The Discovery of India, Facts about India

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  1. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    Below is the government website of India :ranger:


    => Interesting Facts about India

    Interesting Facts about India - My India, My Pride - Know India: National Portal of India

    India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history.

    When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)

    The name 'India' is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.


    The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name 'Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.

    Chess was invented in India.

    Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.

    The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C.


    The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.


    India is the largest democracy in the world, the 7th largest Country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations.

    The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births.

    The world's highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level.

    The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.

    Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.

    India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India's wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.
    :thumb:

    The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'.

    Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.

    The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.

    Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century.
    The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).

    Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world
    (Source: Gemological Institute of America).


    The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982.

    Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.

    Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.


    India exports software to 90 countries.

    The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population.

    Jainism and Buddhism were founded in India in 600 B.C. and 500 B.C. respectively.

    Islam is India's and the world's second largest religion.

    There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including the Muslim world.

    The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. They were built in 1503 and 1568 respectively.

    Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively

    The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century.

    The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the world's largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday.


    Sikhism originated in the Holy city of Amritsar in Punjab. Famous for housing the Golden Temple, the city was founded in 1577.
    Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called "the Ancient City" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.

    India provides safety for more than 300,000 refugees originally from Sri Lanka, Tibet, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who escaped to flee religious and political persecution.

    His Holiness, the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, runs his government in exile from Dharmashala in northern India.

    Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.

    Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

    Interesting Facts about India - My India, My Pride - Know India: National Portal of India


    => the same can be read on the Indian Government's website in Hindi as below:

    भारत के बारे में रोचक तथ्-य - राष्-ट्रीय दिवस - मेरा भारत मेरी शान - भारत के बारे में जानें: भारत का
     
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  3. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    JAWAHARLAL NEHRU

    The Discovery of India


    => The Variety and Unity of India
    Page 61

    The diversity of India is tremendous; it is obvious; it lies onthe surface and anybody can see it. It concerns itself with phy-sical appearances as well as with certain mental habits and traits.There is little in common, to outward seeming, between the Pathan of the North-West and the Tamil in the far South. Their racial stocks are not the same, though there may be common strands running through them; they differ in face and figure,food and clothing, and, of course, language. In the North-western Frontier Province there is already the breath of Central Asia, and many a custom there, as in Kashmir, reminds one of the countries on the other side of the Himalayas. Pathan popu-lar dances are singularly like Russian Cossack dancing. Yet,with all these differences, there is no mistaking the impress of India on the Pathan, as this is obvious on the Tamil. This isnot surprising, for these border lands, and indeed Afghanistanalso, were united with India for thousands of years. The oldTurkish and other races who inhabited Afghanistan and partsof Central Asia before the advent of Islam were largely Bud-dhists, and earlier still, during the period of the Epics,Hindus. The frontier area was one of the principal centres of old Indian culture and it abounds still with ruins of monu-ments and monasteries and, especially, of the great universityof Taxila, which was at the height of its fame two thousandyears ago, attracting students from all over India as well asdifferent parts of Asia. Changes of religion made a difference, but could not change entirely the mental backgrounds whichthe people of those areas had developed.The Pathan and the Tamil are two extreme examples; theothers lie somewhere in between. All of them have their dis-tinctive features, all of them have still more the distinguishingmark of India. It is fascinating to find how the Bengalis, theMarathas, the Gujratis, the Tamils, the Andhras, the Oriyas,the Assamese, the Canarese, the Malayalis, the Sindhis, thePunjabis, the Pathans, the Kashmiris, the Rajputs, and the greatcentral block comprising the Hindustani-speaking people, haveretained their peculiar characteristics for hundreds of years,have still more or less the same virtues and failings of whichold tradition or record tells us, and yet have been throughoutthese ages distinctively Indian, with the same national heritageand the same set of moral and mental qualities. There wassomething living and dynamic about this heritage which showed. itself in ways of living and a philosophical attitude to life andits problems. Ancient India, like ancient China, was a world initself, a culture and a civilization which gave shape to all things.Foreign influences poured in and often influenced that cultureand were absorbed. Disruptive tendencies gave rise immediatelyto an attempt to find a synthesis. Some kind of a dream of unityhas occupied the mind of India since the dawn of civilization.That unity was not conceived as something imposed from out-side, a standardization of externals or even of beliefs. It was something deeper and, within its fold, the widest tolerance of belief and custom was practised and every variety acknowledgedand even encouraged.Differences, big or small, can always be noticed even withina national group, however closely bound together it may be.The essential unity of that group becomes apparent when it iscompared to another national group, though often the differ-ences between two adjoining groups fade out or interminglenear the frontiers, and modern developments are tending to produce a certain uniformity every where. In ancient and medi-aeval times, the idea of the modern nation was non-existent, and feudal, religious, racial, or cultural bonds had more importance. Yet I think that at almost any time in recorded history an Indian would have felt more or less at home in any part of India, andwould have felt as a stranger and alien in any other country. He would certainly have felt less of a stranger in countries which had partly adopted his culture or religion. Those who professed areligion of non-Indian origin or, coming to India, settled downthere, became distinctively Indian in the course of a few genera-tions, such as Christians, Jews, Parsees, Moslems. Indian converts to some of these religions never ceased to be Indians on account of a change of their faith. They were looked upon in other countriesas Indians and foreigners, even though there might have been acommunity of faith between them.To-day, when the conccption of nationalism has developedmuch more, Indians in foreign countries inevitably form a nationalgroup and hang together for various purposes, in spite of their internal differences. An Indian Christian is looked upon as an Indian wherever he may go. An Indian Moslem is considered an Indian in Turkey or Arabia or Iran, or any other country where Islam is the dominant religion-All of us, I suppose, have varying pictures of our native landand no two persons will think exactly alike. When I think of India, I think of many things: of broad fields dotted with in-numerable small villages; of towns and cities I have visited; of the magic of the rainy season which pours life into the dry parched-up land and converts it suddenly into a glistening expanse of beauty and greenery, of great rivers and flowing water; of the Khyber Pass in all its bleak surroundings; of the southern tip of India; of people, individually and in the mass; and, above all,of the Himalayas, snow-capped, or some mountain valley in Kashmir in the spring, covered with new flowers, and with a brook bubbling and gurgling through it. We make and preserve the pictures of our choice, and so I have chosen this mountain background rather than the more normal picture of a hot, sub-tropical country. Both pictures would be correct, for India stret-ches from the tropics right up to the temperate regions, fromnear the equator to the cold heart of Asia.

    The Discovery of India -Jawaharlal Nehru
     
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  4. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    Success of India is Hidden in Success of China

    here, I have clearly said many times that 'success of India' is hidden in success of China itself. our natural economic order of the world for last over 20 centuries is as below. Indian GDP was on top till the 16th century and again came on the top by 18th century with sharing the top two spot with China till 18th century (check the table). but then the Western War Champions organized different wars and both of these two came down together in 19th and 20th century. and again we find both of these two going up together. and I would like to clearly state that China will always share the top two ranks with India, or both of these will come down together to serve intentions of Western War Champions. and, dont worry for the rank 1 position, first it would go to China and then I hope India would get the first economic rank, the highest GDP size, by 2050. we would just keep China leading mid this first half century with a hope that it would clear all the Western hurdles for India till 2050 :china:

    => List of regions by past GDP (PPP) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    [​IMG]


    => Further to the above topic, the time British came to India in 18th century, Indian economy was around 9 times bigger than British that time, bigger than even the Total Western European economy as below. they had many Indian traitors, many tactics they used and then they got 'everything' in India, its wealth and also an Indian Army which won rest of the war for them. we do know that Indian Army was back boon of British's efforts in WW1, WW2. and from here, you would just assume a man of street who suddenly became Mayer of that same city, will their coming generation forget that pride they had in past? :nono:. India will always have to have 'pig talks' with those British who always have a reason to engage India someway, somehow :tsk: :facepalm:

    => List of regions by past GDP (PPP) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    even if we have a close look on the data's then we find that even by 1820, GDP of India was around $111,417mil, as compare to total GDP of Western Europe at $159,851mil as below. it may also because of the fact that Marathas lost heavy wealth during the 15 years of war with British till 1818 :meeting:

    List of regions by past GDP (PPP) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    (this GDP estimate is based on the prices at 1820. here the "Total Western Europe" include the current 17 Eurozone nations, +Britain+Norway+Swedan etc)

    [​IMG]


     
  5. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    here, as per the above discussion, after looting India, smuggling of heroine to China was the very first business of British in India.....:uk: :china:

    the reason why Mr Gandhi never liked these people, as below:

    and as stated in this video itself, the main points of freedom struggle of Mr Gandhi, as stated on this government website of India, as below :ranger:

     
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  6. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    My Comment on SATI:

    it were the main 15 years, 1813 to 1828, of the top of SATI only, when we found around 1.3 murders per 1 million population of India every year. which was for 'only' 15 years of its peak, when British then controlled that "non-Hindu Regime" of Bengal....... and also, as most of those SATI were in fact because of "self willingness", it is more correct to call those murders, the 'suicide' cases of 1.3 per million during peak of those 15 years...

    (for 450million population of India by 1818, and on average around 550 murders due to SATI during its peak of 1818 to 1828, mainly in Bengal....)

    hence here, for example if we compare 1.3 murder per million due to SATI in between 1813 to 1828, with the financial center of Pakistan, Karachi, where we find around 6-7 'Target Killing's on average every day, means around 1000 murders per 8 million population of Financial Center of Pakistan, then it comes around 125 murders per million in today's modern time in Karachi. means around 100 times more murders than peak of SATI, due to the 'Target Killing' culture of Karachi. the SATI, which was allowed under the 'non-Maratha' regime of India, the Maratha, who controlled around 85% of India till 1819, excluding Bengal till then :ranger:

    here, SATI was limited to Bengal area only, no where else, and for a certain time period only and only for those of Bengal who believe in it. even in Bengal, it was seen in "Upper Cast Hindus" only, who account for hardly 10% of Hindu population. it was supported by those rulers of Bengal who were themselves not hindus while even if hindu Marathas controlled over 80% India during that time, there was no case found in their region.


    => it is because SATI isn't part of Hinduism, even the top most lords of Hindu, Ram and Sri Krishna, were against cast system. all these SATI or Cast was made by powerful people only, to feed their human mentalities to remain on top on the basis of race, which was 'social' practice not religious . (like how White Christians usually discriminated with Christian Blacks till mid 20th century.) Marathas never allowed SATI except few cases which were not known, like how the numbers were very less, almost none, in Maratha's state of India who controlled 80% Indian areas that time........

     
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    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    Linear Relation between India Economy with British Economy during 19th and 20th centuries

    [​IMG]

    till 1947, Britian, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc were part of one country, the Britain. and if we see this graph, economy size of the state Britain increased on the expanse of the states of India. the larger size of state of British economy since 1820 to 1950, and it had almost a similar decline of economy size of states of India.

    (mainly in between 1820 to 1900, almost a similar/linear growth of economic size of Britain as decline of economic size of India. and after 1900, Britain wasted Indian wealth/talent in WW1 and WW2 so even in Indian economy continue to decline in between 1990 to 1947 also to pay for the war expanses of UK during that period. hence the British economic size was almost same in between 1900 to 1947, have a close look on this graph..............)

    and its very simple right now also. for example, if all the talents of Indian Subcontinent start developing techs for British industries only and then Britain starts selling those products at high price in India itself, then simply you will only do agriculture to pay for high price for luxury life of British :meeting:. like, how share of agriculture in Indian economy was around 65% at the time of freedom :rofl:

    but it would first be required to rob India completely, looting every gold/diamond and other luxury stuffs, enslaving all those who may do any business, to make them working for the state of Britain only. and then, conduct different competitive exams held in UK to hire the best Indian talents to have high techs, like how British made a system during British Raj in India :coffee:

    (1819 was the year when British could finally win over Maratha Empire after over 15 years of war so it is said to be the time when British Rule started in India since then.)


    and this was the state of these pigs till the 17th century, before they came to India, as below: :ranger:

     
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    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    INDIA’S DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION UNDER BRITISH RULE

    India was a major player in the world export market for textiles in the early 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century it had lost all of its export market and much of its domestic market. Other local industries also suffered some decline, and India underwent secular de-industrialization as a consequence. While India produced about 25 percent of world industrial output in 1750, this figure fell to only 2 percent by 1900. We use an open, specific-factor model to organize our thinking about the relative role played by domestic and foreign forces in India’s de-industrialization. The construction of new relative price evidence is central to our analysis. We document trends in the ratio of export to import prices (the external terms of trade) from 1800 to 1913, and that of tradable to non-tradable goods and own-wages in the tradable sectors going back to 1765. With this new relative price evidence in hand, we ask how much of the de-industrialization was due to local supply-side influences (such as the demise of the Mughal empire) and how much to world price shocks (such as world market integration and rapid productivity advance in European manufacturing), both of which had to deal with an offset n the huge net transfer from India to Britain before 1815. Whether the Indian de-industrialization shocks and responses were big or small is then assessed by comparisons with other parts of the periphery.

    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf



    => India's De-Industrialization Under British Rule
    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf

    India was a major player in the world export market for textiles in the early 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century it had lost all of its export market and much of its domestic market. Other local industries also suffered some decline, and India underwent secular de-industrialization as a consequence. While India produced about 25 percent of world industrial output in 1750, this figure fell to only 2 percent by 1900.:shocked: We use an open, specific-factor model to organize our thinking about the relative role played by domestic and foreign forces in India's de-industrialization. The construction of new relative price evidence is central to our analysis. We document trends in the ratio of export to import prices (the external terms of trade) from 1800 to 1913, and that of tradable to non-tradable goods and own-wages in the tradable sectors going back to 1765. With this new relative price evidence in hand, we ask how much of the de-industrialization was due to local supply-side influences (such as the demise of the Mughal empire) and how much to world price shocks (such as world market integration and rapid productivity advance in European manufacturing), both of which had to deal with an offset the huge net transfer from India to Britain before 1815. Whether the Indian de-industrialization shocks and responses were big or small is then assessed by comparisons with other parts of the periphery.

    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf



    => we also have data's related to "manufacturing output" of the countries till 19th century, as below :coffee:

    [​IMG]

    Money Matters:


    => Share of World Manufacturing Output, 1750 - 1900

    [​IMG]



    => Share of World GDP, 1700 - 1890 :thumb:

    [​IMG]
     
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    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    Caste's Western "Divide and Rule" Policy

    yesterday I was discussing that when I came to India in late 2011, i saw Pranab representing Brahmin, Digvijay for Rajput, one around my house for Yadav, and similarly for Kurmi etc we found. (even in my own house, the representative of Sonia wanted a Brahmin-Lala conflict in February 2013, when VVIP helicopter scam came in light.......). it was the time of early 2012 when even Manmohan visited North East and said, "all are Indians." to fuel Sectarian war in that region...... sometimes I find even Narendra Modi, a duplicate man, who either try to put wrong image of India, or promote Rahul in his speech......

    all these [email protected] of Sonia/Rahul, who are working for the foreign governments, and use people like Shinde/Digvijay etc to do wrong publicity about India by using the international media, which came on my back......... and im surprised, we dont have even a single man who may clean these two, Rahul/Sonia???? not even single security man/commando itself??? its a disaster that we only count death of patriots but couldn't remove these two yet......


    => ,
    young generation of today's India are not aware of the facts about the British Rule, even if they study all from the primary schools, they generally forget till the age of 20-21. too many movies were made to state the sudden change occurred when British left India in 1947, like this movie as below, see from 2.40min onward, how 'life' of poor affected when British left India and how landlords then came to foot.....




    => ,
    and to get to know how exactly British Ruled India then also. we have many movies made on it, one of them the Oscar Nominated movies as below:



    See this movie in between 4.30min to 6.20min to have an idea of how British ruled India. "Divide and Rule" :ranger:

    And double Lagaan (tax) charged to poor farmers if one of those regional hindu king doesn’t eat meat in between 20.30min to 22.45min.
     
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    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    in the above post, we first find in the Oscar nominated movie, Lagaan, that a regional king/ land lord not eating meat as he can't compromise religion to do his duty :toilet:

    and also we have a super hit movie, Batwara, where a regional king came to the ground, when British government was thrown out from India in 1947...... profile of the leader of that very first Indian government, first PM of Republic of India, as below :ranger:


    => India needs a PM like Mr Nehru, with a Defence Minister like Mr G.Fernandes :india:


    => Jawaharlal Nehru's Contribution In Building Modern India. Article - News And Life Style Politics Articles

    Jawaharlal Nehru's contribution in building Modern India. :india:

    [​IMG]
    (Leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement: (L to R) PM Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Pres. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser of United Arab Rep., Pres. Sukarno of Indonesia, & Pres. Tito of Yugoslavia.)
    India's Rulers and India's National Interest | Global Political Economy


    Jawaharlal Nehru, also known as Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, was one of the foremost leaders of Indian freedom struggle. He was the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was a member of the Congress Party that led the freedom movement against British Empire. He was also the chief framer of domestic and international policies between 1947 and 1964. Nehru is widely regarded as the architect of modern India. He set up a Planning Commission, encouraged development of science and technology, and launched three successive five-year plans. His policies led to a sizable growth in agricultural and industrial production. Nehru also played a major role in developing independent India's foreign policy. In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.

    Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889, to a wealthy Kashmiri Brahmin family in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. His father Motilal Nehru was a well-known advocate and also a leading politician. Jawaharlal Nehru received education in some of the finest schools and universities of the world. He did his schooling from Harrow College and completed his Law degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. During his stay in London, Nehru was attracted by the ideas of liberalism, socialism and nationalism. In 1912, he had returned to India and joined the Allahabad High Court Bar. He married Kamala Nehru in 1916. On19th November, 1917 she gave birth to Indira Priyadarshini, widely known as Indira Gandhi.

    Jawaharlal Nehru was elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, and served for two years as the city's chief executive. He resigned in 1926 citing lack of cooperation from civil servants and obstruction from British authorities. From 1926 to 1928, Jawaharlal served as the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee. In December, 1929 Congress's annual session was held in Lahore and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected as the President of the Congress Party. During that session a resolution demanding India's independence was passed and on January 26, 1930 in Lahore, Jawaharlal Nehru open out free India's flag.

    Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested in 1942 during Quit India Movement. Released in 1945, he took a leading part in the negotiations that culminated in the emergence of the dominions of India and Pakistan in August, 1947. In 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of independent India.

    Soon after independence, the Indian nation, under his guidance, achieved the first political objective of the renaissance by giving to itself a Constitution proclaiming India a sovereign democratic secular republic. Through his vigorous policy of planned industrialization and economic development, aided by scientific research through a chain of national laboratories and the nation¬wide community project movement, Jawaharlal Nehru has laid firm foundations for the achievement of another important objective of the Indian renaissance, namely, the economic redemption of the Indian masses. All the time he would contemplate over the issues pertaining to the economic sector of the country. In 1951, Jawaharlal Nehru launched the country's "First Five-Year Plan" emphasizing on the increase in the agricultural output. Nehru believed in planned economy for maximum utilization of resources. He did not favour nationalization of private capital. In his scheme of economic development, by increasing business and income taxes mixed economy should play a prominent role. He believed that the both public sector and private sector must help each other in removing poverty and the other basic problems of Indian Society. He realized the importance of setting up mega industries and usher in industrial growth so as to transform the traditional society into a modern one. Nehru felt that the state should play the crucial role in development and attributed high credentials and role to both the bureaucracy and public sector. Nehru wanted the public sector to have commanding heights in the economy. That is why he wanted the public sector to play a vital part in regard to the development of heavy industries like steel and the exploitation of oil resources in India. He encouraged the construction of large irrigation works and the generation of hydro electricity. Tungabhadra Dam, which irrigates 1.03 million acres of land, is a classic example for these projects. By the mid-1960’s, as Jawaharlal Nehru has pointed out, India had made commendable progress in the field of Nuclear Research. The Atomic Energy Act was passed by the Constituent Assembly, creating the Atomic Energy Commission. During the early years of independence, India pursued what Nehru called “A peaceful nuclear programme”, implying that the programme was developed not to manufacture nuclear weapons, but instead to provide energy to the people. The peaceful use of nuclear energy was the official policy of the Government of India. This point was highlighted in bilateral agreements with Canada, UK, USA and USSR.


    Nehru highly concerned on the control of private Industry and State Investment in Industry. In consequence, the Industries Act (1951) was passed to control private industry to work in the interests of state-regulations of private companies along with the Companies Act (1956) to control monopolies. By these policies the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth at 2.5% per annum.

    Jawaharlal Nehru was interested in education for India's children and youth. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru's education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institutes of Technology, and the Indian Institutes of Management. Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas.

    Nehru's posture as a reliable nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. In making the Indian constitution secular and in providing equal rights to all religious groups Nehru's contribution is significant. If India remained as a modem state and civil society and the fact that a larger number of Muslims were living in freedom and security in India than in Pakistan, it was because of Nehru's continuous preaching of secularism in India. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women. Untouchability Act (1955), Hindu Marriage Act (1955), Hindu Succession Act (1956) were typical examples of a legislation which helped the Hindu society to make a transition from a feudal society to a modern one. Moreover a system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions.

    Apart from his careful handling of India's tumultuous domestic situation in the years immediately after the Independence, Nehru's major contribution lies in the field of foreign policies. As the first Minister for External Affairs, Nehru was responsible for developing an independent foreign policy for the country. In the initial statements explaining India's foreign policy Nehru claimed that it was an independent foreign policy. Reviewing the problem of cold war and bi-polar politics, Nehru designed the equidistance concept towards big powers while engaging with them in all possible fronts. Along with Nassar, Sukarno, Tito, Nehru played a crucial role in shaping the policy of Non-Alignment and institutionalized the Non-Aligned Movement. Nehru wanted that the non-aligned countries should function as a power block; they should share their wealth for their prosperity. NAM had clear objectives that included the gradual decolonization of the world, and a strong statement that the member countries were not party to the ever escalating tension of the Cold War. By his policy of non-alignment and active support to the United Nations Orga¬nization, he has not only helped to reduce international tensions, but also helped to project an image of India abroad as a creative force for peace and international fellowship. :india:

    Nehru's greatest success was that he promoted the spirit of conciliation and negotiation between different political groups and gradually built up political stability and consensus. He played a constructive, mediatory role in bringing the Korean War to an end and in resolving other international crises, such as those over the Suez Canal and the Congo, the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, offering India's services for conciliation and international policing. He contributed behind the scenes toward the solution of several other explosive issues, such as those of West Berlin, Austria, and Laos. After Nehru's successful mediation in the Korean War and the Congo problem, putting an end to a long and violent struggle, his status as a commendable and efficient statesman reached new heights. India also contributed to the UN efforts in peace-keeping by sending its forces to many war-torn areas.

    Despite the setback with China, India received the support of USA on many occasions. Similarly, USSR was India's natural ally on vital sectors. Furthermore Nehru was intent on a very warm and mutually beneficial relationship between India and China. China and India established diplomatic relations on April 1, 1950. India was the second country to establish diplomatic relations with China among the non-socialist countries.

    In 1954, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and Indian Prime Minister Nehru exchanged visits and jointly initiated the famous Five Principle of Peaceful Coexistence (Pancha Seela ). Later his policy of pacifism and conciliation with respect to China came unraveled when border disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in 1962. However the international community stood by him, as China withdrew under growing international pressure, fearing isolation and global opposition. It is interesting to note that while large number of countries expressed their sympathy and support to India in the India-China War, only two countries supported China, namely North Vietnam and Albania. Nehru played his last masterstroke in international policy, as he turned the military defeat into a moral victory for India.

    Of course, one can understand the critics’ view on Nehru’s underestimating of Chinese tactics towards India. The war exposed the weaknesses of India's military, and Nehru was widely criticised for his government's inadequate attention to defense. Hence Nehru shared the blame along with V.K. Krishna Menon on the military setback with China in October 1962.

    In 1957, despite of the major victory attained the elections, the Nehru led central government faced rising problems and criticism. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 also aroused criticism for assumed nepotism.

    Kashmir was a continuous problem, and he failed to reach any successful negotiation regarding Kashmir with the neighbor Pakistan. He tried to force a negotiation with the Pakistani government through the United Nations. But the Pakistani military rulers denied any peaceful agreement. The Kashmir imbroglio is still continuous to disturb both India and Pakistan complicating the domestic politics of the two countries. Nevertheless Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region.

    Another major criticism with regard to the Partition from certain quarters was that if Nehru had yielded to some of the demands of the Muhammad Ali Jinnah, partition of the country would have been avoided.

    The seventeen years of his of leadership gained a steady progress of India on many fronts. All aspects of Indian life blessed with his enlivening touch. Although critics would attack him on many issues like the setback in China policy, issue of Tibet imbroglio in Kashmir, the policy of non-alignment, issues and developments that led to the Partition, failure of public sector in contributing to socio-economic development, we could on the other side point out that, undoubtedly, Jawaharlal Nehru would remain a towering personality in modern Indian landscape.

    Nevertheless, one could not ignore the role and major contributions of the Nehru towards building modern Indian state. It had contributed significantly in improving the levels of health, education, food, housing, employment etc. The Chinese invasion in 1962 came as a great blow to him and probably hastened his death. In 1964, this great leader of modern India, Jawaharlal Nehru suffered a stroke and a heart attack. On 27 May 1964, Nehru passed away. Nehru was cremated at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi.

    It is true that Nehru failed on certain areas, aspects and policies. But he played a phenomenal role in providing a strong socioeconomic foundation to India's growth and development. He was a statesman, institution-builder, secularist, pacifist, democrat with scientific and humanist values and temperament. As a true democrat he appreciated dissent and yielded to his critics’ point of view. He was responsible for taking India to the pride of place among the nations of the world. Being a believer of Mahatma Gandhi, peace and moral values prevailed on him tremendously. His own vision and instinct, besides the international exposure he received, influenced his perspectives considerably. Modern India owes a great to this unique nation-builder of the 20th century. :india:

    Jawaharlal Nehru's Contribution In Building Modern India. Article - News And Life Style Politics Articles
     
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    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    further to the topic of this thread, we have two graphs as below, and here its clear that now US/UK needs to win wars, win over a very big economy, like how Britain won over India in 1818 and then improved their economy since then, came out of extreme poverty since then by winning over India

    check, how UK's debt was reduced from 250% to its GDP in 1818, (the year they won over Marathas who controlled 80% India till then), to a very low level debt by early 19th century, along with contraction in Indian Economy during that period



    => the paper below is part of every forum, where we discuss about British Rule over India during 19th century :thumb:

    [​IMG]
     
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    here its worth mentioning that total Annual GDP Growth Rate of India since 1947/1951 is estimated at around 5.84% as below, while share of Agriculture was around 60% that time, telling the success story of Nehru's economic policy :truestory:
    the agriculture sector, which can't grow for more than 2.0% on long run...... as below

    India GDP Annual Growth Rate


    while even if share of agriculture had come down to around 38% only by 1991, Annual Growth Rate of India for the 12 years from 1991 to 2002, was around 5.352% only. the very first consequences of MMS's economic reform, which he copied from Pakistan in fact, as below: :toilet:

     
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    Mahatma Gandhi

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    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi or Bapu (Father of Nation), was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights, and freedom across the world.[2][3]

    The son of a senior government official, Gandhi was born and raised in a Bania[4] community in coastal Gujarat, and trained in law in London. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using new techniques of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed. Returning to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong opponent of "communalism" (i.e. basing politics on religion) he reached out widely to all religious groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, increasing economic self-reliance, and above all for achieving Swaraj—the independence of India from British domination.

    Gandhi led Indians in protesting the national salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in demanding the British to immediately Quit India in 1942, during World War II. He was imprisoned for that and for numerous other political offenses over the years. Gandhi sought to practice non-violence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the same. He saw the villages as the core of the true India and promoted self-sufficiency; he did not support the industrialization programs of his disciple Jawaharlal Nehru. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. His chief political enemy in Britain was Winston Churchill,[5] who ridiculed him as a half-naked fakir.[6] He was a dedicated vegetarian, and undertook long fasts as means of both self-purification and political mobilization.

    In his last year, unhappy at the partition of India, Gandhi worked to stop the carnage between Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs that raged in the border area between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse who thought Gandhi was too sympathetic to India's Muslims.:facepalm: 30 January is observed as Martyrs' Day in India. The honorific Mahatma ("Great Soul") was applied to him by 1914.[7] In India he was also called Bapu ("Father"). He is known in India as the Father of the Nation;[8] his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and world-wide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi's philosophy was not theoretical but one of pragmatism, that is, practicing his principles in the moment. Asked to give a message to the people, he would respond, "My life is my message."[9]

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    Non-cooperation

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    Ghaffar Khan with Mahatma Gandhi

    With Congress now behind him in 1920, Gandhi had the base to employ non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against the British Raj. His wide popularity among both Hindus and Muslims made his leadership possible; he even convinced the extreme faction of Muslims to support peaceful non-cooperation.[70] The spark that ignited a national protest was overwhelming anger at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (or Amritsar massacre) of hundreds of peaceful civilians by British troops in Punjab. Many Britons celebrated the action as needed to prevent another violent uprising similar to the Rebellion of 1857, an attitude that caused many Indian leaders to decide the Raj was controlled by their enemies. Gandhi criticised both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory violence of Indians. He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified.[71]:india:

    After the massacre and subsequent violence, Gandhi began to focus on winning complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions, maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual, spiritual, political independence.[72] During this period, Gandhi claimed to be a "highly orthodox Hindu" and in January 1921 during a speech at a temple in Vadtal, he spoke of the relevance of non-cooperation to Hindu Dharma, "At this holy place, I declare, if you want to protect your 'Hindu Dharma', non-cooperation is first as well as the last lesson you must learn up.".[73]

    In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress. Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganised with a new constitution, with the goal of Swaraj. Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline, transforming the party from an elite organisation to one of mass national appeal. Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy—the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.[74]

    Gandhi even invented a small, portable spinning wheel that could be folded into the size of a small typewriter.[75] This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weeding out the unwilling and ambitious and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women. In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours.[76]:ranger:

    "Non-cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success, increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society. Yet, just as the movement reached its apex, it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, in February 1922. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence, and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work, Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience.[77] This was the third time that Gandhi had called off a major campaign.[78] Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his sentence on 18 March 1922. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation, having served only 2 years.[79]

    Without Gandhi's unifying personality, the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison, splitting into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, opposing this move. Furthermore, cooperation among Hindus and Muslims, which had been strong at the height of the non-violence campaign, was breaking down. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means, including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924, but with limited success.[80] In this year, Gandhi was persuaded to preside over the Congress session to be held in Belgaum. Gandhi agreed to become president of the session on one condition: that Congressmen should take to wearing homespun khadi. In his long political career, this was the only time when he presided over a Congress session.[81]


    Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)

    Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s. He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. He returned to the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought a demand for immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one year wait, instead of two.[82]

    The British did not respond. On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. 26 January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.[83]


    World War II and Quit India

    Gandhi initially favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II broke out in 1939, but the Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the people's representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office.[102] After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.[103]

    Gandhi was criticised by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups, both pro-British and anti-British. Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its struggle against Nazi Germany was unethical. Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken, while Britain fought against Nazism, it continued to refuse to grant India Independence. Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale.[104]

    In 1942, although still committed in his efforts to "launch a non-violent movement", Gandhi clarified that the movement would not be stopped by individual acts of violence, saying that the "ordered anarchy" of "the present system of administration" was "worse than real anarchy."[105][106] He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo ya maro ("Do or die") in the cause of ultimate freedom.[107]

    Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life. His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on 22 February 1944; six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation. He came out of detention to an altered political scene—the Muslim League for example, which a few years earlier had appeared marginal, "now occupied the centre of the political stage"[108] and the topic of Jinnah's campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point. Gandhi met Jinnah in September 1944 in Bombay but Jinnah rejected, on the grounds that it fell short of a fully independent Pakistan, his proposal of the right of Muslim provinces to opt out of substantial parts of the forthcoming political union.[109][110]

    While the leaders of Congress languished in jail, the other parties supported the war and gained organizational strength. Underground publications flailed at the ruthless suppression of Congress, but it had little control over events.[111] At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands. At this point Gandhi called off the struggle, and around 100,000 political prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership.[112] :india:

    Mahatma Gandhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
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  14. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

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    Mahatma Gandhi popularly known as ‘Father of the Nation’ was one of the charismatic Indian leaders who fought for the freedom of the country. This great leader was born in Porbandar, Gujarat on Oct 2, 1869. He was the youngest of the three sons of Putlibai and Karamchand Gandhi. He completed his primary studies in Rajkot and was married to Kasturba at the age of 13.

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    Gandhi with Badashah Khan and Kasturba, the "Frontier Gandhi"

    In 1891, Gandhi went to London to study Law but after having admitted to Britisah bar he returned to India and began law practice in Bombay. After a span of two years he was called by an Indian company in South Africa to work as a legal advisor.:truestory: There he found that he was ill-treated and abused because of inferior race and color discrimination. This was a common problem with all Indians. He then decided to throw himself into the freedom struggle to secure rights for Indian people. For this cause, Gandhi stayed in South Africa for almost 25 years. :ranger:

    Influenced by the Bhagvad Gita and Hindu beliefs, the Jain religion and the Christian teachings of Leo Tolstoy, Gandhi moved on the path of Satya and Ahimsa. ‘Satya’ meaning ‘truth’ and ‘ahimsa’ meaning ‘non-violence’ were the two weapons that Gandhi used to fight the enemy. He led the campaign in South Africa with the principle of Satyagraha for Indian rights and was arrested many times for his political activities. In 1914, many of Gandhi’s demands were accepted by the Government of the Union of South Africa. After his struggle in South Africa he returned to India and started Non-Cooperation movement there.

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    Gandhi, after returning to India inspired people to boycott British goods and refuse earthy possessions. This movement was known as Swaraj and was economically significant because Indian home industries were virtually destructed by British industrialists. He advocated renewal of native Indian industries and began to use a spinning wheel as a token of return to simple village life. Thereafter, he constantly began promoting satyagraha, non-violence, non-cooperation and swaraj to achieve independence. Finally, in August 1947, the British were forced to leave India.

    Mahatma Gandhi, symbol of Free India, was assassinated by Nathuram Godse in January 1948. :facepalm: His mortal frame has already turned into ashes years ago but he still lives in the hearts of millions of people. Mahatma Gandhi, an embodiment of eternal love and truth, will live for immortal ages.

    mohandas karamchand gandhi

    http://www.indianfreedomfighters.in/mohandas-karamchand-gandhi.htm
     
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    Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

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    Subhas Chandra Bose is one of those great freedom fighters who martyred their lives for India’s independence. He is popularly known as Netaji because he was considered to be a born leader. He was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. And was the ninth child of a famous lawyer Janaki Nath Bose and a religious lady Prabhavati Devi. He completed his graduation in Calcutta and went to England in 1919 to appear for Indian Civil Service Examination and achieved fourth place on merit. :truestory:

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    Filled with the feelings of patriotism, Bose was resolved to drive British out of the country. When in England, he was shaken by the incident of Jalianwala Bagh massacre and returned back to India in 1921. Under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi he joined the Indian National Congress and actively participated in Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

    Subash along with Tilak and Auribindo were not convinced with Gandhi Ji’s method of achieving independence. They were in favor of armed revolution and Netaji strongly believed that the only way to earn freedom was by shedding blood. With this strong belief, he involved himself in various revolutionary activities for which he was imprisoned many times.

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    In 1938, Subash was elected as the President of All India Congress. At the time of World War II, Gandhi and Nehru did not support him for armed revolution and so he escaped to Germany to approach Hitler for help. Being impressed by Netaji, Hitler helped him to organize the Indian National Army with the soldiers of the prisoners of war. On October 21, 1943, Subash declared the formation of Azad Hind Government and hosted the Indian National Flag in Kohima, Assam on March 18, 1944.


    In August 1945, Japan surrendered the territory and somehow Netaji escaped from there. He left in a war plane to an undisclosed destination and expired due to plane crash on August 17, 1945.

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    http://www.indianfreedomfighters.in/subhas-chandra-bose.htm
     
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    SELECTED LETTERS FROM SELECTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI

    To Subhash Chandra Bose


    Birla House,
    New Delhi,
    2-4-1939

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    My dear Subhash,

    I have yours of 31st march as also the previous one. You are quite frank and I like your letters for the clear enunciation of your views.

    The view you express seem to be so diametrically opposed to those of the others and my own that I do not see any possibility of bridging them. I think that such school of thought should be able to put forth its views before the country without any mixture. And if this is honestly done, I do not see why there should be any bitterness engaging in civil war.

    What is wrong is not the differences between us but loss of mutual respect and trust. This will be remedied by time which is the best healer. If there is real non-violence in us, there can be no civil war and much bitterness.

    Taking all things into consideration, I am of opinion that you should at once form your own Cabinet fully representing your views. Formulate your programme definitely and put it before the forthcoming A. I. C. C. If the Committee accepts the programme all will be plain-sailing and you should be enabled to prosecute it unhampered by the minority. If on the other hand your programme is not accepted you should resign and let the committee choose it president. And you will be free to educate the country along your lines.:ranger: I tender this advice irrespective of Pandit pant's resolution.

    My prestige does not count. It has an independent value of its own. When my motive is suspected or my policy or programme rejected by the country, the prestige must go. India will rise and fall by the quality of the sum total of her many millions. Individuals, however high they may be, are of no account except in so far as they represent the many millions. Therefore let us rule it out of consideration.

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    I wholly dissent from your view that the country has been never so violent as now. I smell violence in the air I breath. But the violence has pout on a subtle form. Our mutual distrust I a bad form of violence. The widening gulf between Hindus and Mussalmans points to the same thing. I can give further illustrations.

    We seem to differ ad to the amount of corruptions in the Congress. My impression is that it is in the increase. I have been pleading for the past many months for a thorough scrutiny.

    In these circumstances I se no atmosphere of non-violent mass action. An ultimatum without effective sanction is worse than useless.

    But as I have told you that I am an old man perhaps growing timid and over-cautious and you have youth before you and reckless optimism born of youth. I hope you are right. I am wrong. I have the firm belief that the Congress as it is today cannot deliver goods, cannot offer civil disobedience worth the name. Therefore if your prognosis is right, I am s back and played out as the generalissimo of Satyagraha.

    I am glad you have mentioned the little Rajkot affair. It brings into prominent relief the different angles from which we look at things. I have nothing to repent of in the steps I have taken I connection with it. I feel that it has great national importance. I have not stopped civil disobedience in the other States for the sake of Rajkot. But Rajkot opened my eyes. It showed me the way. I am not in Delhi for my health. I am reluctantly in Delhi awaiting the Chief Justice's decision. I hold it to be my duty to be in Delhi till the steps to be taken in due fulfillment of the Viceroy's declaration in his last wire to me are finally taken. I may not run any risk. If I was invited the Paramount Power to do its duty, I was bound to be in Delhi to see that the duty as fully performed. I saw nothing wrong in the Chief Justice being appointed the interpreter of the document whose meaning was put in doubt by the Thakor Sahib. By the way, Sir Maurice will examine the document not in his capacity as Chief Justice but as a trained jurist trusted by the Viceroy. By accepting the Viceroy's nominee as judge, I fancy I have shown both wisdom and grace and what is more important I have increased the Vice regal responsibility in the matter,

    Though we have discussed sharp differences of opinion between us, I am quite sure that our private relations will not suffer in the least. If they are from the heart, I believe they are, they will bear the strain of these differences.

    Love

    BAPU
     
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  17. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    THE IRON WILL

    ‘FREIES INDIEN LEGION’ – Reminiscences of a Secret Indian Army in the Nazi Germany.

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    The ‘Indian National Army’ or ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ formed under the brilliant vision of the great Indian hero ‘Netaji’ Subhash Chandra Bose is emphatically remembered throughout India for its prominent role in providing the organized external armed resistance to free India from the evil clutches of the British Empire. This Indian army formed with the active help of Japan amazed everyone with achieving unattainable feats of glory and valor on the Eastern Front during the Second World War. However the very same India has been totally oblivious for decades about the existence of an another Indian Army formed by ‘Netaji’ in Nazi Germany for initiating an armed struggle for Indian independence from the western front of the war.

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    This army known as the ‘Freies Indien Legion’ occupies a significant place in Second World War, as it became a symbol for India’s firm resolve to fight against its imperial captors for which they were even willing to fight under the camp of the Axis powers. It also acted as a precursor to the subsequent formation of the ‘Indian National Army’ on a much larger scale later on. So let us draw attention to how this enthralling story unfolds from the vault of history which not only tells about the birth of this army but also explores the deep connection which the Axis Powers under the leadership of Adolf Hitler had in this external struggle for Indian Independence.

    The dawn of Second World War brought a big dilemma in front of the Indian leadership in British India. They had to choose whether they should lend support to the Reining Champions (the Allied Powers) such as – USA, Britain, France, Canada etc or to support their Formidable Challengers (the Axis Powers) such as – Germany, Italy and Japan in this ultimate bout which was prized for the world domination.

    The British Government in the capacity of being the Imperial master took a unilateral decision to embroil its colony India into the war on its side without even consulting the Indians about it. The main political party ‘Indian National Congress’ immediately reacted by making loud protests for being sidelined on this issue however they later on agreed to support the decision subject to certain conditions out of which the question of resolving India’s Independence was the most important one.

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    Despite this stand of Congress the public was still outraged for being forcibly made to fight for their enslavers against those nations with whom India never had any sort of enmity in the past. ‘Netaji’ Subhash Chandra Bose who broke away from the Congress recently and whose popularity rivaled that of Mr. Gandhi by then understood this public sentiment and saw a solution emerging within this crisis which could help in India’s quest for freedom from the British Empire. He very well understood that the British would eventually break their promise and would never undertake a sincere effort to resolve India’s aspirations for freedom just like they did after the First World War. Thus supporting Britain and their allies in the war would eventually yield no benefit at all to the Indian cause.

    He also saw that the might of British Empire was so great that mere peaceful and non-violent ways wouldn’t suffice in throwing off a determined colonial power from the country unless the very power centre of that very empire which was Great Britain itself is totally destabilized. Therefore the wisdom for doing so lied in the fact that if India diplomatically treats Britain’s enemies like Germany and Russia as its friends then may be the fall of British Empire along with the subsequent achievement of the freedom of India could be clinically engineered.

    In view of this fact ‘Netaji’ immediately spoke against India’s participation in war for which he was soon arrested in Calcutta. However being an expert fugitive he escaped from detention and reached Afghanistan in order to establish contact with the Russian and German authorities over there. After that he proceeded to Russia where he saw that the Communist authorities were not very interested in helping for the Indian cause. This disappointment led him to go to Germany for soliciting the support of Axis Powers in resolving the question of Indian Independence. Germans who were looking for mustering diplomatic support for their war welcomed ‘Netaji’ on a highly positive note which was also seen in the cooperative attitude of their allies Italy & Japan.

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    Hitler proposed that in case of German victory over Soviet Union he would personally march along with ‘Netaji’ (indicating his full support) from the Caucasus mountain ranges into the frontiers of British India. However since ‘Netaji’ wanted to take immediate action he proposed to transfer him from Germany to Japan via U-Boat (Submarine) in order to let him assume the control of the Indian National Army which was prepared on a much larger scale in Singapore. Thus in view of the situation wherein the Japanese forces were beckoning the Indian frontiers and the German forces being still far away from there, ‘Netaji’s’ attention drastically shifted from the Western Front to the Eastern Front of war.

    However before his departure ‘Netaji’ was concerned that the ‘Freies Indien Legion’ doesn’t becomes a sacrificial pawn regiment in the grand plans of German War Effort. He took promise from the Nazi German authorities to prevent any sort of misuse of the Legion and what facts in historical records tells us is that the promise indeed was kept honorably by Germany.

    The account of Indian Soldiers of the Free Indian Legion shows that they were treated much better by the Nazi German officers as compared to the British Officers in their former employment. This comes as a major surprise considering the image of racial biasness which was the normal perception of the world towards the Nazi German Army.

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    The ‘Legion’ was always kept away from any sort of German mission involving armed combat. However when the Western front of Europe was anticipating an Allied invasion the ‘Legion’ was indeed asked to perform light duties in the formation of obstacles along the coastal lines in order to build the grand fortification known popularly as the “Great Atlantic Wall. Besides there were reports suggesting minor armed skirmishes involving the soldiers of Legion when the Allied invasion took place in France. When a gallant officer Lieutenant Ali Khan was martyred he was buried with full military honors by the German Waffen SS who had now undertaken the operational command of the Legion from the Wehrmacht.

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    Subhash Chandra Bose and Heinrich Himmler, Germany, summer 1942

    The members of the ‘Legion’ then had to retreat as the Allied forces heavily outnumbering the German forces were advancing from everywhere. The German counterattacks and their subsequent victory in Arnhem (Operation Market Garden) gave the retreating columns including the members of legion ample time to seek sanctuary within the boundaries of Germany. However when Germany began to be surrounded by the joint forces of Americans, British ,Soviets etc the remaining soldiers of the ‘Legion’ decided to cross borders and move to the neutral nation Switzerland in order to escape persecution at the hand of the vengeful Allied forces.

    However on their route for escaping via Alps passes they were captured by the Allied forces. It was alleged that many of the captured Indian soldiers were killed in cold blood by the French soldiers. The other remaining soldiers along with their senior personnel were then sent to British India to face the famous Red Fort trial that became a huge national rallying point for the masses to come in full support of these soldiers cause to liberate India.

    By then the efforts of ‘Freies Indien Legion’ and ‘Indian National Army’ began to cast its spell on the British. These brave soldiers of both the national liberation armies openly expressed their gladness for what they had done and they expressed not even an ounce of remorse or guilt. Seeing this the Indian soldiers of the British colonial army began to get involved in acts of sporadic mutiny and the mood of the already desperate Indian people began to slowly drift from Gandhi’s Non-violence to ‘Netaji’s’ call for use of Force to throw out the British.

    Great Britain which lay vehemently annihilated in the process of its epic struggle with Nazi Germany began to see that it was not any more feasible to sustain such a huge global empire. The severely battered armed forces and its devastated economy were in no point to amend the situation. The British feared that the amount of radicalization which ‘Netaji’s’ forces had invigorated into the Indian masses may eventually spiral out into a violent war which would not only result in slaughter of British citizens over there but also bring humiliation of a subsequent defeat. Thus they realized that the political wisdom lied in peacefully giving the freedom to India and ensuring a graceful departure from the country.

    Hence the role of ‘Freies Indien Legion’ and ‘Indian National Army’ is of pivotal importance as their painstaking efforts brought in the much required antidote of Fear Psychosis into the war torn British Imperial mindset which ultimately led to India becoming an independent nation. Despite such an unparallel contribution towards the goal of Indian independence although the efforts of the latter army has been acknowledged but the sacrifice of ‘Freies Indien Legion’ still waits for its due place in the National History of modern India.

    The Iron Will: ‘FREIES INDIEN LEGION’ – Reminiscences of a Secret Indian Army in the Nazi Germany.
     
    Last edited: Jul 8, 2013
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  18. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    double post
     
  19. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    Lal Bahadur Shastri

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    Lal Bahadur Shastri (pronounced [laːl bəˈɦaːd̪ʊr ˈʃaːst̪ri]; About this sound listen (help·info), 2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the second Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a leader of the Indian National Congress party.

    Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. Deeply impressed and influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, he became a loyal follower, first of Gandhi, and then of Jawaharlal Nehru. Following independence in 1947, he joined the latter's government and became one of Prime Minister Nehru's principal lieutenants, first as Railways Minister (1951–56), and then in a variety of other functions, including Home Minister. Shastri was chosen as Nehru's successor owing to his adherence to Nehruvian socialism after Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi turned down Congress President K. Kamaraj's offer of premiership.

    Shastri as Prime Minister continued Nehru's policies of non-alignment and socialism. He became a national hero following the victory in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. His slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer") became very popular during the war and is remembered even today.[2] The war was formally ended in the Tashkent Agreement of 10 January 1966; he died the following day, still in Tashkent, of a heart attack.

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    Social activism

    Shastri, who belonged to the Kayastha caste, dropped his surname Srivastava as it indicated his caste and he was against the caste system, a major principle of the Gandhian movement. :india:[3] Shastri also enrolled himself as a life member of the Servants of the People Society and began to work for the upliftment of the Harijans under Gandhi's direction at Muzaffarpur.[7] Later he became the President of the Society.[8]

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    Economic policies

    Shastri continued Nehru's socialist economic policies with central planning. He promoted the White Revolution – a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk – by supporting the Amul milk co-operative of Anand, Gujarat and creating the National Dairy Development Board.[2] While speaking on the chronic food shortages across the country, Shastri urged people to voluntarily give up one meal so that the saved food could be distributed to the affected populace. During the 22-day war with Pakistan in 1965, Shastri created the slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer"), underlining the need to boost India's food production. Shastri also promoted the Green Revolution. Though he was a socialist, Shastri stated that India cannot have a regimented type of economy.[2]

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    Independence activism

    Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in 1921. His early activities included participation in the non-cooperation movement for which he was jailed briefly by the British. He was let off as he was then still a minor.[9]

    Shastri participated in the Salt Satyagraha in 1930. He was imprisoned for two and a half years.[10] Later, he worked as the Organizing Secretary of the Parliamentary Board of U.P. in 1937.[11] In 1940, he was sent to prison for one year, for offering individual Satyagraha support to the freedom movement.[12]

    On 8 August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi issued the Quit India speech at Gowalia Tank in Mumbai, demanding that the British leave India. Shastri, who had just then come out after a year in prison, travelled to Allahabad. For a week, he sent instructions to the freedom fighters from Jawaharlal Nehru's home, Anand Bhavan. A few days later, he was arrested and imprisoned until 1946.[12] Shastri spent almost nine years in jail in total.[13] During his stays in prison, he spent time reading books and became familiar with the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers.

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    Lal Bahadur Shastri - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
    Last edited: Jul 30, 2013
  20. hello_10

    hello_10 Tihar Jail Banned

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    '
    => http://defenceforumindia.com/forum/...inate-against-muslims-eu-us-3.html#post771655


    its really hard to find a country like India, a non-religious country even if Hindus accounts for 80% population, which share equal rights and equal opportunities with all the communities, regardless any religion/ race/ language etc, with providing more opportunities to the weak part of the society like women/ dalits etc in different competitive exams. India may proudly say that it had many minority Presidents/ PMs/ CMs/ Governors/ Chief Justice/ Bollywood superstar/ General etc as its the country the most deserving people go high, regardless their religious/ racial/ language etc background :india:
    you did get a country like India, which is hard to find anywhere else :truestory:
     
    Last edited: Aug 4, 2013
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  21. natarajan

    natarajan Senior Member Senior Member

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    but still people here including members whine or always shed crocodile tears
     
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