The Cold War: Learning from the Past

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by Vinod2070, May 3, 2009.

  1. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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  3. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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  4. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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  5. Vinod2070

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  7. Daredevil

    Daredevil On Vacation! Administrator

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    Nice find Vinod. Afghanistan is another victim of power struggle between two super powers.
     
  8. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    The RUSSIAN S-7 Submarine.

    In the 1930s, the Soviet Union built a series of submarines called the S class, based on German designs.

    In the summer of 1942, the S7 sank the Swedish cargo ships Margareta and Luleå, delivering iron to Germany. Shortly after, the sub was cruising on the surface at night, off the Swedish coast not far from Norrtälje, when she was spotted by the Finnish sub Vesihiisi. The Vesihiisi fired one torpedo and the S7 sank quickly.

    Four survivors who were standing in the conning tower were rescued by the Finnish sub. They were taken prisoners. Among them was the commander Sergey Lisin.

    In July 1998, the S7 was located with side scan sonar on 40-45 m depth off Söderarm in the Stockholm archipelago.

    here is a very cool video on the S-7

    YouTube - Russian submarine S7
     
    W.G.Ewald likes this.
  9. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    Soviet Space Battle Station Skif and its prototype Polus.

    Soviet Union was developing laser space battle station Skif from beginning of 80's.
    Length: 37 meters
    Diameter: 4.1 meter
    Weight: around 80 tons
    It was supposed to be launched by Energia booster (same as for Buran shuttle)


    Unarmed prototype filled with scientific equipment was created around 1985 and launched 15 May 1987. It was failed to start operations and with the fall of Soviet Union project was scrapped.

    [​IMG]

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    this was why it is always referred that the russia had laser weapons much earlier than boeing developed it many soviet plans did not come up to the world but their vision is always appreciated especially in the space sector
     
  10. Soham

    Soham DFI TEAM Senior Member

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    Interesting.

    In the sixties of the last century the Yanks detonated a large nuclear device in space above the Pacific.
    The mission was known as Starfish Prime.It turned the sky red and white above most of the Pacific
    including New Zealand where it was apparently observed by David Lange who was later to be PM.A
    horrifying sight,I believe.And most of the communication satellites in orbit at the time were knocked out
    of action.A new radiation belt was created.

    Never heard about an American of this monster though.
     
  11. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    The COLD WAR, re-live the past

    military history thread related to the developments of the cold war,
    makes for an interesting discussions to debate and learn,

    members no fan-boyish posts please on this thread
     
  12. Officer of Engineers

    Officer of Engineers Defence Professionals Defence Professionals

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    This would be a fanboyish type post but still a stroll down memory lane.

    Gone are the days when a pair of Levi jeans would have gotten you warm during a cold night in East Berlin.
     
  13. 1.44

    1.44 Member of The Month SEPTEMBER 2009 Senior Member

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    Ghosts of the East Coast: Doomsday Ships

    In the early stages of the Cold War an impending "Doomsday" weighed heavily upon the minds of Americans. President Truman instituted the Federal Civil Defense Administration which began issuing brochures, films, and radio advertisements to prepare citizens to survive a nuclear attack. Dog tags were issued to many school children who also went through "duck and cover" drills as they were trained to curl up under their school desks after a nuclear bomb detonation flash of light. Siren tests sounded at regular intervals and national and local publications ran articles about the imminent danger of nuclear war. Radios were marked with triangles at stations that would be used by CONELRAD1 broadcasts which would kick in as soon as all regular broadcasts ceased after the alarm sounded. Some American citizens were building backyard bomb shelters while local government, as well as private corporations, established larger shelters under various buildings. Many believed the best of these efforts were hopeless in the event of a nuclear nightmare.
    The military kept strategic bombers in the air and submarines at sea. The subs carried ballistic missiles (SBLMs--Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles) which provided a mobile and stealth means of carrying powerful nuclear firepower. Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) were developed to detect missile launches coming in from Russia. A DEW2 line consisting of enormous radar structures was established to warn against nuclear attack coming across the North Pole. Each side raced to gain nuclear superiority with Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). The United Sates developed Multiple Independently Targetable Re-entry (MIRV) weapons. Although not an official strategy of the military, a concept that emphasized neither side would survive a nuclear war was known as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).

    Nevertheless the United States government made contingency plans for Continuity of Government (COG) in the event of a nuclear attack. Several Command Posts were developed as part of a Doomsday Plan to relocate the President (with his Emergency Action Documents--EADs), Joint Chiefs, Cabinet, Supreme Court, and Congress to secure locations. These Alternate Joint Communication Centers (AJCC) were part of the National Military Command System (NMCS). There were three factors that were crucial in determining the likelihood of AJCC success: (1) arriving safely at the location, (2) avoiding bomb effects, and (3) attaining important communications links.

    Seeking to be victorious, in a potential nuclear war, authorities developed a plan for using the United States nuclear arsenal and designated it the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP). Goals of the Doomsday Plan (a gruesome term that included SIOP, COG, and various sub-strategies) were to make sure order was preserved in society, the economy was not destroyed, food was rationed, and cultural artifacts (such as the Declaration of Independence) were rescued. There were nuclear flash sensors placed around the country. Code words were provided for selected officials and phone numbers were given that bypassed the normal phone systems. A broadcasting center was set up under the name Wartime Information Security Program (WISP) to control what information went to the public, including pre-recorded messages from the President. However, the ultimate goal was to make sure government survived and was able to maintain adequate information for decision making based on surveillance and analysis of world events. To do that it was necessary to establish communications between the President and commanders of military forces as well as with leaders of allied and enemy governments.

    Although government certainly consisted of several entities, the President was probably the top priority of COG for obvious political and symbolic reasons. Therefore, the President needed to be transported safely to a location that had maximum bomb avoidance and communication capabilities. Logically more than one option was made available.

    Obviously, a presidential “bomb shelter” was a necessity. Code-named "Site R", and built deep under Raven Rock mountain, a Deep Underground Communication Center (DUCC) was coordinated by the Army from Ft. Ritchie near the Maryland-Pennsylvania border a few miles from Camp David. To disperse other governmental leaders and functions other bunkers were located at Berryville, Virginia under Mt. Weather (code-named "High Point"); Culpepper, Virginia (Mt. Pony); and White Sulfur Springs, West Virginia under the Greenbrier Resort (code-named Casper).

    Some of the underground Command Posts had several hundred full time 24-hour support personnel and a capacity for maintaining about 3000 "guests". The bunkers had thick walls of steel reinforced concrete and some had barbed wire and armed guards with dogs. Besides communications activities the centers had individual priorities that included Federal Reserve computers, billions of dollars in currency, and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) national emergency coordinating equipment. There were sleeping quarters, war rooms, amphitheaters, kitchens, dining areas, infirmaries, brigs, psychiatric cells, barbershops, storage rooms, sewage treatment facilities, body storage/disposal areas, gun ranges, and decontamination showers. These were located in buildings up to four stories high. There were detailed plans in place for every conceivable scenario including keeping a current database of medications for members of Congress.

    Regarding the relocation of the President, a weakness of the DUCC was the vulnerability of the antennas needed for communication. Also, there was the danger of sabotage (including attacks upon officials attempting to enter the bunkers) from enemy agents already inside the country. Since the projects were so monumental when they were constructed, many people had some knowledge about the sites.

    Another variable to increase the odds of the President surviving Doomsday was a moveable location which made targeting more difficult. The National Emergency Airborne Command Post (NEACP), code-named “Night Watch”, consisted of several shielded and specially configured Boeing airplanes (stationed at Andrews Air Force Base near DC) with at least one plane ready for take-off within 15 minutes after an attack alert. When the president traveled on Air Force One, a NEACP plane often flew to a nearby location.

    Weaknesses of NEACP, for presidential relocation, were getting off the ground in time, jet intakes getting fouled, and the limited amount of time the planes could stay in flight.

    A National Mobile Land Command Post (NMLCP) was proposed at one point. Declassified documents indicate it was not recommended for implementation, but the documents found by this writer do not say why. A submarine Command Post was also planned, but there were problems, at that time, with getting evacuated personnel aboard and having good communications abilities. Both of these alternatives may be more viable today (2006) and are probably highly classified.

    Beginning in late 1950 there was a special unit of helicopter teams (code-named "Outpost Mission") stationed at Olmstead Air Force Base in Pennsylvania. Their duty was to fly to the White House and relocate the president to one of the sites briefly described above or to a National Emergency Command Post Afloat (NECPA). Although the DUCC and NEACP options still exist (2006), as the "Doomsday Clock"3 moved closer to midnight during the highly volatile 1960's, the NECPA ship was very likely the most workable choice for assurance of presidential survival had the United States been the target of a nuclear attack.

    Two ships were uniquely configured and assigned the NECPA duties.4 The NECPA ships had to have good maneuverability to assure safe arrival, a reasonable probability of bomb effect avoidance, and were capable of state-of-the-art communications. The sister ships USS Northampton (CC-1)5 and USS Wright (CC-2) alternated the alert duty every two weeks as a potential floating White House/Pentagon. The NECPA strategy was to keep one of the ships somewhere off the East Coast. With only the customary naval acknowledgements, just outside of Norfolk, the ships would silently sail past each other as the alert ship was relieved in order to enter port for replenishing and much needed rest and recreation for the crew.

    Both the Wright and the Northampton had a huge dish-like structure used for Troposphere Scatter Communications (TROPO.)6 There were land based TROPO dish sites located in Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Delaware7. The alert ship usually operated within a few hundred miles of one of those land sites. The gyro-stabilized TROPO equipment provided the capability for access to commercial and military telephone networks. To maintain operational security the ships took steps to decrease radio direction finding activities from hostile sources attempting to trace the location of the alert ship. The TROPO system provided, difficult to zero in on, telephone, teletype, and data circuits with top priority for the Command Posts. The NECPA ships used voice radio call signs Zenith (Wright) and Sea Ruler (Northampton) during communication with other ships, aircraft and shore stations.

    The mission of the two ships was to handle communications and command data for the strategic direction of military operations world-wide. The ships, operated under the SIOP, and were always ready for the president (with special presidential quarters). Both ships had access to White House Situation Room classified information. If a nuclear war had erupted the alert ship was third in line behind the Strategic Air Command (SAC)8 and the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), for full command to maintain Continuity of Government and control of the United States Armed Forces and nuclear weapons.

    The Wright and Northampton had interior spaces capable of pressurization to prevent contamination from nuclear fallout. The Northampton had an exterior salt-water wash down system. Each ship had a smaller replica of the Pentagon's War Room. The Wright's command compartments had projection equipment with large screens and a wall of status boards and maps mounted on tracks which could be rolled into view. One entire space was filled with teletype printers. The crew totaled over 1,200 with 200 of those with duties just to operate and maintain the communications equipment.

    Life aboard ship9 was tedious and stressful, mixed with friendship and macho mischief. There were highly restricted areas where only those with appropriate security clearances were allowed to enter. Men from each branch of the military service, as well as CIA personnel, were assigned to both Wright and Northampton. Also, many government officials and high ranking military officers from all branches of service frequently visited each ship. The command ships were kept "spit-shined" from stem to stern, but the crews enjoyed excellent chow since the cooks requisitioned the same supplies to prepare meals for all of the ship's company and guests. In 1968 the Wright received the prestigious Ney Award10 for the best Large Mess Afloat for the entire fleet worldwide.

    The USS Wright was the newer of the two ships both of which had been converted from previous designations (Northampton from CLC-1, cruiser, in 1961 and Wright from CVL-49, aircraft carrier, in 1963). She had, for that era, the most elaborate and powerful communications equipment ever installed aboard a ship. Her "voice of command" could reach any ship, aircraft, or station in the world. Two antenna masts were 114 feet tall (156 feet above the water) and able to withstand 100-mph winds. The Wright had satellite communications (SATCOM) ) and carried a specially designed helicopter11 that pulled a wire cable nearly two miles high to serve as an antenna for SVLF (Very Low Frequency) communication with submarines. A Battle "E" was awarded to the Wright in 1968 for highest scores in her Atlantic Fleet cruiser-destroyer force squadron competition.

    Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson went aboard the Northampton before the Wright was commissioned. In April of 1967, the Wright accompanied President Johnson to the Latin America Summit Conference held in Uruguay. In January 1968, the Wright was urgently called back from the Florida area and placed on high alert when the USS Pueblo was captured by North Korea. (See author’s end note.) President Johnson traveled to Central America in July of 1968 for a meeting of the Presidents of Central American Republics. The Wright was in the shipyards and was unable to get underway. With short notice, the Northampton left port at about 0200, traversed the Panama Canal, and lay off the Pacific Coast of Latin America while President Johnson met with the leaders of El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala.

    The NECPA ship, which was on alert, often sat just off the East Coast of the United States while running helicopter and communications operations. Coastal residents would go to bed with nothing on the horizon and awaken to see a dark, strangely shaped, ship silhouette materialize through the morning fog. The ship would be there for a day or so and then "disappear" out to sea leaving an empty horizon. This experience probably had the aura of a mysterious, even ghostly, occurrence. Although it was rumored that a submarine shadowed the alert ship, as far as the eye could tell the NECPA ship cruised all alone. At the top of each daily Deck Log for the duty ship was this entry: "00-04 Wright is alert ship NECPA operating independently in accordance with COMCRUDESLANT12 message 171840Z of Feb 1968".13

    The NECPA mission was a vital part of the Cold War for ten years. The men who served aboard the NECPA ships served their country well and contributed to keeping the world from a nuclear holocaust. The USS Northampton and the USS Wright were decommissioned a few weeks apart in the spring of 1970 when communication capabilities became more sophisticated. The NECPA ships also became susceptible to satellite surveillance and Soviet aircraft based in Cuba. Additionally, Soviet submarines had become more improved and numerous in the Atlantic. Both the Wright and Northampton were scrapped long before the United States won the Cold War in 1991. Now, only memories remain of the East Coast “Ghost Ships" that waited for a Doomsday that did not happen on their watch.
     
  14. 1.44

    1.44 Member of The Month SEPTEMBER 2009 Senior Member

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    1.44 Member of The Month SEPTEMBER 2009 Senior Member

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    THE COLD WAR
    (1945-1990)
    Events: Postscript -- The
    Nuclear Age, 1945-present

    The postwar organization of atomic energy took place against the backdrop of growing tension with the Soviet Union. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union had been strained ever since the revolution of 1917 had first brought communists to power in Russia. This mutual distrust further deepened following the Soviet "non-aggression" treaty with Nazi Germany in August 1939 and the SovietUnion's subsequent invasions of Poland, Finland, and the Baltic Republics. Although Britain was allied with the Soviet Union following Germany's June 1941 invasion of Russia, as was the United States in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, mutual suspicion lingered throughout the Second World War. The failure of the United States and Britain to tell the Soviet Union about the atomic bomb in anything other than the most vague terms only heightened the extreme suspicions of the Soviet dictator, Joseph Stalin (right).
    [​IMG]
    Not only did the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki help end the Second World War, but they also played a role in setting the stage for the half-century of conflict with the Soviet Union that followed it -- the Cold War.
    [​IMG]
    In March 1946, the former British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, warned that an "iron curtain" was descending across Eastern Europe as the Soviet Union imposed non-democratic communist governments on every nation under its military control. A year later, President Harry S. Truman proclaimed the "Truman Doctrine," asking for funds for overseas military assistance to those governments that would oppose communism. On the issue of international control of nuclear weapons, the United States, believing that the Soviet army posed a threat to Western Europe and recognizing that American non-nuclear forces had rapidly demobilized following the war, refused to surrender its monopoly on nuclear weapons without adequate controls. In 1948 and 1949, the United States continued implementing its policy of "containment" of communism and the Soviet Union, most notably with the "Marshall Plan" to help rebuild the economies of Western Europe and with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) designed to oppose any Soviet invasion of Europe. In 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first atomic bomb (closely resembling the plutonium device tested at Alamogordo, thanks to espionage). That same year, Chinese communists defeated their nationalist opponents in the Chinese Civil War. By the time communist North Korea attacked American-backed South Korea in June 1950, many in the United States and around the world believed that a third world war was imminent or had already begun.
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    In this atmosphere of national emergency, government officials believed that continued American superiority in nuclear weaponry was vital to preventing a third world war. If a global war should begin, American military planners hoped thatcontinued nuclear superiority would allow the United States to strike the Soviet Union with such force that damage to the United States would be minimized and that Western Europe could eventually be reclaimed from an invading Soviet army. The generation of United States Air Force generals who had overseen the aerial destruction of the cities of Germany and Japan was determined to prevent similar destruction of American cities. In 1950, following the beginning of the Korean War and a secret governmental study called NSC 68, the United States nearly tripled its defense budget.
    [​IMG]
    The defense buildup of 1950-1951 included an expansion of the nuclear weapons complex and an increase of the stockpile of fission weapons. Truman also approved the design and production of the next generation of nuclear weapons, thermonuclear weapons (the "hydrogen bomb"). When the United States tested the first of these on November 1, 1952 (right), the result was an explosion that was equivalent to one produced by more than ten million tons of TNT. This was approximately 700 times the power of the uranium (fission) bomb dropped on Hiroshima. In August 1953, the Soviet Union tested its first "boosted fission weapon," which used thermonuclear burning to enhance its yield, and in November 1955 the Soviet Union tested its first true thermonuclear weapon. There was now almost no limit on the size of an explosion either superpower could create. In August 1957, the Soviet Union tested the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), a feat dramatized two months later by the launch of the "Sputnik" satellite. The following year, the United States first began limited operation of its own ICBM. One of these nuclear-tipped missiles from either side could arrive at its target in less than an hour, and no defense was possible once the missile was launched. The only thing thought now to be preserving the "delicate balance of terror" was the promise that if one nation attacked, the other would surely retaliate. The era of "mutual assured destruction," or "MAD," had dawned.
    [​IMG]
    No global third world war ever took place. Mindful that a full-scale nuclear exchange would be a disaster for both sides, the superpowers fought each other through a variety of proxy wars and "shadow struggles" in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and dozens of other places. The strategy of the United States and its like-minded allies was to use the nuclear threat to avert a direct Soviet attack on Western Europe and allow time for the eventual internal reform or even collapse of the Soviet Union and its satellite states. Events eventually confirmed this strategy, but the Soviet Union in the interim proved willing to use overt military force to prevent the collapse of communist governments, most notably with its invasions of Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968. At the same time, the Soviet Union supported the spread of communism through insurrections and the overthrow of pro-western regimes in the third world. The United States, in turn, responded with economic and military aid and, where necessary, armed force to prop up friendly governments and used its own secret intelligence services in attempts to overthrow unfriendly governments.
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    After four decades of an enormously expensive arms race, the Soviet economy in the 1980s finally collapsed. Once it became clear that the Soviet Union would no longer intervene militarily, the people of Eastern Europe overwhelmingly rejected communism in a wave of mostly peaceful revolts throughout 1989 and 1990. When the Russian people were finally allowed to participate in a democratic election, they too rejected communism, weary as they were of more than seven decades of repressive and sometimes murderous governments. The peoples of other nations that had been forced to join the Soviet Union -- from the Baltic Republics to Ukraine to the Caucasus Mountains to the steppes of Asia -- chose to leave the Soviet Union completely. On Christmas Day, 1991, the Soviet flag was lowered for the last time over the Kremlin, and the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist.
    [​IMG]
    This "victory" did not come cheap. Millions died in the wars fought in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. Untold wealth, which could have been put toward any number of social or humanitarian needs, was expended on military manpower and sophisticated weaponry. Nor was victory foreordained. No one knew for certain whether communism would not prove to be the inevitable wave of the future or if the ideological struggle would not all end in a massive nuclear exchange spawned by accident or desperation.
    [​IMG]
    The nuclear weapons designed, built, and tested by the Manhattan Project and its lineal descendents were perhaps the single most defining element of the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time that they visited on the world unprecedented fear and a daily awareness of the nearness of global holocaust, nuclear weapons also bought the necessary time to achieve a successful outcome to the Cold War on the basis of ideology, economics, social structure, and the limited application of military might. In the over half-century since the Manhattan Project, the world has seen no wars that have even come close to matching the death and destruction associated with the two world wars of the early part of the century. Perhaps Robert Oppenheimer's wish for a weapon that was so terrible that war itself would become obsolete was not entirely without hope.
    http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/cold_war.htm
     
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    1.44 Member of The Month SEPTEMBER 2009 Senior Member

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    NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION
    (1949-present)
    Events: Postscript -- The Nuclear Age, 1945-present
    Even before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, many of the scientists of the Manhattan Project were arguing that international control of atomic energy was essential. Any modern, industrialized state, they reasoned, could eventually build its own atomic bomb if it so chose. There was no "secret" scientific theory or principle concerning the bomb. Its possibility was fundamental to modern physics. Then as now, the primary difficulties were engineering related: separating uranium-235 or producing plutonium and designing and building the actual weapon.

    To date seven nations have openly conducted nuclear tests. They are:

    the United States (1945)
    the Soviet Union (1949)
    Great Britain (1952)
    France (1960)
    China (1964)
    India (1974)
    Pakistan (1998)
    [​IMG]
    The second nation to test an atomic bomb was the United States's Cold War rival, the Soviet Union. This development was not unexpected, but the timing was. The American intelligence community generally believed the Soviet Union would not have "the bomb" until 1952 or even later, not August 1949. Soviet wartime espionage sped its weapons development, but probably only by a year or two. (The bomb tested on August 29, 1949, closely resembled the implosion device developed at Los Alamos.) In August 1953, the Soviet Union tested its first "boosted fission" bomb, which used fusion to increase its yield, and in November 1955 the Soviet Union produced its first "true" thermonuclear explosion (right).
    [​IMG]
    In 1952, Britain became the next nation to join the "nuclear club." This was not surprising, as the Manhattan Project had essentially been a joint Anglo-American program, especially once the British Mission of scientists arrived at Los Alamos in 1943 and 1944. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 prohibited the United States from assisting the post-war British nuclear weapons program, but within six years Britain was able to successfully perform a nuclear test. At midnight on October 3, 1952, off the Australian island of Trimouille, a 25 kiloton nuclear weapon was detonated inside the hull of a British frigate, H.M.S. Plym. The test was codenamed "Hurricane" (right). On November 8, 1957, Britain conducted its first fully successful thermonuclear test, "Grapple X/Round C."
    [​IMG]
    France and China joined the nuclear club in the 1960s. The first French nuclear explosion, "Gerboise Bleue," was an unusually large first test: 60-70 kilotons. It was detonated at Reggane, Algeria, on February 13, 1960. France tested a thermonuclear weapon on the Pacific atoll of Fangatuafa on August 24, 1968. The first Chinese atomic test (right), codenamed "596," took place at the Lop Nor Testing Ground on October 16, 1964. (The leader of China, Mao Zedong, had famously declared that nuclear weapons, and by extension the United States, were a "paper tiger," but that did not prevent him from pushing the Chinese nuclear program through to fruition.) Only three years later, on June 17, 1967, China conducted its first thermonuclear test.
    [​IMG]
    On July 1, 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and 59 other nations. The purpose of the treaty was to prevent the acquisition of nuclear weapons by any nation that did not already possess them. The treaty took effect in March 1970, and in 1992 China and France joined as well. As of 2000, only Cuba, Israel, India, and Pakistan had not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty.
    [​IMG]
    The nuclear weapons programs of the original five nuclear powers were driven primarily by Cold War concerns. In the 1970s, however, a largely-unrelated arms race in South Asia produced two more members of the nuclear club: India and Pakistan. India conducted its first atomic test, "Smiling Buddha," on May 18, 1974 (right). (The test was conducted underground.) In the 1980s reports began to emerge that, although it had not yet conducted a nuclear test, Pakistan possessed nuclear weapons as well. In May 1998, as retaliation for a new series of Indian nuclear tests the previous month, Pakistan conducted several tests of its own.
    The Cold War, 1945-1990
     
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    F-14 Global Defence Moderator Senior Member

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