Surveillance and Target Acquisition Equipments

Discussion in 'Indian Army' started by shubhamsaikia, Apr 24, 2012.

  1. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    With the Age of Technology, The Indian Army is moving towards better surveillance and target acquisition equipment. Each Artillery Brigade being equipped with a Battery and each corps is being given a Regiment.

    UAVS and Radars are the backbone for all SATA Regiments...
     
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  3. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Searcher Mark 1 and 2
    [​IMG]

    General characteristics
    Crew: None
    Capacity: 68 kg (150 lb) payload
    Length: 5.85 m (19 ft 2 in)
    Wingspan: 8.54 m (28 ft 0 in)
    Height: 1.25 m (4 ft 1 in)
    Gross weight: 500 kg (1,100 lb)
    Powerplant: 1 × Limbach L 550, 35 kW (47 hp) each
    Performance
    Maximum speed: 200 km/h (125 mph)
    Endurance: 18 hours
    Service ceiling: 6,100 m (20,000 ft)

    Herons
    [​IMG]

    General characteristics
    Crew: None
    Length: 8.5 m (27 ft 10 in)
    Wingspan: 16.60 m (54 ft 5 in)
    Height: ()
    Max. takeoff weight: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb)
    Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 914, 86 kW (115 hp)
    Performance
    Maximum speed: 207 km/h (113 knots, 130 mph)
    Range: 350 km (189 nm, 217 mi)
    Service ceiling: 10,000 m (32,800 ft)
    Rate of climb: 150 m/min (492 ft/min)
    Wing loading: 200 kg/m² (40.9 lb/ft²)
    Endurance: 52 hours[27]
    Payload: 250 kg (550 lb)
     
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  4. Oracle

    Oracle New Member

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    Eta introduction thread create kora aru nijor introduction diya. :)

    We sure would like to know more about you, what you do?
     
  5. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    Future UAV's for the IA. India is also looking at purchasing UCAVs for pro action during surveillance

    DRDO Rustom 1 and 2

    Bothe the UAV versions are going to be MALE Versions

    Rustom 1
    [​IMG]

    Rustom 2
    [​IMG]

    General characteristics
    Crew: none
    Payload: 75 Kg (165.3 lbs) and 350 kg (771.6 lbs) (for Rustom-1 & Rustom-H respectively)
    Length: 5.12 m (16 ft 10 in) and 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)[7] (for Rustom-1 & Rustom-H respectively)
    Wingspan: 7.9 m (25 ft 11 in) and 20.6 m (67 ft 7 in) (for Rustom-1 & Rustom-H respectively)
    Height: Rustom-1: 2.40 m (7 ft 10 in)
    Empty weight: 720 kg (1587.33 lbs) & 1,800 kg (3968.32 lbs) (for Rustom-1 & Rustom-H respectively)
    Powerplant:
    Rustom-I: 1 × Lycoming O-320 engines Four-cylinder air-cooled horizontally opposed engine, 112 kW (150 hp)[18]
    Rustom-H: 2 × NPO-Saturn 36MT engines [19] wing-mounted turboprop, 73.55 kW (~100 hp)
    each
    Performance
    Maximum speed: 225 km/h (139.81 mph)
    Range:
    Line of sight: 250 km[16] (156.25 miles)
    Relay Communication: 350 km[16]
    (218.75 miles)
    Ferry range: 1000 km[16] (625 miles) for Rustom-2
    Service ceiling: 26,000 ft for Rustom-1 and 35,000 ft for Rustom-H (8,000 m and 10,668 m respectively)

    DRDO Nishant
    [​IMG]

    General characteristics
    Crew: None
    Payload: 45 kg ()
    Length: 4.63 m (15.2 ft)
    Wingspan: 6.57 m (21.6 ft)
    Height: ()
    Empty weight: 380 kg (840 lb)
    Powerplant: 1 × RE-2-21-P or RE-4-37-P, ()
    Performance
    Maximum speed: 185 km/h
    Cruise speed: 125 km/h to 150 km/h
    Range: 160 km (100 mi)
    Service ceiling: 3,600 m (up to 11,800 ft)
    [edit]Launch & recovery
    Launch: Mobile hydropneumatic launcher (MHPL) system
    Recovery: Parachute + landing bags

    [​IMG]
     
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  6. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    wats an eta introduction thread...?
     
  7. Oracle

    Oracle New Member

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    Create an introduction thread and tell us about yourself.

    You're Assamese?
     
  8. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    I just did my Intro... Yup I am Assamese.. :)
     
  9. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    Now.. The Radars...

    ANTPQ - 37
    AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder is a mobile radar system manufactured by ThalesRaytheonSystems (formerly Hughes Aircraft, which was acquired by Raytheon). The system is a long-range version of “weapon-locating radar,” designed to detect and track incoming artillery and rocket fire to determine the point of origin for counterbattery fire. It is currently in service at brigade and higher levels in the United States Army and by other countries. The radar is trailer-mounted and towed by a 2⅓-ton truck. A typical AN/TPQ-37 system consists of the Antenna-Transceiver Group, Command Shelter and 60 kW Generator.

    The AN/TPQ-37 is an electronically steered radar, meaning the radar does not actually move while in operation. The radar scans a 90-degree sector for incoming rocket, artillery and mortar fire. Upon detecting a possible incoming round, the system verifies the contact before initiating a track sequence, continuing to search for new targets. The incoming round/rocket is tracked during its initial upward/launch trajectory (i.e., the linear portion of its flight path) prior to reaching apogee. A computer program analyzes the track data and then extrapolates the round’s point of origin. This calculated point of origin is then reported to the operator with map coordinates, thus allowing friendly artillery to direct counterbattery fire towards the enemy artillery. The system has a reported range of up to 50 kilometers. The system may also be operated in a friendly fire mode to determine the accuracy of counterbattery return fire. Quoting a secret US diplomatic cable 232002 sent from the US Embassy in New Delhi (India) on 29 October 2009 regarding the AN/TPQ-37 Weapons Locating Radar : These AN/TPQ-37 Weapons Locating Radars were advertised to work at elevations up to 10,000 ft, but due to problems with the travelling wave tubes, they are only operational to around 9,000 ft. Resolution of this technical issue is under review by Raytheon.

    In India the ANTPQ is based on the 3 Tatra Trucks.
    [​IMG]
     
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  10. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    IAI LOROS

    LOROS is a multi-sensor imaging system for long-range day and night observation

    LOROS maximizes IAI/Tamam's expertise of high level stabilization and navigation technologies.

    The system includes:

    Highly gyro-stabilized turret with 4 sensors (Thermal imager, color CCD zoom, B/W CCD spotter and ICCD) and laser range finder (LRF).
    Airborne workstation
    Mobile ground station
    LOROS is used for surveillance, reconnaissance and intelligence gathering missions (ISR)
    Features:

    Automatic target tracker, enhanced image processing, long range down-link of video and data.
    Turret Weight: 85 kg (~187 lb)
    Turret Power consumption: <700 Watts

    [​IMG]
    These LOROS are based on the KOLOS Tatra Truck with an expandable standing structure which can go 90 ft above
     
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  11. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    BEL Weapon Locating Radar
    The BEL Weapon Locating Radar (WLR) is a mobile artillery locating Phased array radar developed by India. This counter-battery radar is designed to detect and track incoming artillery and rocket fire to determine the point of origin for Counter-battery fire.
    The WLR has been jointly developed by DRDO's Bangalore based laboratory, LRDE and the Government owned Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL). The sub-systems have been fabricated by BEL based on the DRDO designs and delivered to LRDE for integration

    [​IMG]
     
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  12. Razor

    Razor CIDs from Tamilnadu Senior Member

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    Not very detailed but I like the video below.
    This quad copter can be used for surveillance and target acquisition and termination (it carries a machine gun)
    Also some one on this forum (I don't remember who) was making a quad copter. So maybe he could check this out.



    This quad copter reminds me of Avatar.
    Anyway, the targets blast because he adds a small quantity of explosives on the target for dramatic effects :D
    PS: This guys name is Kyle or something, goes by the handle FPS Russia on YouTube. He makes videos with different rifles, guns etc etc giving some details and lots of explosion and fun. Check out his Youtube channel.
    Oh and the accent is fake.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
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  13. asianobserve

    asianobserve Elite Member Elite Member

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    Did he blew up that quad rotor at the end of the video clip?
     
  14. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    It is actually up in the pipeline. These quad coptors and other related Mini - UAVs are more Infantry centric. Where these gadgets can be used for an infantary platoon. However for detailed surveillance where the Artillery takes over, we need stronger surveillance equipment's.
     
  15. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    but these are extremely cost effective solutions... very capable for RR and COIN Operations... Infact if an addition of Night Surveillance should be made. IR Capable.
     
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  16. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    BFSRs - Battle Field Surveillance Radar and Management Systems

    [​IMG]
    he PJT-531 Battle Field Surveillance Radar- Short Range (BFSR-SR) is a man portable 2D short range Battle Field and Perimeter Surveillance Radar developed by the Indian Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). The BFSR has been designed by DRDO's Bangalore-based laboratory, the Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) and is being manufactured by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL).
    BFSR has found use in the Indian border areas, especially along the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir to prevent infiltration. Over 1100 units are in use by the Indian Army. Foreign Countries have also placed orders for the BFSR.
    Over 1,400 BFSRs are now being used by the Army against moving surface targets. A BFSR radar that offers foliage penetration is under development

    Development

    In the aftermath of the Kargil War, and with the heightened levels of infiltration, the Indian Army started looking at electronic sensors to augment the surveillance capabilities. One of the technologies identified was a small, surveillance radar, and the Army projected its requirements to LRDE shortly after. Sanction was given to DRDO to develop an indigenous radar. In the meantime, some Battle Field Surveillance radars (SR) were imported from Israel at a cost of 80 Crores, pending completion of the project.[5][6] This accompanied a large-scale induction of high tech equipment for the Indian Armed Forces.
    The radar was designed and developed by LRDE, a DRDO unit, and manufactured by BEL. Initiated in 2000, the development was carried out in LRDE, with the Project Director being Dr. S. Varadarajan, and with BEL collaboration.[4] The project was a systematic example of concurrent engineering, with the production agency involved through the design and development stage. This enabled the design to be brought into production quickly. A salient feature of the BFSR programme was the high level of involvement of the Indian private sector, a first for defence programmes in India. Private firms supplied the rotational assembly and tripod, the Control and display unit as well as electronics assemblies after design and technology transfer by LRDE. This has continued into the substantial production run.[7]
    The radar was ready for trials in early-2002,[8] and after extensive trials in Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir, it was accepted in July 2002, 24 months after development work commenced..

    Description
    BFSR is a man portable, lightweight, battery operated, surveillance radar. Weighing around 30 kg, it can be carried and operated by two or three man teams.The BFSR is a fully coherent Pulse Doppler radar, operating with a 10% duty cycle, and a 5W peak power. The low peak power provides the radar a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), making it difficult to detect by enemy sensors. The radar operates over 21 channels in J band (10 to 18/20 GHz). It can be operated in all weather conditions, and during day and night. BFSR-SR components include a mounting tripod, an antenna/electronics assembly, two 24 V batteries for power, and an integrated control and display unit (CDU). Targets are classified automatically using Doppler target classification, with output Doppler return being channelled to the operator through headphones for the Doppler audio.

    The radar operates on two rechargeable 24 V batteries, which are carried separately by the soldiers. They can also be operated from AC supply. The batteries are usually suspended from the tripod to provide extra stability to the radar, although they can be kept separately.
    Radar array and hardware The radar array consists of J-band Transmit, receive and processing modules within the single array block. The signal processor is a single on-board FPGA-based chip, which has been tailored for very low power consumption. The antenna array is made up of microstrip patch array antennas. The transmitter is a solid state transmit module, while the separate receiver is a super-heterodyne type receiver. The radar algorithm incorporates Digital Pulse compression Technology, which improves the LPI characteristics, as well as making the radar more accurate. This technology was developed in-house by LRDE, which constituted a major breakthrough for Indian radar technology.

    Display
    The BFSR processing and display units, and control functions are integrated on a single, touch sensitive, portable IBM PC, called the Control and Display Unit (CDU). Some processing elements are also built in to the radar. The processed information is displayed on a high resolution 10.4" LCD colour display. The PC operates on a Windows NT-based, menu driven user interface, which makes operating the BFSR extremely simple. A high resolution, north oriented, coloured radar picture is displayed on PC display. The radar display can either be in a Plan position indicators (PPI) display, or a B-Scope display. The display also has provision for digital geographic map overlay, which allows the target data to be integrated with tactical data for use by ground forces and commanders. Different geographical maps can be overlaid on the radar display. A target position can be marked for further investigation, or combing of the area by ground forces. The interface between the radar and the CDU can be either RS232C or LAN connectivity. A light weight, rugged, standard army 2-wire field cable is used for communicating between the radar and CDU. This allows the operators to be positioned up to 100 m away from the radar, in the safety of trenches, bunkers, or hides. This provides them better security and safety, and allows for greater flexibility in deploying the radar at suitable spots to meet technical and tactical requirements. The use of wired interface also provides a better security from interception and lower noise, and does not require the radar and CDU to be within Line-of-Sight of each other.

    Networking
    The BFSR has a COTS- based built in networking and sensor fusion to increase the effectiveness of surveillance. Up to 10 radars may be networked at one time to provide greater area of coverage. All radars in a network can also be remotely controlled from a central hub.
    Provision to Network various radars for wider area coverage has also been built into the BFSR.

    Thermal imager
    A third generation thermal imager has also been configured for use on the BFSR and has been integrated with it (as shown in the image in the infobox). Operating in the Mid-wavelength Infrared (MWIR) spectrum (3-5 micrometre wavelengths), the imager has a single field of view (monocular sighting) This has given the BFSR day and night viewing capability. All BFSR data and images, both radar as well as thermal data are combined and displayed on the common control and display unit (CDU). Thus, the radar can integrate its display with IR sensor output, which improves the overall efficacy of the system.The radar continues to progress further in terms of integration with more features being added. To aid in sensor fusion, and increase the effectiveness of surveillance, newer variants are also being networked with the Indian Army's Hand-held Thermal Imagers (HHTIs) for visually tracking targets detected by the radar.

    Operation
    The BFSR has been designed for fast deployment, with a setup time of less than 5 minutes.[9] The radar has an inbuilt GPS for self location and alignment with the digital map. It also has a built-in digital magnetic compass which can automatically align the radar to the North. This ensures that the precise location of targets is measured.

    Modes of operation
    The radar can be operated in various modes - Surveillance/Scanning ("Search"), acquisition, tracking/classification mode. The radar can also be operated manually, or put into an automated "Standby" mode. BFSR also has integrated calibration and maintenance modes, which aids in easy maintenance and testing on the field. Additionally, the radar also contains a built-in training simulator, which aids in the training of operators without the need to extensive training facilities.[9] Further training modules can be easily loaded on to the PC.
    The built-in test equipment (BITE) on the BFSR aids in increasing reliability and allowing for easy calibration and fault detection of the radar on the field.The various modes are remotely configurable from the CDU by the operator, which allows for different modes of operations without any physical changes on the BFSR, and without needing the operator to expose himself to any danger. The operation can also be remotely controlled for networked radars.

    In scanning mode, the radar can scan around a specified sector looking for any moving objects. It is also capable of "Track-while-Scan" (TWS) operation, and can track 50 targets in TWS acquisition mode. The speed of scan can also be adjusted by adjusting the speed of the antenna's rotation to either a low, medium or high rotational speed.[13]
    If a target is found, the operator can choose to track that target in the dedicated tracking mode. The Doppler return from the target is then processed, and fed into the operator's headphones to aid in classification. A classification algorithm in the radar also automatically classifies the into crawling target, single moving target, group of men, light vehicle, heavy vehicle and helicopter.
    The radar can also be vehicle or mast-mounted, to increase the detection capabilities.[16] For mobility, better range, and for overcoming obstructions and ground reflection, a vehicle mounted version of BFSR has been developed. The radar array is mounted on a 6 meter long telescopic mast on a jeep or truck platform.

    Applications
    BFSR is designed keeping in mind the requirements of border surveillance and intruder detection. Thus, it is an ideal tool for border surveillance and protection. It can also be used for battlefield surveillance and intelligence gathering by scouts, forward observers and Special Forces units. It can also be used as a low-cost solution for detection of low flying helicopters and boats by smaller infantry units, enabling in better protection in the absence of larger air-defence radars. The BFSR has been mainly used by the Indian Army for surveillance of designated areas and borders, for the prevention of infiltration and illegal immigration. It can also be used for perimeter surveillance and protection of sensitive sites, industrial facilities, power plants and similar sites.

    Status
    BFSR-SR is currently being used extensively by the Indian Army, which has employed it in the border areas with Pakistan and Bangladesh for surveillance and prevention of infiltration. In 2004, 1176 units were ordered by the Indian Army for . 551 Crores (USD 125 mn) and were delivered within 18 months. The Indian Border Security Force has also inducted these radars for border surveillance.

    Foreign sales
    BEL is heavily promoting the BFSR as a major product to foreign customers in order to improve its international defence presence. At 40-50 lakhs per unit, the BFSR costs a third of the price of comparable western systems. Officials have also stated that the BFSR has several superior features compared to radars from competing firms, such as Thales (France), Elta (Israel), BAe (UK), Raytheon (USA) and AMS (Italy). The BFSR has also notched up foreign sales, with Indonesia ordering 100 units and Sudan ordering 10 radars. In fact, Indonesia was the first customer to receive the radars, even before the Indian Army. Mozambique has also bought some radars for trials. BEL is looking at Sri Lanka, Uzbekistan and some other countries for potential sales. There have been serious sales enquiries from at least 5 countries. BEL is in the process of offering the product for field evaluations in other countries.

    [​IMG]
     
  17. Razor

    Razor CIDs from Tamilnadu Senior Member

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    Yeah :) It comes with a self destruct capability, in case it needs to be abandoned or in case it's captured.
    This guy is quite famous on YouTube, so weapons manufacturers sometimes actually give him stuff to showcase (and blow sh!t up) on his channel. Lucky [email protected]
     
  18. W.G.Ewald

    W.G.Ewald Defence Professionals/ DFI member of 2 Defence Professionals

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    That was trackwhack, and for God's sake don't give him any ideas! He can strafe my boat from where he is :lol:

    Even worse, the machine gun is exactly what he needs to solve his CG problem :shocked:
     
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2012
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  19. lemontree

    lemontree Defence Professionals Defence Professionals

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    If this is the same radar that we had in 1994, then it is crap.
    The user gets a headache within first 10 minutes, because the display unit showed something like when your TV is on and there is no reception. A crawling man could hardly be identified.

    It is useless in mountains and can only be used in plains.

    The ideal surveillance system for infantry units is a thermal based system that can detect human and animal heat signatures at 1000 mtrs to 1500 mtrs.
     
  20. shubhamsaikia

    shubhamsaikia Regular Member

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    these are the new bfsrs
     
  21. lemontree

    lemontree Defence Professionals Defence Professionals

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    What does the display unit show?....
     

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