1941 Hitler called a temporary halt to the German offensive in Russia, concluding that the capture of Moscow was not immediately in prospect owing to the breakdown of German panzers and wheeled vehicles in the bitter cold, mud and snow. In addition, German personnel losses had been higher than anticipated owing in part to the effectiveness of Russian winter tactics, and in part to the fact that the Germans had not sufficiently anticipated the need to equip their men and motorized units for winter warfare on the Russian plains. This was not the first time that western European armies had come to grief when dealing with Russian winter weather. Napoleon had the same problem in 1812. Historians would later point out that Hitler had begun his invasion much too late (22 June 1941) to have had any chance of capturing Moscow by the beginning of 1942.