained unchanged, and they remained tied down to their traditional occupations, mainly as artisans, small peasants and agricultural labourers.

    Reflecting deeply-rooted upper caste Brahminical prejudices, pre-colonial ruling elites (Muslim and Hindu) took little or no interest in their development. The historical record reveals a deep-rooted contempt displayed by the Muslim nobility or shurafa, who claimed foreign descent for indigenous Muslim converts. Like other Dalit and low caste groups, these Muslim communities remained educationally deprived. In other words, the caste-class origins of many Indian Muslims explain, in part, the overall educational marginalisation of the community today.

    The partition in 1947 also had momentous consequences for Muslim education. In its wake the bulk of the modern-educated north Indian Muslim middle class shifted to Pakistan, leaving behind millions of economically and educationally deprived co-religionists.

    Before 1947, the north Indian middle-class, particularly the products of the Aligarh Muslim University, had played a key role in promoting modern education. In the absence of a class that championed liberal or progressive causes, the prospects for education were bleak. There was also the fear, not entirely unfounded, that government schools, with their Hindu-oriented syllabus and anti-Muslim bias, would result in de-Islamisation of Muslim children.

    The discriminatory policies of various state governments towards Urdu, which was unfairly branded as a Muslim language, hit north Indian Muslims particularly badly, dampening their enthusiasm for sending their children to school, where Hindi, and in some states Sanskrit as well, was made compulsory for all students.

    Key Muslim leaders, especially large numbers of ulema, responded by appealing to Muslims to stay away from government schools and to establish alternative institutions of their own, where Muslim children could be taught the basics of their faith.

    Related to this was the undeniable fact of the state institutional discrimination towards Muslims. State investment in education in Muslim-dominated areas has been pathetic. Muslims have also not sufficiently benefited from various government schemes meant for general educational and economic advancement.

    Muslims routinely argue that despite possessing adequate educational qualifications they are not employed in government services, and point out that Muslim representation in the services is much less than that warranted by their population. What is the use, many Muslims ask, of investing in their childrens higher education if they are refused government employment simply because of their religion?

    In the private sector, too, Muslims, like Dalits, believe that discrimination continues unabated, further dampening their enthusiasm for higher education. This has led to demands by some Muslim organisations for reservations for Muslims, either as a single category or for backward caste Muslims, in government jobs and in educational institutions.

    A very large proportion of Muslims are economically marginalised, and the state has done little to address their pathetic living conditions. Periodic riots in places where Muslims have witnessed some degree of economic progress have resulted in pushing large sections of the community against the wall, leading to a process of ghettoisation and further strengthening insularity and religious conservatism.

    In addition, the neo-liberal economic policies of the last two decades or so have hit various Muslim artisan communities across the country severely. Mounting economic marginalisation and deprivation naturally make higher education an impossible proposition for many Muslim families.

    Given their poverty and the feeling of discrimination in both private and public sector employment, many Muslims feel it is enough for their children to receive a basic education before seeking some sort of petty self-employment to contribute to the family upkeep. This accounts for the fact that the dropout rate among school-going children at all levels is considerably higher among Muslims than among other communities defined by religion.

    This has led to demands for separate economic development programmes for Muslims, or at least for proportional allocation of state funds for Muslim economic advancement, with the state being accused of neglect of and discrimination towards Muslims in its various development schemes.

    Another reason for the overall educational marginalisation of the Muslim community, particularly in north India, is the fact that the community is deeply divided within, and lacks political leadership. The Muslim community, particularly in north India, where most Muslims live, is bereft of a substantial educated middle class. This has allowed Muslim clerics or ulema to assert their claim of being its spokesmen as well as the defenders of Islam and Muslim identity. They are backed by various political parties, who use them to garner the Muslim vote.

    The ulema take little interest in the real-world concerns of ordinary Muslims, focusing instead on religious, symbolic or identity-related issues, such as Urdu, the minority character of the Aligarh Muslim University, Muslim Personal Law and the Babri Masjid controversy. This must be seen, in part, as a means to promote their own interests and claims to authority, fearing that focusing on secular issues, including education, would result in the emergence of a leadership that would challenge their own position.

    This is also a reaction to Hindu chauvinism, with Hindutva groups also deliberately raking up such issues to create a Hindu vote-bank and to keep Muslims on the defensive, giving them little space to think of their economic and educational concerns or to demand their rights from the state. Consequently, since education, particularly of the marginalised, is not a prime concern of the existing Muslim leadership, particularly in north India, Muslims have not been active in setting up community-based educational institutions.

    Talk of a hidden nexus between political parties, even those that claim to be secular, Muslim political and religious leaders and Hindutva groups, all with a vested interest in keeping Muslim educational and economic issues out of political discourse, is thus not unwarranted.

    The situation is somewhat different in Maharashtra and Gujarat where fairly substantial numbers of middle-class Muslims live, mainly from traditional trading communities, such as Mohras, Khojahs, Memons, Labbais and Mapillas. Several modern educational institutions have been set up in these regions by Muslims in recent years. Many of these, however, cater to the middle classes and not the poor. Interestingly, several engineering, medical and other professional institutions set up by Muslims in southern India in recent years have a majority of non-Muslim students, owing to the high fees they charge. They function mainly as commercial ventures.

    Today, however, things are changing, gradually. In the wake of the devastating anti-Muslim riots after the destruction of the Babri Masjid in 1992 and again after the state-sponsored anti-Muslim genocide in Gujarat, there is an increasing realisation in Muslim circles of the pressing need to focus on the economic and educational concerns of the community and to desist from playing into the hands of Hindutva forces by remaining engrossed in identity-related concerns. How this will impact the dismal educational conditions of the Muslim masses remains to be seen.
     
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  3. Yusuf

    Yusuf GUARDIAN Administrator

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    came across this blog.

    http://madrasareforms.blogspot.com/2008/01/state-policies-on-madrasas-and-muslim.html
     
  4. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Indian Muslims and Education

     
  5. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    A look at the lot of Muslims in India

     
  6. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    MADRASA REFORMS IN INDIA

     
  7. vikaskumar11233

    vikaskumar11233 Tihar Jail Banned

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    The Census data on levels of education by age can be used to estimate the
    educational attainments of three SRCs, namely, the Muslims, the SCs/STs and ‘AllOthers’. Four categories of attainment at the school level can be defined:
    1. Primary Education: Persons of age 12 years and above who have completed at
    least 5 years of education are analysed.
    2. Middle level education: Persons of age 15 years and above who have completed
    at least 8 years of education are included in this group.
    3. Matriculation: Persons who have matriculated (10 years of schooling) and are
    at least 17 years of age are included in this group.
    4. Higher Secondary: Persons who have completed the higher secondary or
    equivalent examination (12 years of schooling) and are of 19 years of age or
    more. Those with technical / non-technical diplomas, which are subsequent to
    secondary level education and therefore equivalent to the higher secondary
    level, are included in this group.

    central board of secondary education sample papers
     
  8. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    The Muslims are doing very well in Bengal where they are cracking the various competitve exams.

    Check the Telegraph Archives for details.

    One poor Muslim mason's son has made it in the merit for Medical!

    Then there are others who have also got into the merit list even thought they are from poor families.

    And they are from regular village schools!
     
  9. parijataka

    parijataka Senior Member Senior Member

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    I think it is wrong to generalise all Muslim communities in India as educationally backward.

    Muslims are backward in already backward states such as UP, Bihar, Rajasthan etc that are poor with low literacy for all sections of society.

    In all four southern states Muslims have higher literacy rate. In Andhra, literacy for Muslims > Upper caste Hindus > SC-ST. In Kerala, Hindus lag behind Christians and Muslims marginally in literacy, land ownership and income level - it is more or less equal for all three communities.
     
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  10. Sabir

    Sabir DFI TEAM Senior Member

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    In my personal opinion, Muslims should through out selfish leaders (Like Imam of Tipu Sultan Mosque here in Kolkata) who always put forward some useless issue to government which does not benefit the community at all and segregate it more from other communities. WB government during Buddha babu established Madrasah Service Commission on line of SSC to modernise Madrasah education. The effort was quite successful. The infrastructure is not only developed, the students not only got the opportunity to study science and other secular fields but they got quality teachers (majority of them are actually non-Muslims) who came after cracking MSC examination. However , some section of so called Muslim leaders (who are actually left out by CPM gvt and thronged to Didi Banerjee) were frightened to see the light entering their community. They even demanded the post of teachers to be reserved only for Muslim candidates. Another incident when Aliah Madrash (one of the oldest institution in India established by Warren Hastings) was promoted as Aliah University and modern education and engineering brought under its umbrella. Some fundamentalists (all are students of religius streams) started hunger strike demanding the term "Madrasah" should not be removed. (They wanted a school instead of university LOL). Mamata banerjee , then in opposition met them and promised to change the name as per their demand once come in power. Didi kept her promise but , the secular stream students got furious now by this stupid change. The Muslim community in WB should be thankful to Buddha babu for his sincere effort to improve the education among Muslims. Now, Mamata Banerjee is surrounded by fundamentalists section of society and more happy to appease "Pir" of Furfura or paying illegaly to the immams (monthly stypends) than doing anything significant for the Muslims. If she yeilds to other demand of her 'Chamchas' like Imam Barkati; all hardwork of Buddha gvt will go in vain.
     
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  11. Sabir

    Sabir DFI TEAM Senior Member

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    My sister (M Sc - Zoology) now teaches in Madrash. One of her student came fourth in Board exam few days back. The boy unaware of the result was cleaning paddy at home wearing just a lungi when press people reached his home to interview him. :D
     
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  12. Yusuf

    Yusuf GUARDIAN Administrator

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    Being literate is one thing, having higher education and secular education is another. Worlds education should be in a public school else it develops tunnel vision.
     
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  13. parijataka

    parijataka Senior Member Senior Member

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    /\/\/\

    True, but dynamics in south is a little different I feel. We do not have many madrassas, schools are mainly secular. N India [especially rural areas] lacking schools, Muslims tended to go to madrasas that neglected secular education.
     
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  14. SHURIDH

    SHURIDH Senior Member Senior Member

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    that was recent push ray da.
    even in 2006 muslims are only 12%of total primary level student,10%in upper primary. 7.5%matriculation level,2% in total medical student in wb.
    but today muslims are 34% in primary student,31%in upper primary level,27% in matriculation level.14% in medical student.people realise the need of education and science.if muslims of west bengal continue this trend.their future will be bright.
    another good thing girls are 49.95%of total muslim student in west bengal.
     
  15. Galaxy

    Galaxy Elite Member Elite Member

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    This year, 29 Muslim Candidates Selected in Civil Services out of 910. It's quite low due to poor education.

    Why some Muslim organisation doesn't start some institute in order to give better education to Muslims from primary schools to Civil Service preparation? :confused: They have too much time to talk about religion, why not education ?

    This year, Out of total 910 selections in IAS, more than ONE-THIRD are from RSS owned institutes.
     
    Last edited: May 25, 2012
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  16. SHURIDH

    SHURIDH Senior Member Senior Member

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    the imam of tipu sultan mosque is a clown like bukheri in up.
    they are opportunist.to prevent their infulance rise of a liberal,literate middle class muslim community is needed.
    with the recent push in education we can expect it will happen in next few years.
    many of my friend angry with me when i said them alia maddrasa should not become a university.a university has some qualities alia madrassa does not have those quality.it still carry madrassa structure which is not acceptable for university.
    modernization of madrassa is good thing.but maddrassa education should not become number one educational medium for west bengal's muslim.the number one educational medimum should be for muslim of west bengal is school,collage not madrassa.government should establish more and more school in muslim concentrated locality and encourage muslim student of west bengal to join the mainstrim education.
    madrassa education should done a limited level and muslim student should be joined in mainstrim.
     
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  17. Galaxy

    Galaxy Elite Member Elite Member

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    ^^

    Shuridh,

    Most of the Imams are clowns!

    If Muslims are not well-educated (Higher education), It's due to Muslim community. They themselves don't promote education. An old saying "Jyada haath honge to Jyada kaam karenge". A typical medieval age mentality in North India. (Muslims are doing better in West and South India. Not sure about Eastern parts)

    When I was in high school, almost 30% classmates were Muslims (As i use to live among lots of Muslims and they were not poor). Today when i see, Most of my Muslims classmates are doing small business and almost all my Non-Muslims friends are well-settled due to better education.

    I think, majority of Muslims prefer small-scale business rather than Govt./Pvt. Job.
     
    Last edited: May 25, 2012
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  18. SADAKHUSH

    SADAKHUSH Senior Member Senior Member

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    First of all thank you Yusuf Bhai for taking initiative to start this thread. I hope we can share some of the practical and do able steps to reduce the illiteracy among our Muslim community. I will read the posts later on but would like to share one piece of positive news from Rajasthan. This news broadcast was on BBC Hindi service about a year ago.

    Due to the initiative of one of the community leader he started a school dedicated towards girls only. In the first year he was able to persuade only twenty three girls to join the school ans over a period of three years the school enrollment jumped to three thousand and now the graduates of the school have gone on to become Doctors, Architects, Lawyers and Teachers. The lesson to be learned is that community leaders should look at the positive result that can be achieved by educating children of theirs.

    We should try to give up the fears and hang ups that exist in the minds of individuals regardless of religion.
     
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  19. Sakal Gharelu Ustad

    Sakal Gharelu Ustad Detests Jholawalas Moderator

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    I think the biggest reason is migration of middle class to Pakistan. Post independence the muslims, those who stayed back failed to recreate the middle class and clerics and the political class have been equally responsible for that. The more hands more earning mentality exists in majority of poor muslims.
     
  20. Sabir

    Sabir DFI TEAM Senior Member

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    There is need for more such institutions.....

    Al-Ameen Mission

    Al-Ameen Mission is a residential institute for Muslim students located near Howrah, West Bengal, India. Established in 1986 with eleven students, it now has 2000 students, more than 800 alumni and 200 teaching and non-teaching staff. It is notable for helping the Muslim community students in West Bengal.

    Official Website:Alameen Mission::A socio-academic Institution with a difference



    History

    The Secretary General of the Mission, M. Nurul Islam, set up the Khalatpur Junior High Madrasa in 1976 when he was still studying his 10th Standard. In May 1984, he started the Institute of Islamic Culture, setting up a hostel for the institute in 1986 in the Madrasa building itself with the collection of one fistful of rice from every home in his village, Khalatpur. In January 1987, it was renamed as Al-Ameen Mission.

    Al-Ameen Mission follows the curriculum of West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE). It was awarded "The Telegraph School Award for Excellence" which it shared with the South Point High School in 2002.
    Activities

    As well as being an educational institute, Al-Ameen Mission does charitable works for the Muslim community. It has helped unemployed Muslims with loans and has scholarship programs to help other communities' needy students.

    Funding

    The mission is mostly run by donation and zakat. Muslims throughout the country contribute their zakat to the Mission, which takes care of 25% of seats reserved for poor, destitute and orphans. It has received funding from many sources such as Pataka Industries Pvt. Limited, the Maulana Azad Education Foundation,Ministry of Minority Affairs(W.B.) and the West Bengal Wakf Board.

    Campus

    The main campus of Mission, Al-Ameen Mission for Boys, is located at Khalatpur, Howrah. It comprises about 45 bighas of land. It consists of a five-storey boys' hostel building, a three-storey school building and a three-storey administrative building with a guest house and health centre. There is a mosque inside the hostel building. It now has about 1115 students, with a residential staff of 200, and a part-time and non-residential staff of 50.

    Branches

    Al-Ameen Mission for Boys & Girls, Khalatpur, Howrah

    Al-Ameen Mission for Boys, Panchur, Kolkata

    Al-Ameen Mission for Boys, Belpukur, Dakshin Dinajpur.

    Al-Ameen Mission for Boys & Girls, Patharchapri,Birbhum near the holy shrine of Hazrath Data Mahboob Shah Wali (RA).

    Al-Ameen Mission for Boys & Girls, Uluberia, Howrah.

    Al-Ameen Mission Akademy for Boys & Girls, Memary, Burdwan.

    Al-Ameen Mission for Boys, Burdwan.

    Rahmania Akademy for Boys & Girls, Dhulian, Murshidabad.

    Al-Ameen Mission Akademy for Boys, MIdnapore.

    Al-Ameen Mission Akademy for Boys & Girls, Surjopur, 24 Parganas(S). Al-Ameen Mission Akademy for Boys $ Girls, Chapra, Nadia


    Addition- The mission runs a tutorial for joint entrance in Park Circus. Most of their students crack the test I heard. The institute is not totally restricted to Muslims. Some non-Muslim students also receive scholarship from it. They have non-Muslim teachers also. Amid its supporters are our ex-CM Buddhadev Bhattacharya and his wife Mira Bhattacharya.
     
    Last edited: May 25, 2012
  21. Yusuf

    Yusuf GUARDIAN Administrator

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    Al Ameen college in Bangalore is known more for people who are not serious in studies and go to college for time pass and hanging around with friends. I dot knowing they have tightened up now, but it use to be the case till a few years ago.
     
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