The Role Of Women In India From Bc To Ce

Discussion in 'Religion & Culture' started by Samar Rathi, May 26, 2015.

  1. Samar Rathi

    Samar Rathi Regular Member

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    The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.[2][2] From equal status with men in ancient times[3] through the low points of the medieval period,[4] to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history of women in India has been eventful. In modern India, women have held high offices in India including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha and Leader of the Opposition.

    As of 2011, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha (Lower House of the parliament) were women. However, women in India continue to face atrocities such as rape, acid throwing, dowry killings, and the forced prostitution of young girls.

    History
    Ancient India
    According to scholars, women in ancient India enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life.Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayanasuggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period. Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were probably free to select their own husbands.Scriptures such as the Rig Veda and Upanishads mention several women sages and seers, notably Gargi and Maitreyi.

    There are very few texts specifically dealing with the role of women an important exception is the Stri Dharma Paddhati of Tryambakayajvan, an official at Thanjavur c. 1730. The text compiles strictures on women's behaviour dating back to the Apastamba sutra (c. 4th century BCE).[14] The opening verse goes:

    mukhyo dharmaH smr^tiShu vihito bhartr^shushruShANam hi :
    women are enjoined to be of service to their husbands.
    Some kingdoms in ancient India had traditions such as nagarvadhu ("bride of the city"). Women competed to win the coveted title of nagarvadhu. Amrapali is the most famous example of a nagarvadhu.

    According to studies, women enjoyed equal status and rights during the early Vedic period.[15] However in approximately 500 B.C., the status of women began to decline, and with the Islamic invasion of Babur and the Mughal empire and Christianity later worsened women's freedom and rights.[4]

    Although reform movements such as Jainism allowed women to be admitted to religious orders, by and large women in India faced confinement and restrictions.[15] The practice of child marriages is believed to have started around the sixth century.[16]

    Medieval period[edit]
    [​IMG]
    Krishna at Goddesss Radharani's feet.
    Indian women's position in society further deteriorated during the medieval period,[4][8] when child marriages and a ban on remarriage by widows became part of social life in some communities in India. The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent brought purdah to Indian society. Among the Rajputs of Rajasthan, the Jauhar was practised. In some parts of India, some of Devadasis were sexually exploited. Polygamy was practised among Hindu Kshatriya rulers for some political reasons.[16] In many Muslim families, women were restricted to Zenana areas of the house.

    In spite of these conditions, women often became prominent in the fields of politics, literature, education and religion.[4] Razia Sultanabecame the only woman monarch to have ever ruled Delhi. The Gond queen Durgavati ruled for fifteen years before losing her life in a battle with Mughal emperor Akbar's general Asaf Khan in 1564. Chand Bibi defended Ahmednagar against the powerful Mughalforces of Akbar in the 1590s. Jehangir's wife Nur Jehan effectively wielded imperial power, and was recognized as the real power behind the Mughal throne. The Mughal princesses Jahanara and Zebunnissa were well-known poets, and also influenced the ruling powers. Shivaji's mother, Jijabai, was queen regent because of her ability as a warrior and an administrator. In South India, many women administered villages, towns, and divisions, and ushered in new social and religious institutions.[16]

    The Bhakti movements tried to restore women's status and questioned certain forms of oppression.[15] Mirabai, a female saint-poet, was one of the most important Bhakti movement figures. Other female saint-poets from this period included Akka Mahadevi, Rami Janabai and Lal Ded. Bhakti sects within Hinduism such as the Mahanubhav, Varkari and many others were principle movements within the Hindu fold openly advocating social justice and equality between men and women.

    Immediately following the Bhakti movements, Guru Nanak, the first Guru of Sikhs, preached equality between men and women. He advocated that women be allowed to lead religious assemblies; to lead congregational hymn singing called Kirtan or Bhajan; to become members of religious management committees; to lead armies on the battlefield; to have equality in marriage, and to have equality in Amrit (Baptism). Other Sikh Gurus also preached the same, but their practices were often regarded to be a breach of women rights.

    Historical practices
    Traditions such as Sati, Jauhar, and Devadasi among some communities have been banned and are largely defunct in modern India. However, some instances of these practices are still found in remote parts of India. The purdah is still practiced by Indian women in some communities. Child marriage remains common in rural areas, although it is illegal under current Indian law.

    Sati
    Sati is an old, almost completely defunct custom among some communities, in which the widow was immolated alive on her husband's funeral pyre. Although the act was supposed to be voluntary on the widow's part, its practice is forbidden by the Hindu scriptures in Kali yuga, the current age.[17] After the foreign invasions of Indian subcontinent, this practice started to mark its presence, as women were often raped or kidnapped by the foreign forces.[18] It was abolished by the British in 1829. There have been around forty reported cases of sati since independence.[19] In 1987, the Roop Kanwar case in Rajasthan led to The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act.[20]
    Jauhar
    Jauhar refers to the practice of voluntary immolation by wives and daughters of defeated warriors, in order to avoid capture and consequent molestation by the enemy. The practice was followed by the wives of defeated Rajput rulers, who are known to place a high premium on honour. Evidently such practice took place during the Islamic invasions of India.[21]
    Purdah
    Purdah is the practice among some Muslim communities requiring women to cover themselves so as to conceal their faces and form from males. It imposes restrictions on the mobility of women, curtails their right to interact freely.[citation needed]
    Devadasis
    Devadasi is often misunderstood as religious practice. It was practised in southern India, in which women were "married" to a deity or temple. The ritual was well-established by the 10th century A.D.[22] By 1988, the practice was outlawed in the country.[23]

    British rule
    European scholars observed in the 18th century that Hindu women are "naturally chaste" and "more virtuous" than other women.[24] During the British Raj, many reformers such as Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Jyotirao Phule fought for the betterment of women. Peary Charan Sarkar, a former student of Hindu College, Calcutta and a member of "Young Bengal", set up the first free school for girls in India in 1847 in Barasat, a suburb of Calcutta (later the school was named Kalikrishna Girls' High School).

    While this might suggest that there was no positive British contribution during the Raj era, that is not entirely the case. Missionaries' wives such as Martha Mault née Mead and her daughter Eliza Caldwell née Mault are rightly remembered for pioneering the education and training of girls in south India. This practice was initially met with local resistance, as it flew in the face of tradition. Raja Rammohan Roy's efforts led to the abolition of Sati under Governor-General William Cavendish-Bentinck in 1829. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's crusade for improvement in the situation of widows led to the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856. Many women reformers such as Pandita Ramabai also helped the cause of women.

    Kittur Chennamma, queen of the princely state Kittur in Karnataka,[25] led an armed rebellion against the British in response to the Doctrine of lapse. Abbakka Rani, queen of coastal Karnataka, led the defence against invading European armies, notably the Portuguese in the 16th century. Rani Lakshmi Bai, the Queen of Jhansi, led the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British. She is now widely considered as a national hero. Begum Hazrat Mahal, the co-ruler of Awadh, was another ruler who led the revolt of 1857. She refused deals with the British and later retreated to Nepal. The Begums of Bhopal were also considered notable female rulers during this period. They did not observe purdah and were trained in martial arts.

    Chandramukhi Basu, Kadambini Ganguly and Anandi Gopal Joshi were some of the earliest Indian women to obtain a degree.

    In 1917, the first women's delegation met the Secretary of State to demand women's political rights, supported by the Indian National Congress. The All India Women's Education Conference was held in Pune in 1927, it became a major organisation in the movement for social change.[15][26] In 1929, the Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed, stipulating fourteen as the minimum age of marriage for a girl.[15][27][full citation needed] Though Mahatma Gandhi himself married at the age of thirteen, he later urged people to boycott child marriages and called upon young men to marry child widows.[28]

    Women played an important part in India's independence struggle. Some famous freedom fighters include Bhikaji Cama, Dr. Annie Besant, Pritilata Waddedar, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kriplani and Kasturba Gandhi. Other notable names include Muthulakshmi Reddy and Durgabai Deshmukh. The Rani of Jhansi Regiment of Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army consisted entirely of women, including Captain Lakshmi Sahgal. Sarojini Naidu, a poet and freedom fighter, was the first Indian woman to become President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to become the governor of a state in India.


    Independent India
    [​IMG]
    Female Safety Index per state according to the Tata Strategic Management Group. Light green indicates greatest safety; yellow, medium safety and light red, least safety.
    Women in India now participate fully in areas such as education, sports, politics, media, art and culture, service sectors, science and technology, etc.[4] Indira Gandhi, who served as Prime Minister of India for an aggregate period of fifteen years, is the world's longest serving woman Prime Minister.[29]

    The Constitution of India guarantees to all Indian women equality (Article 14), no discrimination by the State (Article 15(1)), equality of opportunity (Article 16), and equal pay for equal work (Article 39(d)). In addition, it allows special provisions to be made by the State in favour of women and children (Article 15(3)), renounces practices derogatory to the dignity of women (Article 51(A) (e)), and also allows for provisions to be made by the State for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. (Article 42).[30]

    Feminist activism in India gained momentum in the late 1970s. One of the first national-level issues that brought women's groups together was the Mathura rape case. The acquittal of policemen accused of raping a young girl Mathura in a police station led to country-wide protests in 1979-1980. The protests, widely covered by the national media, forced the Government to amend the Evidence Act, the Criminal Procedure Code, and the Indian Penal Code; and created a new offence, custodial rape.[30] Female activists also united over issues such as female infanticide, gender bias, women's health, women's safety, and women's literacy.

    Since alcoholism is often associated with violence against women in India,[31] many women groups launched anti-liquor campaigns in Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and other states.[30] Many Indian Muslim women have questioned the fundamental leaders' interpretation of women's rights under the Shariat law and have criticized the triple talaq system.[15]

    In 1990s, grants from foreign donor agencies enabled the formation of new women-oriented NGOs. Self-help groups and NGOs such as Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA) have played a major role in the advancement of women's rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local movements; for example, Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan.

    The Government of India declared 2001 as the Year of Women's Empowerment (Swashakti).[15] The National Policy For The Empowerment Of Women came was passed in 2001.[32]

    In 2006, the case of Imrana, a Muslim rape victim, was highlighted by the media. Imrana was raped by her father-in-law. The pronouncement of some Muslim clerics that Imrana should marry her father-in-law led to widespread protests, and finally Imrana's father-in-law was sentenced to 10 years in prison. The verdict was welcomed by many women's groups and the All India Muslim Personal Law Board.[33]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_India

    This is just a start up platform to discuss all party who are involved in this feminist bullshit or trying to defend against them to share their point so we can start the discussion in one thread rather than discussing in all over the forum.

    @Rowdy @Rashna @Sakal Gharelu Ustad @rock127 @prohumanity @SREEKAR @anupamsurey @jackprince
     
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  3. Samar Rathi

    Samar Rathi Regular Member

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    If you look up the world then you can see india has done a lot than others western country and far better in whole asia if you compare to japan and china etc

    [​IMG]
     
  4. Samar Rathi

    Samar Rathi Regular Member

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    [​IMG]
    In some countries, male respondents are considerably more likely than female respondents to agree that men should have more right to a job than women when jobs are scarce. For example, about nine-in-ten Egyptian men (92%) share this view, compared with 58% of Egyptian women. Similarly, while about three-quarters of Jordanian men (77%) say their sex should be more entitled to a job in tough economic times, a much slimmer majority of Jordanian women (56%) say the same

    [​IMG]
     
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  5. Samar Rathi

    Samar Rathi Regular Member

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    Indians Support Gender Equality But Still Give Men Edge in Workplace, Higher Education
    By Michael Remez, Senior Writer, Pew Research Center for the People & the Press

    [​IMG]
    The recent gang rape and killing of a young woman in New Delhi – and the subsequent protests – have focused worldwide attention on gender issues in India. A 2010 Pew Global Attitudes Project survey that examined attitudes about gender around the world sheds some light on how public opinion in India compares to the other 21 nations surveyed.

    Fully 92% of Indians said that women should have equal rights with men. But when asked specifically which gender should take priority in the workplace during tough times or in higher education, attitudes in India are less supportive of gender equality than in many other countries around the world.1 (The survey did not include specific questions about sexual harassment or rape.)

    Virtually all Indians (95%) agreed that women should be able to work outside the home. But more than eight-in-ten (84%) said that when jobs are scarce, men “should have more right to a job than women.” That response made India stand out – it was among the highest percentages in the nations surveyed; a similar percentage (82%) said this in Pakistan.

    By comparison, 97% of Americans said women should be able to work outside the home, while just 14% said that when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job. That was among the lowest percentage on this question, comparable to the 12% that said this in Britain and Spain.

    The view that men get more opportunities than women for jobs that pay well, even when women are as qualified for the job, was widespread in most of the countries surveyed. In India, 83% agreed with this statement, among the highest along with Germany (84%) and Poland (83%). In the U.S., roughly two-thirds (68%) agreed.

    [​IMG]
    On a separate question, more than six-in-ten in India (63%) agreed that a university education is more important for a boy than for a girl, the highest number to say this in the survey. About half in Pakistan (51%), Egypt (50%) and China (48%) also expressed this view.

    In the U.S., 83% disagreed. Similarly, more than eight-in-ten disagreed in Britain (87%), Brazil (87%), France (87%), Mexico (84%) and Germany (83%). Virtually all of those surveyed in Lebanon (97%) disagreed.

    A majority of Indians (60%) said that a marriage in which both husband and wife have jobs and take care of the house and children is a more satisfying way of life than having the husband provide financially while the wife cares for the household. That’s lower than the majorities in many other countries, including 91% in Spain and France, 84% in Brazil and 78% in China. In the U.S., 71% said a marriage in which both husband and wife have jobs is more satisfying.

    Other data also shows India as a country with a continuing gender gap. The World Economic Forum ranked India 105th out of 135 countries in its 2012 Global Gender Gap Index. By comparison, several northern European countries – Iceland, Finland and Norway – top the list, meaning men and women are more likely to have equal opportunities. In this year’s report, the U.S. ranked 22nd.

    The ratings combine four sub-indexes to come up with the overall ranking: economic participation and opportunity; educational attainment; health and survival; and political empowerment.

    According to the World Economic Forum, India’s ranking gained eight places in 2012 compared to a year ago as a result of improvements in the educational attainment and political empowerment sub-indexes. Still, it is the lowest ranking among emerging BRIC economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China in the index.

    http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/01/04...-give-men-edge-in-workplace-higher-education/

    However education is the serious issue in India and still in many villages people prefer for women not to have higher education which is changing now my part of the country but it needs more attention.
     
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  6. Sakal Gharelu Ustad

    Sakal Gharelu Ustad Detests Jholawalas Moderator

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    Mix of chivalry and feminism. Women should be allowed to work, but men should earn more (or in difficult times men should work). Explained by India!
     
  7. Peter

    Peter Senior Member Senior Member

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    @Samar Rathi

    A truly informative and great post.

    Only one point I would like to make is that you should remove the line on nagarvadhu in the opening article of the thread. Nagarvadhu means a prostitute and it does not fit the tone of your post.
     
  8. anupamsurey

    anupamsurey Regular Member

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    good job, very Informative and
    :clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2::clap2:
    for this thread.
     
  9. Samar Rathi

    Samar Rathi Regular Member

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    I understand your point but simply we can't wish away our past as it happened and no point avoiding it and we can start new thread on views on legal prostitution as i am always in favor.:truestory:

    Yes that's what my agenda was as some femanzi were destroying every thread so i gave them platform to launch their views in one thread rather than spamming all over the forum.

    Point and counter point can be made here and everyone can contribute to the topic in hand.
     
  10. SREEKAR

    SREEKAR Senior Member Senior Member

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    @Samar Rathi
    Sir Your posts deserve positive rating..:)
    Good job>>>:yo::yo::yo:
     
  11. Admirable India

    Admirable India New Member

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  12. Samar Rathi

    Samar Rathi Regular Member

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