Thirukkural / Holy Kural

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  1. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    Thirukkural (Tamil: திருக்குறள் also known as the Kural) is a classic of couplets or Kurals (1330 rhyming Tamil couplets) or aphorisms celebrated by Tamils. It was authored by Thiruvalluvar, and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics in Dravidian literature. Although the exact period of its composition is still disputed, scholars agree that it was produced before the 4th century A.D. The Thirukkural expounds on various aspects of life and is one of the most important works in the Tamil language. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is known: Tamil marai (Tamil Veda); poyyamozhi (words that never fail); and teyva nul or dheiva nool (divine text). The book is considered to be a posterior to Arthashastra by some historians and to precede Manimekalai and Silapathikaram since both the latter acknowledge the Kural text.


    Thirukkural (or the Kural) is a collection of 1330 Tamil couplets organised into 133 chapters. Each chapter has a specific subject ranging from "ploughing a piece of land" to "ruling a country". According to the LIFCO Tamil-Tamil-English dictionary, the Tamil word Kural means Venpa verse with two lines. Thirukkural comes under one of the four categories of Venpas (Tamil verses) called Kural Venpa. The 1330 couplets are arranged into 3 main sections and 133 chapters. Each chapter contains 10 couplets. A couplet consists of seven cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second. A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil word. For example, Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words Thiru and Kural, i.e. Thiru + Kural = Thirukkural. It has been translated to various other languages

    There are claims and counter claims as to the authorship of the book and to the exact number of couplets written by Thiruvalluvar. The first instance of the author's name mentioned as Thiruvalluvar is found to be several centuries later in a song of praise called Garland of Thiruvalluvar in Thiruvalluva Malai.[5]

    Most of the Researchers and great Tamil Scholars like George Uglow Pope or G.U. Pope who had spent many years in Tamil Nadu and translated many Tamil texts into English, which includes Thirukkural, have recognised Thiruvalluvar as a Paraiyar. Karl Graul (1814–1864) had already by 1855 characterized the Tirukkural as 'a work of Buddhist hue'. In this connection it was then of particular interest that Thiruvalluvar, the author of the Tirukkural was identified as a Paraiyar in Tamil tradition (as, incidentally, were also other famous ancient Tamil writers, e.g., Auvaiyar ; cf. Pope 1886: i–ii, x–xi). Graul might have subsumed the Jains also under the name of the Buddhists (Graul 1865: xi note).

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  3. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    The Thirukkural is divided into three sections. They are (in this order):

    அறத்துப்பால் - Araththuppaal: On law/virtue [see also Dharma]
    பொருட்பால் - Porutpaal: On wealth/politics [see also Artha]
    காமத்துப்பால் - Kamaththuppaal: On desire/love [see also Kama]
     
  4. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    Translations
    The Latin translation of Thirukkural made by Constanzo Beschi in 1730 did much to make known to European intellectuals the richness and beauty of Oriental Tamil literature. One of the earliest commentaries on the Thirukkural was by Parimelazhagar, belonging to the 12th century. His commentary (Urai) give us an idea of the amount of information contained in each and every kural. A lot of software are available these days for installing Kurals in desktops. The software based Kural (poem) changes each day and you get the kural and its explanation in both English and Tamil. An English Translation of Tirukural by GU Pope brought the Tirukkural to the western world in 1886. This work is widely revered and accepted in many parts of the world. Pope's translation can be viewed from the website http://pm.tamil.net/pub/pm0153/trkrlpop.html?q=projectmadurai/pub/pm0153/trkrlpop.html

    The following is a list of translations/commentaries of the Tamil literary classic THIRUKURAL - taken out from the Encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature, vol. 1, Inst. of Asian Studies, Thiruvanmayur, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Bengali

    Nalini Mohan, Sanyal, thirukural, Calcutta, 1939
    Sastri, E.C., thirukural, Calcutta, 1974
    Nalini Mohan, Sanyal, thirukural, Calcutta, 1939
    Sastri, E.C., thirukural, Calcutta, 1974
    Krishnamoorthy, S. Calcutta, 2001
    Burmese

    Myo Thant, U, thirukkural, Rangoon
    Chinese

    Cheng Xi 程曦, Gula Zhenyan 古臘箴言, Hong Kong: Xianggang daxue chubanshe 香港大學出版社, 1967.
    Czech

    Zvelebil, Kamil V, Thirukural (selections), Prague, 1952–1954
    Dutch

    Kat, D, Thirukural (selections), Netherlands, 1964
    English

    Aiyar, V.V.S, Kural_: Maxims of thiruvalluvar, 4th ed, Madras, 1961
    Balasubramanian, K.M, Thirukural of thiruvalluvar, Madras, 1962
    Chakravarthi, A, thirukural in English with commentary, Madras, 1953
    Drew, H.W., The kural of thiruvalluvar with commentary of Parimelazhakar, Madras, 1840
    Drew, H.W. and Lazarus, J., Thirukural (in verses), Reprint, Madras, 1956
    Ellis, F.W., thirukural on virtue (in verse) with commentary, 1812, reprint Madras 1955
    Gajapathy Nayagar, A, The rosary of gems of thirukkural, Madras, 1969
    Kasturi Srinivasan, Thirukural: an ancient Tamil classic (in couplets), Bombay, 1969
    Mathavaiyah, A, Kural in English with commentary in Tamil, Madras, 1925
    Michael, S.M., The sacred aphorisms of thiruvalluvar (in verse), Nagarcoil, 1928
    Muthuswamy, P, Thirukural in English, Madurai, 1965
    Parameswaran Aiyar, T.V., 108 gems from the sacred Kural, Kottayam, 1928
    Parameswaran Pillai, V.K., kural, Madras
    Pope, G.U, A collection of the English translation of thirukural, Madras, 1959
    Popely, H.A., The sacred Kural (selections in verses), Calcutta, 1951
    Raja, P, thirukural (in verses), Kumbakonam, 1950
    Rajagopalachari, C, kural, the great book of thiruvalluvar, Madras, 1937, 3rd ed, 1973
    Ramachandra Dikshithar, V.R., thirukural in English with roman translation, Madras, 1949
    Ranganatha Muthaliar, A: thirukural moolamum uraiyum with English translation, Madras, 1933
    Thangaswami, T.D, thirukural (selections in verse), Madras, 1954
    Thirunavukarasu, Mrs, T., Kural a selection of 366 verses (a gem for each day), Poona, 1916
    Vadivel chettiar, K, kural in English with Tamil text and parimelazhakar commentary,(3parts), Madurai, 1972–1980
    Vanmikinathan, G, the thirukural - a unique guide to moral, material and spiritual prosperity, trichy, 1969
    Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi: Thirukural with English couplets, Madrs, 1968
    Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi, thirukural couplets with clear prose rendering, Madras, 1970
    Fijian

    Berwick, S.L, Na. Thirukkurala, Fiji, 1964
    Geraghty, Paul. Tirukurali, Fiji, 2008
    Finnish

    Aalto, Pentit, Kural - the ancient Tamil classic, Finland, 1972
    French

    Ariel, M, kural de thiruvalluvar (traduits du tamoul), Paris, 1848
    Barrigue de, Fontaineu, G, le livre de l'amour de thiruvalluva, Paris, 1889
    Danielou, Alain, thiruvallouvar kural, Pondicherry, 1942
    Jacolliot, Louis, kural de thiruvalluvar, selections, Paris, 1767
    Lamairesse, M, thirukural in French, Pondicherry, 1867
    Gros, François, Le Livre de l'Amour, Gallimard, Collection UNESCO, Paris, 1992
    German

    Albrecht, Fenz and K. Lalithambal: thirukural von thiruvalluvar aus dem Tamil, Madurai, 1977
    Cammera, A.F, thirukural waith German translation, Leipzig, 1803
    Graul, Karl, der kural des thiruvalluvar, London, 1854
    Graul, Karl, der tamu lische gnomes dichtar thiruvalluvar, Leipzig, 1865
    Rickert, Friederich, thirukural, selections, Berlin, 1847
    William and Norgate, Der kural des thiruvalluvar, 2nd ed, London, 1866
    Gujarati

    Kalani, Kantilal L., thirukural in Gujarati, Bombay, 1971 (Gujarti - Philosopher - Writer in Gujarati Literature - [1930-1998]. Kantilal has won many prices for his books and has written more than 60 books. One of his Co-profound translation is “VISHNU SAHSTRNAM”.
    Hindi

    Sankar Raju Naidu, S, thirukural in Hindi, Madras, 1958
    Seshadri, K, thirukural in Hindi, Lucknow, 1982
    Govindaraj Jain, Kural in verse, first two parts, New delhi, 1942
    Jain, B.D, thirukural, thirupananthal, 1961
    Khenand Rakar, thirukural, parts 1 and 2, Ajmer, 1924
    Rajan Pillai, thirukural, Lucknow, 1976
    Venkatakrishnan, M.G, thirukural, Trichy, 1964
    Japanese

    Shuzo Matsunaga, Thirukkural, Osaka, Japan, August 1981
    Kannada

    Gundappa, L, thirukural (3 parts), Madras, 1960
    Gundappa, L, thirukural dharma bhaga, Bangalore, 1955
    Srinivas, P.S, thirukural with original couplets and translations in Kannada, Madurai, 1982
    Srikanthaiah, B.M, Kural (selections in verses), bangalore, 1940
    Latin

    Graul, Charles, Kural of thiruvalluvar, Tranquebar, 1866
    Veeramamunivar, thirukural (Books I and II), London, 1930
    Malay

    Dr.G.Soosai Ph.D,J.P.,P.P.N,P.K.T.,Thirukkural Kitab Murni Tamil Nadu.,Kuala Lumpur,1978 & 1991
    Ismail, Hussein: thirukural sastera kalasik Tamil yang, Kuala Lumpur, 1967
    Ramily Bin Thakir thirukural (in verses), Kuala Lumpur, 1964
    Malayalam

    Azhakathu Kurup, thirukural in verses, Trivandrum, 1875
    Balakrishna Nair, G, Kural waith commentary, Part I, Trivandrum, 1963
    Chellan Nadar, K, thirukural tharmanaskantam, Parassala, 1962
    Damodaran Pillai,P, thirukural manikal, Trivandrum, 1951
    Gopalakurup, Vennikulam, thirukural (first 2 parts in verse), Kottayam, 1960
    Govinda Pillai, A, thirukural, Trivandrum
    Thirukkural Malayalam Vivarthanam Published by DC Books Kottayam Written By S. Ramesan Nair
    Oriya

    Kishrod, Dash Ch, thirukuralu-in oriya language, Sampalbur, 1985
    Punjabi

    Ram Murti Sharma, thirukural dhamma granth of the tamils, Chandigarh, 1983
    Polish

    Umadevi, Wandy Dynowskiev, thiruvalluvar kural, Madras, 1958
    Rajasthani

    Kamala Gurg, thirukural needhi sastra, Jaipur, 1982
    Russian

    Glazov, J.J and Krishnamurthi, A, thirukural, a book on virtu, politics and love, Moscow, 1963
    Ibragimov, A., Thirukural in couplets with illustrations, Moscow, 1974
    Sanskrit

    Srirama Desikan, S.N, thirukural in Sanskrit slokas, Madras, 1961, 1968
    Saurashtra

    Ram, S.S, Saurastra thirukural payiram - pitika pragaranam, Madurai, 1980
    Sinhala

    De Silva, Charles, Sirigiya (thirukural in sinhalese), Colombo, 1964
    Sissigamy Govokgada, M, thirukural, Colombo, 1961
    Swedish

    Frykholm Ingya, thirukural, Uddavalla, 1971
    Telugu

    Jagannatha Sastri, Mudiganthi, thiruvalluva sookthalu, West Godavari, 1952
    Lakshminarayana Sastri, Kural, chittoor, 1906
    Urdu

    Kohan, Muhamad Yusuf, Kural in Urdu and Arabic, Madras, 1976
    Surawathi Hasarat, Kural in Urdu, New Delhi, 1966
     
  5. Godless-Kafir

    Godless-Kafir DFI Buddha Senior Member

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    Thirukural is a better guide to life than Quran! It does ask to defend it or ask to fight to preserve its ideas.
     
  6. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    1.1.1 The Praise of God


    1. 'A' leads letters; the Ancient Lord
    Leads and lords the entire world.

    அகர முதல எழுத்தெல்லாம் ஆதி
    பகவன் முதற்றே உலகு
     
    Last edited: Nov 7, 2010
  7. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    Thirukural explains about all the factors in the life like how a human should lead his life. This is not biased on any religion unlike others. It is universal philosophy for all the people. I wish people to read this and try to follow some of the teachings given in that.
     
  8. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Thx praveen for opening this thread atleat mancand agan from now will be busy in this thread instead of casting evil eye on my shayari thread.....:happy_2:
     
  9. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    2. கற்றதனால் ஆய பயனென்கொல் வாலறிவன்
    நற்றாள் தொழாஅர் எனின்.

    That lore is vain which does not fall
    At His good feet who knoweth all.
     
  10. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    மலர்மிசை ஏகினான் மாணடி சேர்ந்தார்
    நிலமிசை நீடுவாழ் வார்.

    3. Long they live on earth who gain
    The feet of God in florid brain.
     
  11. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    4.Who hold His feet who likes nor loathes
    Are free from woes of human births.

    வேண்டுதல் வேண்டாமை இலானடி சேர்ந்தார்க்கு
    யாண்டும் இடும்பை இல.
     
  12. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    5.God's praise who tell, are free from right
    And wrong, the twins of dreaming night.

    இருள்சேர் இருவினையும் சேரா இறைவன்
    பொருள்சேர் புகழ்புரிந்தார் மாட்டு.
     
  13. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    6.They prosper long who walk His way
    Who has the senses signed away.

    பொறிவாயில் ஐந்தவித்தான் பொய்தீர் ஒழுக்க
    நெறிநின்றார் நீடுவாழ் வார்.
     
  14. utubekhiladi

    utubekhiladi The Preacher Elite Member

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  15. KS

    KS Bye bye DFI Veteran Member

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    Valluvan ezhuthiya moondram paal..atharkuk kaaranam en Thamilachi.....:)
     
  16. KS

    KS Bye bye DFI Veteran Member

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    “I wanted to learn Tamil, only to enable me to study Valluvar’s Thirukkural through his mother tongue itself…. It is a treasure of wisdom…” - Mahatma Gandhi ji.

    "There hardly exists in the literature of the world a collection of maxims in which we find such lofty wisdom as in Thirukkural."
    - Dr. Albert Schweitzer, Nobel Laureate
     

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