The Great Calcutta Killings

Discussion in 'Politics & Society' started by santosh10, Nov 8, 2014.

  1. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    the Great Calcutta Killings

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    Dead and wounded after the 'Direct Action Day' which developed into pitched battles as Muslim and Hindu mobs rioted across Calcutta in 1946, the year before independence

    Direct Action Day (Bengali: প্রত্যক্ষ সংগ্রাম দিবস) (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India. The day also marked the start of what is known as The Week of the Long Knives.

    The 'Direct Action' announced by the Muslim League Council to achieve the Muslim League's demand for the creation of Pakistan (a separate country for Indian Muslims) resulted in the worst communal riots that British India had seen.

    The Muslim League and the Indian National Congress were the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India in the 1940s. The 1946 Cabinet Mission to India for planning of the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership proposed an initial plan of composition of the new Dominion of India and its government. However, soon an alternative plan to divide the British Raj into a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan was proposed by the Muslim League. The Congress rejected the alternative proposal outright. The Muslim League planned a general strike (hartal)[4] on 16 August, terming it as Direct Action Day, to protest this rejection and assert its demand for a separate Muslim homeland.
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    In those days the situation in Bengal was particularly complex. In the province, Muslims represented the majority of the population (56%, as against 42% of Hindus) and were mostly concentrated in the eastern part. As a result of this demographic structure and specific developments, this province was the only one in which a Muslim League government was in power under the provincial autonomy scheme introduced in 1935 in coalition with the Europeans, and against the hurdle of strong opposition from the Congress, the Communist Party of India and also from a Hindu nationalist party, the Hindu Mahasabha. The latter was supported by many members of the rich Marwari trading community, composed of immigrants from Rajasthan, who largely dominated the economy of central Calcutta (although European capital was still important).[8] In consequence, the inhabitants of Calcutta, 64% Hindus and 33% Muslims, were by then divided into two highly antagonistic entities.[7] Against this backdrop, the protest triggered massive riots in Calcutta. More than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents were left homeless in Calcutta within 72 hours. This violence sparked off further religious riots in the surrounding regions of Noakhali, Bihar, United Provinces (modern Uttar Pradesh), Punjab, and the North Western Frontier Province. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India.

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    Background
    In 1946, the Indian independence movement against the British Raj had reached a pivotal stage when the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee sent a three member Cabinet Mission to India aimed at discussing and finalising plans for the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations.[7] After holding talks with the representatives of the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League—the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India—on 16 May 1946, the Mission proposed initial plans of composition of the new Dominion of India and its government. On 16 June, under pressure from the Muslim League headed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Mission proposed an alternative plan to arrange for India to be divided into Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan.[12] The princely states of India would be permitted to accede to either dominion or attain independence.

    Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the one time Congressman and Indian Nationalist, and now the leader of the Muslim League, had accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan of 16 June whereas the Congress rejected it outright. On 10 July, Jawaharlal Nehru held a press conference in Bombay declaring that the Congress had agreed only to participate in the Constituent Assembly and regarded itself free to change or modify the Cabinet Mission Plan as it thought best. Fearing Hindu Domination in the Constituent Assembly, Jinnah denounced the British Cabinet Mission and decided to boycott the Constituent Assembly to try to put pressure on Congress and the British, by resorting to "Direct Action". In July 1946, Jinnah held a press conference at his home in Bombay where he declared his intent to create Pakistan. Jinnah proclaimed that the Muslim league was "preparing to launch a struggle" and that they "have chalked a plan".[5] He had decided to boycott the Constituent Assembly. He rejected the British plan for transfer of power to an interim government which would combine both the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress. He said that if the Muslims were not granted Pakistan then he would launch "Direct Action".[5] When asked to specify Jinnah retorted: "Go to the Congress and ask them their plans. When they take you into their confidence I will take you into mine. Why do you expect me alone to sit with folded hands? I also am going to make trouble."

    On the next day, Jinnah announced 16 August 1946 would be "Direct Action Day" for the purpose of winning the separate Muslim state. Muslim League Council Meeting held during the period 27–29 July 1946 passed a resolution on recommendation of Raghib Ahsan {dubious entry}, declaring the Direct Action Day was intended to unfold “direct action for the achievement of Pakistan.” Raghib Ahsan{dubious entry} in fact gave leadership to the historic “Direct Action Day” in Calcutta on 16 August 1946 to forge and demonstrate the support of Indian Muslims for creation of Pakistan.

    In his book The Great Divide, H V Hodson recounted, "The working committee followed up by calling on Muslims throughout India to observe 16 August as direct action day. On that Day meeting would be held all over the country to explain League's resolution. These meetings and processions passed off – as was manifestly the Central league leaders' intention – without more than commonplace and limited disturbance with one vast and tragic exception... what happened was more than anyone could have foreseen."[16]

    Following Jinnah's declaration of 16 August as the Direct Action Day, acting on the advice of R.L. Walker, the then Chief Secretary of Bengal, the Muslim League Chief Minister of Bengal, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, requested Governor of Bengal Sir Frederick Burrows to declare a public holiday on that day. Governor Burrows agreed. Walker made this proposal with the hope that the risk of conflicts, especially those related to picketing, would be minimized if government offices, commercial houses and shops remained closed throughout Calcutta on the 16th. Bengal Congress protested against the declaration of public holiday, arguing that a holiday would enable 'the idle folks' to successfully enforce hartals in areas where the Muslim League leadership was uncertain. Congress accused the League government for "indulging in communal policies' for narrow goal".[19] Congress leaders thought that if a public holiday was observed, its own supporters would have no choice but to close down their offices and shops, and thus be compelled against their will to lend a hand in the Muslim League's hartal.[4] As a counter-blast to Muslim League, Mr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh, leader of the Congress Party in the Bengal Legislative Assembly, addressing a meeting at Ballygunge on the 14th, urged the Hindus to keep their shops open and to continue their business as usual and not to submit to the hartal.[17] In essence, there was an element of pride involved in that the monopolistic position that the Congress had hitherto enjoyed in imposing and enforcing hartals, strikes, etc. was being challenged.[4] However, the League went ahead with the declaration, and Muslim newspapers published the program for the day.
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    The Star of India, an influential local Muslim newspaper, edited by Raghib Ahsan Muslim League MLA from Calcutta published detailed programme for the day. The programme called for complete hartal and general strike in all spheres of civic, commercial and industrial life except essential services. The notice proclaimed that processions would start from multiple parts of Calcutta, Howrah, Hooghly, Metiabruz and 24 Parganas, and would converge at the foot of the Ochterlony Monument (now known as Shaheed Minar) where a joint mass rally presided over by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy would be held. The Muslim League branches were advised to depute three workers in every mosque in every ward to explain the League's action plan before Juma prayers. Moreover, special prayers were arranged in every mosque on Friday after Juma prayers for the freedom of Muslim India. The notice drew divine inspiration from the Quran, emphasizing on the coincidence of Direct Action Day with the holy month of Ramzaan, claiming that the upcoming protests were an allegory of Prophet Muhammad's conflict with heathenism and subsequent conquest of Mecca and establishment of the kingdom of Heaven in Arabia.

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    Hindu public opinion was mobilised around the Akhand Hindusthan (United India) slogan. Certain Congress leaders in Bengal imbibed a strong sense of Hindu identity, especially in view of the perceived threat from the possibility of marginalizing themselves into minority against the onslaught of the Pakistan movement. Such mobilisation along communal lines was partly successful due to a concerted propaganda campaign which resulted in a 'legitimization of communal solidarities'.


    Riots and massacre

    roubles started on the morning of the 16 August. Even before 10 o'clock Police Headquarters at Lalbazar had reported that there was excitement throughout the city, that shops were being forced to close, and that there were many reports of brawls, stabbing and throwing of stones and brickbats. These were mainly concentrated in the North-central parts of the city like Rajabazar, Kelabagan, College Street, Harrison Road, Colootolla and Burrabazar. In these areas the Hindus were in a majority and were also in a superior and powerful economic position. The trouble had assumed the communal character which it was to retain throughout. The League's rally began at Ochterlony Monument at 12o'clock exactly. The gathering was considered as the 'largest ever Muslim assembly in Bengal' at that time.

    The meeting began around 2 pm though processions of Muslims from all parts of Calcutta had started assembling since the midday prayers. British took opportunity and started spreading rumors that Hindu (since they were in majority in these areas) will attack the Muslims which were on strike. As a result a large number of the participants were reported to have been armed with iron bars and lathis (bamboo sticks). The numbers attending were estimated by a Central Intelligence Officer's reporter (a Hindu) at 30,000 and by a Special Branch Inspector of Calcutta Police (a Muslim) at 500,000. The latter figure is impossibly high and the (Muslim) Star of India reporter put it at about 100,000. The main speakers were Khawaja Nazimuddin and Chief Minister Suhrawardy. Nazimuddin in his speech preached peacefulness and restraint but rather spoilt the effect by asserting that till 11 o'clock that morning all the injured persons were Muslims, and the Muslim community had only retaliated in self-defence.

    The Special Branch of Calcutta Police had sent only one Urdu shorthand reporter to the meeting, with the result that no transcript of the Chief Minister's speech is available. But the Central Intelligence Officer and a reporter, who Frederick Burrows believed was reliable, deputed by the military authorities agree on one statement (not reported at all by the Calcutta Police). The version in the former's report was—"He [the Chief Minister] had seen to police and military arrangements who would not interfere".[1] The version of the latter's was—"He had been able to restrain the military and the police".[1] However, the police did not receive any specific order to "hold back". So, whatever Suhrawardy may have meant to convey by this, the impression of such a statement on a largely uneducated audience is construed by some to be an open invitation to disorder. As many of the listeners as soon as they left the meeting. They were attacked by Hindu Extremist group which resulted in Muslims attacking Hindus. Subsequently, there were reports of lorries (trucks) that came down Harrison Road in Calcutta, carrying Muslim men armed with brickbats and bottles as weapons and attacking Hindu-owned shops.

    As soon as Hindus found out that Muslim are retaliating their attack on the Muslim rally, Hindus in Calcutta started increasing the attacks on Muslims. Muslims started migrating towards East Bengal which was Muslim Majority and the stories of Muslim Massacre in West Bengal fuelled the later Anti-Hindu riots in East Bengal which was Muslim Majority.

    Near military installations, static guards, forces specially trained to protect such installation, took over from police guards and a party of troops under Major Littleboy, the Assistant Provost-Marshal of Calcutta, did valuable work in the rescue operation for displaced and needy persons. Outside the military areas, the situation worsened hourly. Buses and taxis were charging about loaded with Sikhs and Hindus armed with swords, iron bars and firearms.

    On 17 August, Syed Abdullah Farooqui, the President of Garden Reach Textile Workers' Union, along with Elian Mistry, a Muslim hooligan, led a Muslim mob into the mill compound of Kesoram Cotton Mills in the Lichubagan area of Metiabruz. The mill workers, among whom were a substantial number of Oriyas, used to stay in the mill compound itself. The mob began loot and wholesale massacre of the Hindu workers at the instigation of Farooqui. 500 to 800 Hindus, including 300 Oriyas were killed in the massacre.[citation needed] On 25 August, four survivors lodged a complaint at the Metiabruz police station against Farooqui.[26] Biswanath Das, a Minister in the Government of Orissa, visited Lichubagan to investigate into the killings of the Oriya laborers of Kesoram Cotton Mills.[27] Some sources put the death toll at 7,000–10,000.[2] Some authors have claimed that most of the victims were Muslims. However, many authors claim that Hindus were the primary victims.

    Skirmishes between the communities continued for almost a week. Finally, on 21 August, Bengal was put under Viceroy's rule. 5 battalions of British troops, supported by 4 battalions of Indians and Gurkhas, were deployed in the city. Lord Wavell alleged that more British troops ought to have been called in earlier, and there is no indication that more British troops were not available.[30] The rioting reduced on 22 August.

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    Characteristics of the riot[edit]
    Suhrawardy put forth a great deal of effort to bring reluctant British officials around to calling the army in from Sealdah Rest Camp. Unfortunately, British officials did not send the army out until 1.45 am on the 17th.[4]

    Violence in Calcutta, between 1945 and 1946, passed by stages from Indian versus European to Hindu versus Muslim. Indian Christians and Europeans were generally free from molestation[32] as the tempo of Hindu-Muslim violence quickened. The decline of anti-European feelings as communal Hindu-Muslim tensions increased during this period is evident from the casualty numbers. During the riots of November 1945, casualty of Europeans and Christians were 46; in the riots of the 10–14 February 1946, 35; from 15 February to the 15 August, only 3; during the Calcutta riots from 15 August 1946 to 17 September 1946, none.

    Aftermath

    During the riots, thousands began fleeing Calcutta. For several days the Howrah Bridge over the Hooghly River was crowded with evacuees headed for the Howrah station to escape the mayhem in Calcutta. Many of them would not escape the violence that spread out into the region outside Calcutta. Lord Wavell claimed during his meeting on 27 August 1946 that Gandhi had told him, "If India wants bloodbath she shall have it ... if a bloodbath was necessary, it would come about in spite of non-violence".

    There was criticism of Suhrawardy, Chief Minister in charge of the Home Portfolio in Calcutta, for being partisan and of Sir Frederick John Burrows, the British Governor of Bengal, for not having taken control of the situation. The Chief Minister spent a great deal of time in the Control Room in the Police Headquarters at Lalbazar, often attended by some of his supporters. Short of a direct order from the Governor, there was no way of preventing the Chief Minister from visiting the Control Room whenever he liked; and Governor Burrows was not prepared to give such an order, as it would clearly have indicated complete lack of faith in him.[1]

    There are several views on the exact cause of the direct action day riots. According to intelligentsia, riots were instigated by members of the Muslim League and its affiliate Volunteer Corps'. in the city in order to enforce the declaration by the Muslim League that Muslims were to 'suspend all business' to support their demand for an independent Pakistan. However, supporters of the Muslim League believed that the Congress Party was behind the violence in an effort to weaken the fragile Muslim League government in Bengal. Members of the Indian National Congress, including Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru responded negatively to the riots and expressed shock. The riots would lead to further rioting and pogroms between Hindus and Sikhs and Muslims. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India.

    Further rioting in India
    The Direct Action Day riots sparked off several riots between Muslims and Hindus/Sikhs in Noakhali, Bihar, and Punjab in that year.

    Noakhali genocide

    An important incident following Direct Action Day was the Noakhali and Tippera district massacres in October 1946. The Noakhali–Tippera riot was a direct sequel to the Great Calcutta Riot and therefore, believed to be a repercussion of the latter. However, studies have indicated that violence was different in nature from Calcutta.

    Rioting in the districts began in the Ramganj police station area in the northern Noakhali District on 10 October 1946.[22] The violence unleashed was described as "the organized fury of the Muslim mob". It soon engulfed the neighbouring police stations of Raipur, Lakshmipur, Begumganj and Sandip in Noakhali, and Faridganj, Hajiganj, Chandpur, Laksham and Chudagram in Tippera. The devastation caused by widespread violence was quite extensive. Initial statistics regarding casualties remained doubtful. While the "Hindu" press placed the figures in thousands, the "League" press went on to the other extreme and even denied incidents of death.[17] However, the official estimate was a conservative 200. After the riots were stopped in Noakhali, the Muslim League claimed that only 500 Hindus were killed in the mayhem, but the survivors opined that more than 50,000 Hindus were killed. Some sources also made some extreme claim that the Hindu population in Noakhali was nearly annihilated.

    The immediate occasion for the outbreak of the disturbances was the looting of a Bazaar (market) in Ramganj police station following the holding of a mass meeting. This included attacks on the house of Surendra Nath Bose and Rajendra Lal Roy Choudhury, the erstwhile president of the Nokhali Bar and a prominent Hindu Mahasabha leader.

    Bihar and rest of India

    A devastating riot rocked Bihar towards the end of 1946. Between 30 October and 7 November, a large-scale massacre of Muslims in Bihar brought Partition closer to inevitability. Severe violence broke out in Chhapra and Saran district, between 25 and 28 October. Very soon Patna, Munger and Bhagalpur also became the sites of serious violence. Begun as a reprisal for the Noakhali riot, whose death toll had been greatly overstated in immediate reports, it was difficult for authorities to deal with because it was spread out over a large area of scattered villages, and the number of casualties was impossible to establish accurately: "According to a subsequent statement in the British Parliament, the death-toll amounted to 5,000. The Statesman's estimate was between 7,500 and 10,000; the Congress party admitted to 2,000; Mr. Jinnah claimed about 30,000." However, By 3 November, the official estimate put the figure of death at only 445. According to some independent sources of today, the death toll was around 8,000 human lives.

    Some of the worst rioting also took place in Garhmukteshwar in United Provinces where a massacre occurred in November 1946, in which "Hindu pilgrims, at the annual religious fair, set upon and exterminated Muslims, not only on the festival grounds but in the adjacent town" while the police did little or nothing; the deaths were estimated at between 1,000 and 2,000. Rioting also took place in Punjab and Northwest Frontier Province in late 1946 and early 1947.

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    Direct Action Day - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
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  3. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    also, we have a news about the above riot of 1946 as below. hence British Government was more responsible to provide security to those who were paying them taxes :ranger:

     
  4. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    @Ray

    Partition of India Occurred on the basis of Religion

    even if India remained a "non-religious" country

    sir, even if we have different figures from the different sources, around 200,000+ deaths occurred in East India only during 1946-47, at the time of Independence, which then resulted in a separate country as East Pakistan, which is Bangladesh right now. partition of India occurred on religious basis, even if India remained a non-religion country.....

    but in Calcutta, the capital of India till British Rule, how do we see 33% Muslim population so easily scoring over 10,000+ Hindus within just a week? its a too big number, within just 2-3 days, while Hindus were closed to 66% in Calcutta City in 1946-47, the capital of India that time......

    do we have Bengali members here to help us? :ranger:
     
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  5. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    .
    we have a similar news about Bangladesh, a recent news, as below too. its also similar to Calcutta Killing in 1946, done by over 30,000+ Bengali Muslims against the minorities there :thumb:

     
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  6. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    double post
     
  7. mikhail

    mikhail Senior Member Senior Member

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    Indeed those were some despicable acts committed by the Muslim League in Calcutta.I remember that my father would speak about the horror of that fateful day(although he was born after independence but heard the stories from my grandfather).But once the Hindus came to realize what happened to them they organized mass counter attacks on the Islamic goons all over Kolkata.RSS cadres with swords and guns literally invaded the muslim majority regions in Kolkata just a few days after that and there was a large scale of bloodbath in Khidderpore and Mitiah-Buruz areas.RSS boys organized defenses in all the riot prone areas of North and Central Kolkata and successfully repelled another large scale attack in the Rajabazar area just a couple of days after that fateful carnage.
     
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  8. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    India, as a nation, must learn from past to defend its Independence in Future

    hmmm, i don't find myself having support for those who might have attacked Muslims during 1946-47. and i don't think RSS would do this type of acts, our former PM Mr A.B.Vajpayee was himself a RSS member, while he was very popular among the Muslims of Lucknow, having very high voting for him from Lucknow's Muslim areas......
    today i discussed, how we remember Western Part of India, mainly Punjab, for over 500,000+ deaths during 1946-47 riots. only dead bodies used to come in the trains from Lahore to Amritsar during that period, as we always find Hindus-Sikhs having lesser aggression. many movies have been made regarding partition of India to date, like superhit Gadar as below. here we do see Pa Ji's scoring too during that time, but yes aggression from Hindu-Sikhs was certainly very low as compare to Muslims....
    we generally know 1947 partition of India as a chapter of history, which is the most shameful for we all to discuss. but i opened this thread mainly because of the news we discussing in the thread as below. this thread is mainly intended to defend Calcutta, and West Bengal as whole, from the growing threats from Bangladesh and its spies based in Calcutta itself :ranger:
    im mainly intended to get lessons from the 1946-47 riots in India, to avoid the similar things in future. even if India remained a non-religious country, we do find Hindu society to be having less resistance from the Islamic Fanaticism. for example of Calcutta Killing in 1946, how easy it is for Bengali Muslims to get united in numbers 50,000+ and start killing Hindus/Buddhists, and how to avoid this type of incident in Calcutta in future. as, we can't see even Buddhist having any resistance to these Bengali Islamic Fanatic people nowdays too, once they get united in numbers over 30,000 in Bangladesh even nowdays, as discussed in post#4.....

    i have prepared a statement regarding Democratic Structure of India as below, which may have a place here too, i think. which does provide a lesson to all the Indians, how to defend our freedoms from the growing threats of Sectarian Wars, fueled and funded by the rogue neighbors of India :india:


     
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  9. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    also, we find Calcutta, the capita of British India that time, 'owned' by Hindu businessmen only. Muslims were always poor as it used to be the time when only those used to convert into Islam who were from very lower caste, only poor people used to convert into Islam those times, even right now too.....

    some statistics of Calcutta, and Bengal as whole, is as below :ranger:

     
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  10. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Business of India was almost totally owned by the Hindus till the time of British Rule

    along with Maratha Empire controlling the major parts of India that time

    just to improve GK, general knowledge, we have map of India in 18th century as below, when British came here. facts about India is discussed in the thread as below, for more details.
    http://defenceforumindia.com/forum/religion-culture/64568-bharat-ek-khoj-discovery-india.html

    Hindus during the time of Mughal Rule

    there are many stories based on bluffs in market, but we do know that total wealth of India was owned by either Hindu businessmen when British arrived here, or the Muslims rulers who used to receive taxes from these Hindu businessmen, the regional Hindu Kings working under those Muslim Rulers till the Mughal Rule of 15th to 17th century.
    but when British came to India, the Mughal Rule had been virtually ended by the Maratha Empire. even if you see Today's Pakistan ruled by Durrani Empire till late 18th century in the above picture, while British East India company controlling Bengal region as whole, the businessmen in these two Muslim ruled states were mainly the Hindus (the states of Durrani and British's Bengal).....

    for Example, along with the facts of Calcutta, which was 'owned' by Hindu businessmen, almost, just google and get it confirmed, 'almost' every form of business of Lahore-Pakistan was controlled by the Hindu businessmen till 1947, at the time of freedom. we generally know Muslims rulers and very poor/lower caste converting into Islam during 15th to 17th century of Mughal Rule :ranger:

    (Area of Republic of India stands at around 3.15million km square at present......)


    => just to put more information, i just posted a movie Lagaan on DFI as below. in between 4.20min to 6.20min, here we find 2 Hindu Kings paying Lagaan to the British Rulers, which was of similar fashion to what it used to be during the time of Mughal Empire in India during 14th to 16th century. the Central government of Mughal Rule, receiving Jajiya Tax from the regional Hindu kings.....
    similarly, when we discuss about the businesses owned by Hindus during Mughal Rule of 14th to 16th century itself, it was all about a local Punjabi speaking businessman to the people of his region and receiving Lagaan/selling products, making money and paying tax to his regional Hindu king, and then that Hindu King then transfer a part of that tax to the Central Government of Mughal Rule of his time. similarly a Bengali or Tamil Hindu businessman doing business in their region and paying tax. hence obviously the businesses were owned by those who have direct contact with the people in that areas......

    and Marathas are credited to establish a Central government of these regional Kings/landlords, after replacing Mughals, which then continued in a similar fashion till the early 18th century of British rule.....
     
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  11. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    For example of the above class. Marathas never allowed Sati in their region, while most of the Sati cases were found in the British's ruled Bengal of India itself......

    which simply means that British Rule ended 'Sati' in that Bengal, where they themselves wanted it to happen. on the other side, Hindu Marath's never allowed these evil acts in India who controlled over 80% of India by then.....

    and many historian argue that there was nothing like even Dalit in Hindu history, but it was a caste introduced by the invaders to promote conversion of Hindus to Islam. Muslim rulers introduced this Dalit Caste in India. means, first create a caste 'Dalit Caste' of Hindus, to then convert them into Muslims......

     
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  12. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    double post
     
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  13. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Partition of India

    The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire[1] that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (it later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) on 15 August 1947. "Partition" here refers not only to the division of the Bengal province of British India into East Pakistan and West Bengal (India), and the similar partition of the Punjab province into Punjab (West Pakistan) and Punjab, India, but also to the respective divisions of other assets, including the British Indian Army, the Indian Civil Service and other administrative services, the railways, and the central treasury.

    In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab region, between 200,000 to 500,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide.[2][3] UNHCR estimates 14 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were displaced during the partition; it was the largest mass migration in human history.[4][5][6]

    The secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971 is not covered by the term Partition of India, nor is the earlier separation of Burma (now Myanmar) from the administration of British India, or the even earlier separation of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Ceylon was part of the Madras Presidency of British India from 1795 until 1798 when it became a separate Crown Colony of the Empire. Burma, gradually annexed by the British during 1826–86 and governed as a part of the British Indian administration until 1937, was directly administered thereafter.[7] Burma was granted independence on 4 January 1948 and Ceylon on 4 February 1948. (See History of Sri Lanka and History of Burma.)

    Bhutan, Nepal and the Maldives, the remaining countries of present-day South Asia, were unaffected by the partition. The first two, Nepal and Bhutan, having signed treaties with the British designating them as independent states, were never a part of the British Indian Empire, and therefore their borders were unaffected by the partition of India.[8] The Maldives, which had become a protectorate of the British crown in 1887 and gained its independence in 1965, was also unaffected by the partition.


    Independence, population transfer, and violence

    Massive population exchanges occurred between the two newly formed states in the months immediately following Partition. The population of undivided India in 1947 was approx 390 million. After partition, there were 330 million people in India, 30 million in Pakistan, and 30 million people in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan). Once the lines were established, about 14.5 million people crossed the borders to what they hoped was the relative safety of religious majority. The 1951 Census of Pakistan identified the number of displaced persons in Pakistan at 7,226,600, presumably all Muslims who had entered Pakistan from India. Similarly, the 1951 Census of India enumerated 7,295,870 displaced persons, apparently all Hindus and Sikhs who had moved to India from Pakistan immediately after the Partition.[citation needed] The two numbers add up to 14.5 million. Since both censuses were held about 3.6 years after the Partition, the enumeration included net population increase after the mass migration.

    About 11.2 million ( 77.4% of the displaced persons) were in the west, with the Punjab accounting for most of it: 6.5 million Muslims moved from India to West Pakistan, and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from West Pakistan to India; thus the net migration in the west from India to West Pakistan (now Pakistan) was 1.8 million.

    The remaining 3.3 million (22.6% of the displaced persons) were in the east: 2.6 million moved from East Pakistan to India and 0.7 million moved from India to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh); thus net migration in the east was 1.9 million into India. The newly formed governments were completely unequipped to deal with migrations of such staggering magnitude, and massive violence and slaughter occurred on both sides of the border. Estimates of the number of deaths vary, with low estimates at 200,000 and high estimates at 1,000,000. :ranger:

    Punjab

    The Indian state of East Punjab was created in 1947, when the Partition of India split the former British province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan's Punjab province; the mostly Sikh and Hindu eastern part became India's East Punjab state. Many Hindus and Sikhs lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east, and the fears of all such minorities were so great that the Partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence.

    Lahore and Amritsar were at the centre of the problem; the Boundary Commission was not sure where to place them – to make them part of India or Pakistan. The Commission decided to give Lahore to Pakistan, whilst Amritsar became part of India. Some areas in Punjab, including Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan, and Gujrat, had a large Sikh and Hindu population, and many of the residents were attacked or killed. On the other side, in East Punjab, cities such as Amritsar, Ludhiana, Gurdaspur, and Jalandhar had a majority Muslim population, of which thousands were killed or emigrated.

    Bengal

    The province of Bengal was divided into the two separate entities of West Bengal belonging to India, and East Bengal belonging to Pakistan. East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan in 1955, and later became the independent nation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971.

    While the Muslim majority districts of Murshidabad and Malda were given to India, the Hindu majority district of Khulna and the majority Buddhist, but sparsely populated Chittagong Hill Tracts was given to Pakistan by the award.

    Sindh

    Hindu Sindhis were expected to stay in Sindh following Partition, as there were good relations between Hindu and Muslim Sindhis. At the time of Partition there were 1,400,000 Hindu Sindhis, though most were concentrated in cities such as Hyderabad, Karachi, Shikarpur, and Sukkur. However, because of an uncertain future in a Muslim country, a sense of better opportunities in India, and most of all a sudden influx of Muslim refugees from Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajputana (Rajasthan) and other parts of India, many Sindhi Hindus decided to leave for India.

    Problems were further aggravated when incidents of violence instigated by Muslim refugees broke out in Karachi and Hyderabad. According to the 1951 Census of India, nearly 776,000 Sindhi Hindus fled to India.[46] Unlike the Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs, Sindhi Hindus did not have to witness any massive scale rioting; however, their entire province had gone to Pakistan and thus they felt like a homeless community. Despite this migration, a significant Sindhi Hindu population still resides in Pakistan's Sindh province where they number at around 2.28 million as per Pakistan's 1998 census; the Sindhi Hindus in India were at 2.57 million as per India's 2001 Census. Some bordering districts in Sindh were Hindu Majority like Tharparkar District, Umerkot, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar and Badin, but their population is decreasing and they consider themselves a minority in decline. In fact, only Umerkot still has a majority of Hindus in the district. :ranger:

    Resettlement of refugees in India: 1947–1957

    Many Sikhs and Hindu Punjabis fled Western Punjab and settled in the Indian parts of Punjab and Delhi. Hindus fleeing from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) settled across Eastern India and Northeastern India, many ending up in neighboring Indian states such as West Bengal, Assam, and Tripura. Some migrants were sent to the Andaman islands where Bengalis today form the largest linguistic group.

    Delhi received the largest number of refugees for a single city – the population of Delhi grew rapidly in 1947 from under 1 million (917,939) to a little less than 2 million (1,744,072) during the period 1941–1951. The refugees were housed in various historical and military locations such as the Purana Qila, Red Fort, and military barracks in Kingsway Camp (around the present Delhi University). The latter became the site of one of the largest refugee camps in northern India with more than 35,000 refugees at any given time besides Kurukshetra camp near Panipat. The camp sites were later converted into permanent housing through extensive building projects undertaken by the Government of India from 1948 onwards. A number of housing colonies in Delhi came up around this period like Lajpat Nagar, Rajinder Nagar, Nizamuddin East, Punjabi Bagh, Rehgar Pura, Jangpura and Kingsway Camp. A number of schemes such as the provision of education, employment opportunities, and easy loans to start businesses were provided for the refugees at the all-India level.

    Resettlement of refugees in Pakistan: 1947–1957

    In the aftermath of partition, a huge population exchange occurred between the two newly formed states. About 14.5 million people crossed the borders, including 7,226,000 Muslims who came to Pakistan from India while 7,295,000 Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan. Of the 6.5 million Muslims that came to West Pakistan (now Pakistan), about 5.3 million settled in Punjab, Pakistan and around 1.2 million settled in Sindh. The other 0.7 million Muslims went to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

    Most of those migrants who settled in Punjab, Pakistan came from the neighbouring Indian regions of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh while others were from Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan. On the other hand, most of those migrants who arrived in Sindh were primarily of Urdu-speaking background (termed the Muhajir people) and came from the northern and central urban centres of India, such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan via the Wahgah and Munabao borders; however a limited number of Muhajirs also arrived by air and on ships. People who wished to go to India from all over Sindh awaited their departure to India by ship at the Swaminarayan temple in Karachi and were visited by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan.[50]

    Later in 1950s, the majority of Urdu speaking refugees who migrated after the independence were settled in the port city of Karachi in southern Sindh and in the metropolitan cities of Hyderabad, Sukkur, Nawabshah and Mirpurkhas. In addition, some Urdu-speakers settled in the cities of Punjab, mainly in Lahore, Multan, Bahawalpur and Rawalpindi. The number of migrants in Sindh was placed at over 1,167,000 of whom 617,000 went to Karachi alone. Karachi grew from a population of around 400,000 in 1947 into more than 1.3 million in 1953.

    Rehabilitation of women

    Both sides promised each other that they would try to restore women abducted during the riots. The Indian government claimed that 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women were abducted, and the Pakistani government claimed that 50,000 Muslim women were abducted during riots. By 1949, there were governmental claims that 12,000 women had been recovered in India and 6,000 in Pakistan.[51] By 1954 there were 20,728 recovered Muslim women and 9,032 Hindu and Sikh women recovered from Pakistan.[52] Most of the Hindu and Sikh women refused to go back to India fearing that they would never be accepted by their family; similarly, the families of some Muslim women refused to take back their relatives.

    Partition of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Partition of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
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  14. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Pakistan and Bangladesh "as a State" Vs a Source of Export of Islamic Fanaticism

    Pakistan always stands between two aspects, first as a State for its own people only, and the second and the most powerful aspect is the religion, fighting for Islam in world. similarly we always find Bangladesh start exporting Islamic Fanatic people to promote Islam. a difference between China, which reduce population, and Pakistan+Bangladesh, which have increased their population from 34million and 36million in 1947 respectively, to over 180million and 170million respectively at present.....

    and then even a friendly country like China struggle with his friends, Pakistan+Bangladesh. whether they would speak to a 'state' of Pakistan, or would be worried with a country which has become a center of export of Islamic terrorism. and the consequences China facing on its bordering state of Xinjiang.....

    similar things we find about US and UK too, whenever they keep any sympathy for the immigrants of Pakistan+Bangladesh, these communities suddenly become a source of increase of Muslim population in Britain, heavily dependent on Social Security because of big families this way, along with increase in Islamic Fanaticism in UK too this way....
    and this is how the Western countries struggle with immigrants of India, China as compare to Pakistan+Bangladesh. your support for Pakistan+Bangladesh suddenly brings you on the side of supporting rise of Islamic Fanaticism within UK/US. while Indian-Chinese with low population but are rising because of higher competency as compare to the locals in western nations.....
    (here, if i say that population of Pakistani+Bangladeshi Muslims combined, would be higher than the population of Indians+Chinese combined in Britain/UK, people here would laugh but its a truth on the ground level, check. china and India, the two largest population countries.....)

    => to clear this topic more, have you ever heard India as a center of exporting Hindu Terrorism to China, while it share such a long border with China? i hope none in world might have made this joke before, even if India and China have fought wars in past, and are open rivals. neither you would have heard that Russia exporting Orthodox Christian terrorism to China, even if they too have fought wars with each others in 50s and 60s. but whenever you hear any bomb blast in Xinjiang state of China, you would find the source of its support came from the terror groups based in Pakistan. even if Pakistan is one of the closest ally of China, one of China's best friend "as a state of Pakistan", sharing very small border with China with this state only :facepalm:

     
    Last edited: Nov 27, 2014
  15. Otm Shank2

    Otm Shank2 Regular Member

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    hindus dont seem to have any capacity to stand up for themselves. Im suprised it was just noahkali we were exterminated from and not the complete eastern sub continent... smh Thank god for the sikhs.
     
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  16. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    @Ray

    we generally discuss, how Indian Hindus are the highest income groups in US/UK, the highest side of educated people there, hence source of running their industries/ developing technologies, and the highest tax paying people there as they fall in the highest "income bracket". have you heard?

    we have some posts in this regard as below :thumb:

    posts# 36, 37, 38
     
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  17. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    =>

    (the above member Rocky.idf was a Bangladeshi member on a different forum)



    Increasing Muslim Population to Fulfill Religious Goals in World

    hmmmmm, its widely believed that the countries like Pakistan+Bangladesh are increasing population to fulfill their Islamic Fanaticism interests only.

    Population of Pakistan was 34mil in 1947 while that of Bangladesh was around 36mil at the time of freedom in 1947, while now its over 180million+ in Pakistan and over 160million+ in Bangladesh. and all the population increase in these countries is mainly intended to export Islamic Jihad in other countries......

    and here we always give example of India, where population of Hindus reduced from 88% in 1947 to less than 80% at present, while that of Muslims increased from 8% to 16%+ to total India's population since 1947 to date.......while about Pakistan, minorities are almost gone, Shia-Sunni-Ahmadies problem there we find now. while state of minorities in Bangladesh is also being discussed in the thread as below :facepalm:
    and when we want to discuss "One Child Policy" of China, then it tells us the story of that country which wants to build itself, but doesn't want others to get problem from Chinese people. "Having only as much population as it may be fed by the limited resources, the China has." the topic of this thread. :thumb:

    while that of Muslim population is mainly meant to export Islamic fanaticism to other countries, the reason even if population of Bangladesh is more than the largest country of world, Russia, Bangladesh even import a third of the food for its population also, they don't want to stop population growth, for the purpose to achieve their religious goals. even if Bangladesh falls among the Least Developed Countries, having enough support from rest of the world too this way....

    and if you want to build your own country, you may do anything within, good or bad, but if you are increasing Muslim population just to create problems for the non-Islamic states of world, we have a reason to ask, "WHY?"

    what exactly these highly populated Muslim countries are intended in this world, we do have a reason to get to know :thumb:

    for example, population of Australia is less than 25million, while its a quite big country with hefty resources. and here, they do have a reason to ask, what others are doing in this world? would Christian states also increase Christian population to have competition with others, or, others would learn something in this regard?
    @DingDong @Otm Shank2
     
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  18. DingDong

    DingDong Senior Member Senior Member

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    They cannot outsmart us, but they can definitely outnumber us.

    Be scared. Very Scared. India takes pride in her "religious diversity" in truth this is the biggest enemy of India and might result in a USSR-like Implosion.
     
  19. mikhail

    mikhail Senior Member Senior Member

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    Mate,the followers of Sanathan Dharma were always a peaceful group.Our ancestors never invaded other lands not because they were cowards but because they were prosperous and happy within the boundaries of this country.So they never felt the need to invade a foreign nation nor they had the religious fervor to convert each and every foreigner "Mlechcha" into the folds of Sanathan Dharma.
    Our ancestors never believed in unnecessary bloodshed and believed that all living beings were the creation of the Supreme Brahma.I for one am extremely proud of my ancestors for their high moral standard and non-violent ideology.Just because a stray dog has bitten me doesn't mean that i should also bite it in return.What the Muslim League did to us in Bengal was a heinous crime and has gone down in the annals of history as a crime against humanity but the thing is despite all those persecutions they failed to exterminate us.We are still growing strong and moving ahead after all these years.
     
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  20. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    thats what we discussed in first few posts of this news, we have many movies in India regarding that incident, yesterday we discussed the movie of Mr Kamal Hasan, "Hey Ram", and we do know the consequences of inviting Islamic Fanatic people to this country. i have openly said in my posts,

    "increased people to people connectivity between India-Bangladesh-Pakistan will finally destabilize India. "

    "any effort to "unite" bangladesh or Pakistan with India will result in a thorough destruction of this country"

    for example of the first few posts, first Mr Gandhi's Congress refused proposal of partition but after the day of "Direct Action Day", over 10,000 deaths in the capital of British India, Calcutta, where Hindus were over 70% while Muslims below 25%, and then within a week Congress accepted the proposal of partition. it was called by My Jinnah for his demand of partition, against the Gandhi Congress.....

    now minorities of these two rogue neighbors of India are almost gone, so these Islamic fanatic people want to come to the remaining India and we want to defend us and our families based here :thumb:

    :india:
    .
     
    Last edited: Nov 28, 2014
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  21. santosh10

    santosh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    double post
     

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