NUMBER 10: CBU-97 SENSOR FUZED WEAPONS The CBU-97 consists of an SUU-66/B tactical munition dispenser that contains 10 BLU-108 submunitions. Each submunition contains four hockey-puck-shaped sensor-fused projectiles called Skeets. These detect targets, such as tanks, armored personnel carriers, trucks and other support vehicles, and fire an expl osively formed penetrator. Operation The 40 Skeets scan an area of 1,500 feet (460 m) by 500 feet (150 m) using infrared and laser sensors, seeking targets by pattern-matching. When a Skeet finds a target it fires an explosively-formed penetrator to destroy it. If a Skeet fails to find a target, it self-destructs 50 feet (15 m) above the ground; if this fails, a back-up timer disables the Skeet. These features are intended to avoid hurting civilians later, and result in an unexploded-ordnance rate of less than 1%. As the CBU-97 approaches its designated aim-point, the dispenser skin is severed into three panels by an explosive cutting charge. The slipstream peels away these panels, exposing the 10 BLU-108 submunitions. An airbag ejects the forward five submunitions, then five in the aft bay. Following a preset timeline, the submunitions deploy parachutes so that they are spaced about 100 feet (30 m) apart. Then each submunition releases its chute, fires a rocket motor that stops its descent and spins it on its longitudinal axis, and releases pairs of Skeets 90 degrees apart. Each spinning Skeet makes a coning motion that allows it to scan a circular area on the ground. The laser sensor detects changes in height such as the distinctive contour of a vehicle. At the same time, infrared sensors detect heat signatures, such as those emitted by the engine of a target vehicle. When the combination of height contours and heat signatures indicative of a target are detected, the Skeet detonates, firing an explosively formed penetrator (EFP) into the target vehicle at high speed, enabling it to penetrate armor plating and destroy what is underneath the armor plating. Note that SFW disables targets using the kinetic energy of the EFP, not the blast of an explosive charge. India Buys GPS-Guided â€œCans of Whup-Assâ€ NUMBER 9.MAIN BATTLE TANKS (I)ARJUN MARK 2 & FUTURE MBT Arjun Mark II MBT is an advanced version of the Arjun MBT being developed by Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CRVDE), part of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). The Arjun features a 120 mm main rifled gun with indigenously developed APFSDS ammunition, one 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, and a 12.7 mm machine gun. It is powered by a single MTU multi-fuel diesel engine rated at 1,400 hp, and can achieve a maximum speed of 70 km/h (43 mph) and a cross-country speed of 40 km/h (25 mph). It has a four-man crew: commander, gunner, loader and driver. Automatic fire detection and suppression, and NBC protection systems are included. All-round anti-tank warhead protection by the newly developed Kanchan armour is claimed to be much higher than available in comparable third generation tanks. Armament Armed with a 120 mm rifled gun, the Arjun is believed to be capable of firing APFSDS (Kinetic Energy) rounds, HE, HEAT, High Explosive Squash Head (HESH) rounds at the rate of 6-8 rounds per minute and the Israeli semi-active laser guided LAHAT missile. Protection The turret and glacis are heavily armoured and use "Kanchan" ("gold") modular composite armour. The Kanchan armour got its name from Kanchan Bagh, Hyderabad, where the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) is located. The armour is made by sandwiching composite panels between Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) to defeat APFDS or HEAT rounds. During the trials in 2000, the Kanchan was able to withstand a hit from a T-72 at point blank range, and was able to defeat all available HESH and APFSDS rounds, which included the Israeli APFSDS rounds. A new honeycomb design non-explosive and non-energetic reactive armour (NERA) armour is reportedly being tested on the Arjun. Arjun Mk-II Arjunâ€™s new version boasts of an improved missile firing range apart from a latest laser system, which can detect explosives on the ground. Another critical feature of the tank is that a missile can be fired from it to destroy long range targets and also shoot down enemy helicopters. The critical summer trials of the Arjun Mark-II version took place in June in Pokhran, Rajasthan and were conducted by the DRDO, while the winter trials are expected to take place later in the year. The June trials have already seen the Arjun MBT Mark-II tested with a number of technical improvements, including command panoramic sight and uncooled thermal image. It has been estimated that 40 more technological improvements are to be tested, including a new transmission control system and new fuel tanks. The first phase of the end user trials will happen by October or November for the missile and other design improvements. CVRDE Director P. Sivakumar has indicated that the Arjun Mark II MBT will have a total of 93 upgrades including 13 major improvements as compared to Arjun Mark I. The major upgrades would be missile-firing capability against long-range targets, panoramic sight with night vision to engage targets effectively at night, containerisation of the ammunition and enhanced main weapon penetration. There will also be additional ammunition types, explosive reactive armour, and an advanced air-defence gun to engage helicopters, a mine plough, an advanced land navigation system and a warning system which can fire smoke grenades to confuse laser guidance. Other upgrades are an enhanced Auxiliary power unit providing and improved gun barrel. DRDO chief VK Saraswat said the German engine on the current version of the tank would be replaced by an Indian power plant and the new variant (Arjun Mk-II) would have 90% indigenous component. Saraswat, also the scientific adviser to the defence minister, told HT at Aero India-2011: "The new variant will have high indigenous quotient, except for some hydraulic and electronic systems. The tank should be ready in early 2014. It will feature several modifications including superior missile firing capabilities." On June-2011 the Mk-II begun to undergo trials at Pokhran ranges in Rajasthan. The Mk-II is also expected to go through its winter trials later the same year. Arjun tank hull and turret has been modified to achieve the target weight of about 55 tons from 59-64 tons. Elbit is helping to enhance its firepower and battlefield survivability and IMI is helping to augment Arjun Mk IIâ€™s mobility, redesign its turret and hull and improve its production-line processes told Rahul Bedi, Jane's correspondent. FUTURE MBT The Arjun MKII variant is to be followed by the Futuristic Main Battle Tank (FMBT), which started development in 2010. The Indian Army plans to induct the FMBT from 2020 onwards. The FMBT will be a lighter tank of 50 tons. Urgently in need of capable tanks, the army has worked with DRDO to finalise a broad range of capabilities for the FMBT. These have been formalised in a document called the Preliminary Specifications Qualitative Requirement (PSQR). The detailed specifications of the FMBT, once finalised, will be listed in General Staff Qualitative Requirements (GSQR). Amongst the capabilities being finalised for the GSQR are: active armour, which will shoot down enemy anti-tank projectiles before they strike the FMBT; extreme mobility, which makes the FMBT much harder to hit; the capability to operate in a nuclear-contaminated battlefield without exposing the crew to radiation; and the networked flow of information to the FMBT, providing full situational awareness to the crew, even when â€œbuttoned downâ€ inside the tank. Also being finalised is the FMBT armament, a key attribute that determines a tankâ€™s battlefield influence. The Arjun already has a heavy 120mm â€˜main gunâ€™, and two small-calibre machine guns; the recently ordered batch of 124 Arjuns will also fire anti-tank missiles through their main gun. The army wants all of those for the FMBT, with ranges enhanced through technological improvements. However, the DRDO chief ruled out an electromagnetic gun, the next generation in high-velocity guns towards which armament technology aspires. â€œThe Future MBT is not so far in the future,â€ Saraswat quipped. DRDO to develop army's next-generation tank (II)T-90S BHEESHMA MAIN BATTLE TANK, The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is a modernisation of the T-72 (it was originally to be called the T-72BU, later renamed to T-90) The T-90M Bhishma is a customized, improved version of the T-90S which India developed with assistance from Russia, Israel and France all of whom India has very close ties with. The tanks are equipped with the French-designed thermal sights and utilizes India's Kanchan explosive reactive armored plates. In April 2008, the Indian Army sent request for proposals to Rafael, BAE Systems, Raytheon, Rosoboronexport, Saab, and Germanyâ€™s IBD Deisenroth Engineering for an active protection system for the T-90S Bhishma. The contract is expected to be worth US$270 million . Saab's LEDS-150 has won the contract. The T-90M features the â€˜Kaktusâ€™ embedded explosive reactive armour (ERA) package on its frontal hull and turret-top (the T-90S has â€˜Kontakt-5â€™ ERA), is fitted with an enhanced environmental control system supplied by Israelâ€™s Kinetics Ltd for providing cooled air to the fighting compartment, has additional internal volume for housing the cryogenic cooling systems for new-generation thermal imagers like the THALES-built Catherine-FC thermal imager (operating in the 8-12 micrometre bandwidth). In all, India plans to have 1,640 T-90 tanks in service by 2018-2020. Armament T-90 tanks featuring 2A46M 125 mm smoothbore tank gun, NSV 12.7 mm AA machine gun and PKT 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun. The T-90's main armament is the 2A46M 125 mm smoothbore tank gun. This is a highly modified version of the Sprut anti-tank gun, and is the same gun used as the main armament on the T-80-series tanks. It can be replaced without dismantling the inner turret and is capable of firing armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS), high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT-FS), and high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) ammunition, as well as 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guided missiles. Protection T-90S Bhishma of Indian Army is fitted only with a "two-tiered" protection system: the first tier is the composite armour in the turret, second tier is third generation Kontakt-5 ERA. The first tier is the composite armour in the turret, consisting of basic armour shell with an insert of alternating layers of aluminum and plastics and a controlled deformation section. The second tier is third generation Kontakt-5 ERA (explosive reactive armor) which significantly degrades the penetrating power of kinetic-energy APFSDS ammunition and also these ERA blocks give the turret its distinctive angled "clam shell" appearance. NUMBER 8. COMBAT HELICOPTERS (I)LCH The 5.5-tonne twin engine LCH is a derivative of Dhruv ALH with tandem seating. The HAL developed LCH will supplement the 22 attack helicopters that India is seeking as part of an international tender. The Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is a derivative of Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv. It features tandem seating, instead of side by side as on the Dhruv, armor protection, and a glass cockpit. Its Shakti engine, jointly developed by HAL and Turbomeca of France, has been optimized for high altitude operations. Design Features The machine is a Low Observable (LO) design with reduced visual, aural, radar and infra red signatures. It features canted panels for lower radar cross section and IR suppressor for low IR signature.It has crashworthy landing gear for better survivability. The hingeless rotors and the powerful Shakti engines enable the easy manoeuvring of LCH even with weapons. Armament It will be armed with a 20mm turret twin-barrel gun, cluster bombs, rocket pods as well as air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles.It has a chin-mounted canon along with the helmet mounted sighting system, which gives the pilot the capability to look and fire at targets around the aircraft.The DRDO is reported to be developing the HELINA missile, a Nag derivative with an extended range of 7 km, to augment the helicopter's air-to-ground capability. Advanced Rotor Design Dr. Prasad Sampath, general manager of HAL's Rotary Wing Research & Design Center, told the press during Aero India 2011 that the LCH was â€˜probably the most agile design in the world because of its rotor Avionics Its advanced sensor suite, developed with the help of Israel, consists of CCD Camera, Forward looking infrared imaging technology and Laser range finder, facilitates target acquisition in all weather conditions and at night.The EW suite has been procured from SAAB, South Africa. The Helicopter would be fitted with a Data Link for network-centric operations facilitating the transfer of mission data to the other airborne platforms and ground stations operating in the network, thus facilitating the force multiplication. Role LCH is intended for use in air defense against slow moving aerial targets, destruction of enemy air defence operations, escort to special heliborne operations, support of combat search and rescue operations, anti-tank role and scout duties. Designed for anti-tank and anti-infantry roles with a maximum speed of 275 kmph (148kt), it will also be capable of high-altitude warfare since its operational ceiling will be 16,000 to 18,000 feet (5,490m). (II)AH-64D BLOCK III APACHE HELICOPTERS US government details AH-64D bid for Indian air force contract The AH-64D Apache Longbow, is equipped with an advanced sensor suite and a glass cockpit. The main improvement over the A-variant is the dome installed over the main rotor, housing the AN/APG-78 Longbow millimeter-wave Fire Control Radar (FCR) target acquisition system and the Radar Frequency Interferometer (RFI).[ The raised position of the radome enables the detection of targets and launching of missiles while the helicopter is behind obstacles (e.g. terrain, trees or buildings). A radio modem integrated with the sensor suite allows data to be shared with other D-models; allowing them to fire on targets detected by a single helicopter. The aircraft is powered by a pair of uprated T700-GE-701C engines. The forward fuselage of the aircraft was expanded to accommodate new systems for improved crashworthiness, survivability, navigation, and 'tactical internet' communications capabilities. The first of the upgraded Block II Apaches was delivered to the US Army in February 2003. Block II includes upgrades to the digital communications systems. Block III aircraft include the following upgrades: improved digital connectivity, the joint tactical radio system, enhanced engines and drive systems, capability to control UAVs, new composite rotor blade, full IFR capability and improved landing gear. The new blades, which successfully completed flight testing in May 2004, increased the Apache's cruise speed, climb rate and payload capability.The US Army now plans to field the first Block III equipped unit in November 2012. The Army awarded a contract to begin initial production of Block III helicopters in October 2010. Throughout 2011, AH-64Ds will be upgraded with VNsight low-light television sensors (LLTV), allowing ambient lighting such as street lights, beacons, and headlights to be viewable; which existing thermal imagers cannot do. Armament Guns: 1Ã— 30 Ã— 113 mm (1.18 Ã— 4.45 in) M230 Chain Gun with 1,200 rounds Hardpoints: Up to 6 pylon stations on stub wing Rockets: Hydra 70 air-to-ground rockets Missiles: combination of AGM-114 Hellfire, AIM-9 Sidewinder, and AIM-92 Stinger NUMBER 7.BOEING P-8I POSEIDON MARITIME MULTIMISSION AIRCRAFT (MMA) Performance The aircraft will be armed with sonobuoys, torpedos and Harpoon anti-ship missiles. So far India has not conveyed to Boeing any interest in arming the aircraft with the Brahmos missiles. Sensor Suite For spotting and tracking threats it is equipped with *An upgraded Raytheon APS137 Maritime Surveillance Radar designated AN/APY-10 with 240 degrees forward coverage. *Telephonics APS-143C(V)3 Multi-Mode Radar (MMR) for aft coverage. The radar is also fitted on aircraft such as the USCG HC-144A Maritime Patrol Aircraft, and HU-25D Falcon Jet. The APS-143 is featured on most international S-70 Naval Hawk helicopters and certain NH-90, Super Lynx and other Maritime Helicopters. *Electro-optical / infrared sensors from Northrop Grumman's Electronic Systems *A rotary internal re loadable pneumatically controlled sonobuoy launcher. *Canadian firm CAE's AN/ASQ-508A Advanced Integrated Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) System. SIGINT equipment. Self Protection Suite * Towed Decoy Self Protection * Infrared countermeasures Weapon Suite At the Singapore air show in February 2010, Boeing revealed that the Indian Navy had sought Raytheon Fish Hawk GPS-guidance wing kit along with MK-54 anti-submarine torpedoes as part of the weapons package. Mk-54 Torpedo Characteristics Torpedo Glide Kits The Mk-54 torpedo can be released from a height of 20,000 feet using a glide kit consisting of wings, control flaps, a flight control computer, battery and GPS for navigation.The kit enables the torpedo to glide for 10-15 kilometers, down to about 100 meters altitude. The kit is then jettisoned and the torpedo plunges into the water to seek out the target sub.Releasing the torpedo from a height allows the aircraft to continue with its surveillance and stay outside the range of any anti-aircraft missile equipped submarine. AGM-84L Harpoon Block II Missiles The aircraft will be equipped with Harpoon Block II anti-ship missile systems. India has signed a package worth $200 million (over Rs 900 crore) for the supply of 21 missile along with associated equipment, parts and logistical support under FMS. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency has notified the US Congress of the possible sale. AN/APY-10 Raytheon will supply an international version of the AN/APY-10 radar for use on the P-8I. The radar is capable of long-range surface search and target tracking, periscope detection in high sea states, ship imaging and classification using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for overland surveillance, ground mapping, and targeting. High-resolution ISAR can be used to image and classify small, fast-moving vessels that operate close to the shore. SAR facilitates imaging stationary ships and boats as well as coastal and overland surveillance. The new SAR mode in the AN/APY-10 provides multiple resolution strip map and spot SAR operation, and has high-resolution capability for target ID, battle damage assessment (BDA), and targeting. NUMBER 6.AWACS (I)PHALCON In March 2004 India signed a $1.1 billion deal with Israel for the supply of three AWACS aircraft based on the IL-76MF airframe.The A-50EI systems being supplied to India are based on IL-76MF airframe built by Uzbekistan's Tashkent Aircraft Production Organization (TAPO). Russia's Beriev Taganrog Aviation Scientific and Engineering Complex (TANTK) is responsible for customizing the airframe, including fitting the radar radom. Israel's IAI is fitting the mission sensors and management suite. Design and features The EL/M-2075 is a solid-state L-band conformal array radar system for use on a Boeing 707 and other aircraft. Phalcon, as the complete AEW mission suite is referred to, is intended for airborne early warning, tactical surveillance of airborne and surface targets and intelligence gathering. It also integrates the command and control capabilities needed to employ this information. The system uses six panels of phased-array elements: two on each side of the fuselage, one in an enlarged nosecone and one under the tail. Each array consists of 768 liquid-cooled, solid-state transmitting and receiving elements, each of which is weighted in phase and amplitude. These elements are driven by individual modules and every eight modules are connected to a transmit/receive group. Groups of 16 of these eight module batches are linked back to what is described as a prereceive/transmit unit, and a central six-way control is used to switch the pre-transmit/receive units of the different arrays on a time division basis. As used in its Chilean Boeing 707-based application, the lateral fairings measured approximately 12 Ã— 2 m and were mounted on floating beds to prevent airframe flexing degrading the radar accuracy. Each array scans a given azimuth sector, providing a total coverage of 360Â°. Scanning is carried out electronically in both azimuth and elevation. Radar modes include high PRF search and full track, track-while-scan, a slow scan detection mode for hovering and low-speed helicopters (using rotor blade returns) and a low PRF ship detection mode. Instead of using a rotodome, a moving radar found on some AEW&C aircraft, the Phalcon uses the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), an active phased array radar. This radar consists of an array transmit/receive (T/R) modules that allow a beam to be electronically steered, making a physically rotating rotodome unnecessary. AESA radars operate on a pseudorandom set of frequencies and also have very short scanning rates, which makes them difficult to detect and jam. Up to 100 targets can be tracked simultaneously to a range of 200 nmi (370 km), while at the same time, over a dozen air-to-air interception or air-to-ground attack can be guided. The radar can be mounted on the an aircraft's fuselage or on the top inside a small dome. Either position gives the radar 360 degree coverage. The phased array radar allows positions of aircraft on operator screens to be updated every 2â€“4 seconds, rather than every 20â€“40 seconds as is the case on the rotodome AWACS. Additional Sensors In August 2010, Flight Magazine reported that India had sought modification to the third IL-76 to be delivered by Russia to Israel's Elta system for fitting the Phalcon radar system. The modification will allow additional systems to be fitted. The additional systems were unidentified. The need for the additional systems was felt by the IAF after operating the two systems already delivered to India. Elta's parent company, IAI, had no comment on the request, but it is believed that the additional systems may include sensors that would improve the "threat picture" even under adverse conditions, Flight reported. (II) EMB-145 AEW&CS project The Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEWACS) is a project being undertaken by India's Defence Research & Development Organization to develop an AWACS for the Indian Air Force The DRDO AEWACS program aims to deliver three radar equipped surveillance aircraft to the Indian Air Force. The aircraft platform will be the Embraer ERJ 145. Three ERJ 145 are to be procured at a cost of US $ 300 Million, for the project. The aim is to deploy these AEW & C aircraft by 2013.Apart from providing the Indian Air Force with a cheaper and hence, more flexible AEW & C platform as a backup to its more capable Phalcon class systems, the local AEW & C project aims to develop the ability to locally design and operationalize airborne surveillance platforms. Capabilities The AEWACS aircraft will have a locally developed AESA primary radar with IFF. The system will also have ESM (Electronic Support Measures), CSM (Communications Support Measures) ability. Datalinks to network the AEWACS with fighters, and ground based control systems will also be provided, as will be a SATCOM (Satellite Communication System). The aircraft will also have a comprehensive self defence suite. The entire avionics suite will be linked via a datahandling system, controlled by Mission computers. Key features The DRDO has released an overview of the AEWACS aircraft. The Radar will have an extended range mode against fighter aircraft, and will consist of two back to back AESA arrays, with an additional dedicated IFF array. The ESM system will be able to track sources with a directional accuracy of 2 deg. RMS and a frequency accuracy of 1 MHz. The ESM system will have complete 360 degree coverage in azimuth and have a database of up to 3000 emitters against which threats will be scanned. Communication Support Measure system will analyse and record intercepted communications both inflight and post flight. Self Protection Suite will have a passive Missile Approach Warning System, a Radar Warning Receiver and countermeasures dispensers. The SPS will be integrated with the ESM & CSM suite. The aircraft will have Inflight refuelling. The aircraft will have SATCOM, and datalinks to pass on ESM, CSM and radar data to ground stations and datalinks to pass on target information to fighters. More than 40 other aircraft will be datalinked together by the AEW & C aircraft. (III)ADVANCED HAWKEYE E-2D The latest version of the E-2, the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, is currently under development and the first two aircraft, "Delta One" and "Delta Two" are in flight testing. The E-2D features an entirely new avionics suite, including the new APY-9 radar, radio suite, mission computer, integrated satellite communications capability, flight management system, improved turboprop engines, a new "glass cockpit", and the added capability for air-to-air refueling. The APY-9 radar features an Active Electronically Scanned Array, which adds electronic scanning to the mechanical rotation of the radar in its radome. The E-2D will include provisions for either one of the pilots to act as a Tactical 4th Operator, who will have access to the full range of the mission's acquired data. Shore Based Version Sought The E-2D has a limited endurance and is designed to operate from aircraft carriers using a steam catapult, something Indian carriers are not equipped with. Both, the currently operational but aging INS Viraat, and the on-order INS Vikramaditya are fitted with ski jumps, not steam catapults, to assist take offs. The E-2D cannot be based on either of the two carriers. The Indian Navy has asked for a shore based version of the E-2D with enhanced endurance. Lockheed has signed a MOU with HAL to replace E-2D's folding wings, required for carrier operations, with wet non folding wings that can carry additional fuel, allowing the aircraft to stay airborne for up to 8 hours without refueling. The E-2D is equipped with the newly developed AN/APY-9 radar which has a good surface surveillance capability. India currently relies on the ageing Soviet era Tu-142M to monitor its 7,500 km. (4,660 mi.). The use of E-2D will increase Indian Navy's surveillance capability by 300%. The limited range of aircraft, and the fact that it cannot be based on a carrier does not pose a serious constraint to the Indian Navy, which is not a blue water navy like the US, but a regional force.