Story of Prithviraj Chauhan and the truimph of islam in india--written by myself

Discussion in 'Religion & Culture' started by ashdoc, Nov 11, 2010.

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  1. ashdoc

    ashdoc Senior Member Senior Member

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    prithviraj chauhan was the king of ajaymeru ( now ajmer ) ,who also ruled over delhi .he was the most powerful king in north india ,and had incurred the wrath of jaychand ,the ruler of kanauj in UP , by eloping with his daughter sanyogita .

    all these rulers , including those in UP, were rajputs ,who dominated north india .

    they were descendants of scythian invaders from central asia ,who had intermarried into local people after settling in india. because the brahmins had realised that these warlike people were set to be the rulers of india for a long time , they had smartly co-opted the rajputs into the hindu system , by declaring them to be kshatriyas.this happened in the seventh century ,after the death of emperor harshavardhan.

    by the time of prithvi , the rajputs had dominated india for a period of 5 and a half centuries.they were a people who followed a code of chivalry .......did not hurt innocent women and children in war ,did not chase an opponent who turned away to flee ,and did not attack or destroy the towns and cities or even villages ......indeed ,people went about calmly working and tilling their fields while armies fought battles nearby !!......in short , dharmayudda.......

    they also considered death in battle the passageway to heaven if they fought by principles of dharmayudda ,and were not at all afraid to die........but the major weakness of this was that to them , the result of the battle was not important ,it was more important to fight bravely without compromising their principles.

    this was okay while fighting other indians , but was glaringly exposed while fighting against determined opponents on an international scale .

    not all times they were unsucessful however , and a major arab invasion was defeated by raja bhoj ,the king of ujjain ,in the ninth century.

    also muhammad ghauri ,the opponent of prithvi was defeated by the rajput ruler of gujrat ,and by prithvi himself in early encounters.

    but in the 11th century , one of the greatest generals mahmud of ghazni invaded india 17 times ,including somnath in gujrat ,which he utterly destroyed, and the weakness of the rajput military machine was glaringly exposed.

    the chief advantage of the turks was archery , and their main technique was the parthian shot.......this involved turning back while the horse was galloping at full speed ,and still be able to fire the arrow accurately backwards on the chasing opponent.

    thus the opponent could be lured in to chasing the turkish army which feigned retreat ,and suddenly the fleeing turkish army would turn back on their horses and fire arrows on the enemy ,surprising the opponent.

    this was not easy , as firing arrows backwards accurately while the horse was moving forwrds required a lot of skill and practice ,but the turks had mastered it.


    mahmud of ghazni's invasions resulted in loss of punjab ,northwest frontier ,while sind and baluchistan had already gone to arabs.

    thus the area that has become pakistan was under muslim occupation for a much longer time than other parts of india ,which explains the greater muslim population in that area , and the creation of pakistan.

    later mahmuds dynasty was replaced by the ghurids , to whom muhammad ghauri ,prithviraj's principle opponent belonged.as punjab passed to him from mahmuds dynasty ,he already had a foothold in india.

    now he confronted the brave ,chivalrous prithviraj , ruler of rajasthan ,and dhillika ( delhi ).

    but afraid to confront such a powerful and capable ruler ,he first tried his hand in invading gujrat . in this ,he was soundly beaten by the rajput ruler of gujrat .

    however , jaychand ,the king of kanauj , proved traitor to his country by inviting ghauri to invade india and crush prithvi , in order to take revenge for the humiliation he had suffered ,when his daughter sanyogita had eloped with prithvi.

    realising that cracks were appearing between the rajputs themselves , ghauri decided to invade delhi .declaring that '' he would send the cow-faced hindus to hell '' he proclaimed jehad ,and advanced with a force of maybe 50-60,000 horsemen on delhi ,which was governed by govind rai ,prithviraj's brother .

    but as luck would have it , prithvi was in the vicinity of delhi ( actually dhillika ), not in ajaymeru ( ajmer ) his capital.he had with him a force of one lakh cavalry( horsemen ).

    the two met at the village of tarain ,near thaneswar north of delhi.

    mahmud's army was divided into 3 wings , right ,left and center.

    the rajputs had all taken opium , which made them forget all attachment to the world , and fight with reckless bravery.

    they attacked in a solid mass onto the turks. the turks were overwhelmed by the superior numbers of the rajputs , and their death defying heroics.

    the sheer force of the rajput attack seperated the right and left wing of the turkish army from the center , and the turks began to lose heart.

    ghauri decided to bolster up his force's courage and attacked govind rai ,prithviraj's brother with a lance that broke his teeth . but undaunted , govind rai picked up a spear ,and threw with accurate aim , wounding ghauri ,who fell from his horse.

    just as govind rai's bodyguards began to close in to kill ghauri ,a khalji ( turk stteled in afghanistan ) soldier quickly picked him up on his horse ,and carried him to safety.

    by this time the rout of the turks was complete ,and the first battle of tarain had gone in favour of the rajputs .

    ghauri had done the mistake of meeting the brave rajputs in frontal charge ,where the rajputs excelled ,instead of using archers to attack them from far......hence he had lost.

    true to their chivalrous spirit ,the rajputs did not try to destroy the retreating turks ......a mistake which would cost india dear in the days to come...........as many turks fled with their lives intact , free to fight another battle......

    after this ,the rajputs laid seige to the fort of bhatinda , but did not possess seige engines , and could not capture it ........eventually ,it was starved into surrender after thirteen months........ but this again exposed indias lack of military knowledge .


    prithviraj returned in triumph to his capital which was gayly decorated to welcoming him by his wife sanyogita .here , he remained immersed in pleasures and enjoyment , and neglected the defence of the frontiers. this was his grave mistake as he should have realised that ghauri would attack again. prithvi clearly had become overconfident of his strength.

    his achievements were sung by his court poet chanda bardai ,who has left us an account from which we also know the story of prithviraj from his veiwpoint ......as also the story of his romance with sanyogita.

    not so ghauri ,who was so incensed by his defeat ,that he put the generals who had fled from the battlefield in prison ,and freed them only when they took an oath to be ready to die on the battlefield if they fought again.

    next year , he advanced fully prepared , with a force of no less than one lakh and twenty thousand horsemen .

    such preparations could not go unnoticed , and prithviraj called upon all the rajput kings in north india ,who advanced to help him. his total forces numbered a mighty 3 lakh horsemen.

    again the two armies came face to face at tarain .it was an year after the earlier battle ....the year was 1192 , a fateful year that would change the destinies of india.

    the rajputs sent a haughty message telling ghauri of their vast forces.clearly they were overconfident of success. to this ghauri replied by lying that he was indeed impressed by the size of the rajput force ,and he wanted to negotiate a peace and return home.

    the rajpots became so relaxed by his answer that they spent the night wining , dining and dancing and taking opium , thinking that no war was going to be fought.

    next dawn ,they were rudely woken up from their slumber and morning ablutions,as 1,20,000 turkish cavalrymen charged them from all sides.........

    this time ghauri had brought along his horse archers ,who formed four wings ,and surrounded the rajputs from all sides ,firing arrows.

    as the rajputs tried to close in with them for hand to hand combat , they would retreat , and fire the arrows backwards while retreating , the classic parthian shot.

    the rajputs were frustrated as they could not get into grips with the enemy , and the constant shower of arrows harassed them and began to thin their numbers. this continued for 3 hours.

    as rajputs were dwindling in numbers , and began to tire out ,ghauri sent in his reserve force ,who were heavy cavalry expert in hand -to hand combat ,and wore chain armour. these troops were fresh ,and had not fought ,so they were untired. rajputs ,on the other hand ,were tired ........above all ,they had not kept a reserve ,to face untired enemy troops .

    this turkish reserve force charged at full gallop into the rajputs ,who were tired by now by the constant skirmishing ,and did not have the energy for hand to hand combat anymore.

    slowly but surely the rajputs were cut down .......

    finally ,they began to flee .....it was now every man for himself.....

    the turks did not show them any chivalry , and a great massacre began .......

    prithviraj ,the tragic hero of the tale , proved that he was no hero at all, by trying to escape from the battlefield on a horse ,instead of dying a true general's ( and needless to say ,rajput's )death ,by suffering the same fate as his soldiers........but to no avail ,as he was caught by turkish soldiers and put to death.

    nobody knows what happened to sanyogita and chanda bardai . as far sanyogita's father jaychand is concerned , the traitor did not live to relish his revenge for long ,as the turks invaded his domains and killed him ,destroying his capital kanauj .

    with that this saga had come to an end.......
     
    Last edited: Nov 11, 2010
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  3. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    A very good narration of the battle my friend. I'd share a few reservations though.
    It seems that everyone could be called an outsider to every place. I mean no one has been at any place from eternity till eternity. So how do we decide who is native and whom not. By counting the centuries they've been at the place ?? Who will decide the no. of centuries to count back then ?? Hell its a bloody mess .. pardon my language :p

    Origin of Rajputs. Very delicate matter, enormous disagreement too. There are claims of them being scythian (sakas) origin, and there are claims of vedic origin.
    Provided that some would not agree to only vedic origin, I would suggest a very vastly accepted reference to know about rajputs - anything coming from James Tod. His reputation is a result of his detailed study of the rajputs from social as well as political viewpoint. He has written a lot on Rajputs.
    There are genetic research papers which conclude that martial communities of North-NorthWest India the Jatts-Rajputs-Sikhs did not have Sycthian origin. However Sycthian affinities are still drawn on basis of physique, martial culture, poetry etc. I will forward the reference link to it over this weekend.
    What is not understandable is how could only some of the Sycthians settle here, collectively convert to a different religion and then vigorously fight other Sycthians to protect it.
    In my opinion this could have happened very slowly, gradually and it would be a very small tribe of sycthians (hence be influenced and adaptive). So the sycthian origin cannot be accepted for all rajputs, also because technically rajputs are not a race.
    A portion of the 36 rajputs clans are most probably from sycthians origin but the majority that remain are of vedic origin. So it is a mixed scene and makes sense as well, because of the geopolitical dynamics of north west India where rajputs are found and because of the fact that north west was the door to India if you're on land route. I think Tod had mapped that as well - the details of which clan is sycthian and which vedic. I will forward that document too, hope it will help.

    If you're referring to PrithviRaja-Raso, I'd say you be more cautious. He was a poet and the metaphorical manuscripts of a poet don't hold a lot of weight when we come to scrutinizing history.
    PrithviRaj was a great King though and you're right about his and rajputs standards of conduct. By the way it is being said that after PrithviRaj's defeat his son or someone further in the lineage (named Kayam singh, a very common rajput name even today) converted to Islam and his lineage are what we call Kayamkhani muslims today.

    Proved traitor ?? .. to the country ?? Jaychand was the King of an independent kingdom Kannauj, just like PrithviRaj was of Ajmer. Their rivalry was political and grew bitter due to Sanyogita.
    Two kings bitter rivals to each other is not an out of the world scenario. And what have they done ever since the times we know of? They fight, they try to crush each other and many times, yes, many times one of them would bring in a third player to have a decisive and favorable end of the story. My question, whats so different and treachorous to have happened in this case ? Let me be clear on this, there was no country to betray. There were seperate autonomous kingdoms with little or no political alliance at all. The India at that time was an extremely loose federation of occasionally warring kingdoms with socio-religous being the only way of some similarity. There wasn't a notion of one country called India, that the point of cheating it could arise.
    When you go to History, you go to History; don't look at things from where you stand today. You have to reference from the times that prevailed then. They were the people of those times and as rulers of respective kingdoms they did what they thought was right for them. You know, sometimes I feel all this regret and blame this blame that is because some people even today don't want to accept muslims and Islam as a part of India. Like it or not, they are now. Anyways, lets leave that to some other day.

    Regards,
    Virendra
     
    Last edited: Nov 11, 2010
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  4. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

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    The story of the Turks' invasion into the subcontinent is a story of deceit and treacherousness. It is a story of cowardly fighting and machiavellian battle principles. It is something we have never truly learned. Funnily enough - despite being the children of Chanakya.

    Even today, we want to sometimes do things by the book. Naiveté is a trait, I think, that characterizes our nation.

    If we truly want to succeed, want to prosper, we will have to know when to be wicked when the time requires it.
     
  5. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Bang on target Rage. I think that was something native forces always lacked. Moreover, they never went out of the south Asian peninsula for even a small raid. Happy at home and fight with neighbour sometimes. Thats it. :p
     
  6. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    no thats not deceit but the guerrilla war of modern age.If you cant adopt to the always newly evolving warfare then its not your enemy's fault rather its your failure.Americans cant blame taliban for not fighting like men.its their failure to evolve into the same.You cant blame babar for using cannons in battle just coz indians failed to evolve the use of gunpowder or it was not know to indians.You cant blame british for indians never thought of making navy.

    Dont expect your enemy to fight by your rules and cry foul when you lose.
     
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  7. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Btw it were always the hindus who invited the outsiders to attak india.likes of jaichand and rana sanga.
     
  8. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Agreed here. Even Maharan Pratap knew his enemy was many times massive and heavier than him. He had to resort to guerilla war and was successfull because of his background within Bheels and their support.

    Being Hindu or Muslim has nothing to do with what you as a King do to defeat another King. As I already said, it is an obvious strategy being used time and again to ally with a third party for defeating a bitter rival and those weren't inhouse fights of brothers. There was no house to break in then. It was a loose colony.
     
  9. The Messiah

    The Messiah Bow Before Me! Elite Member

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    It is my belief that all fair skinned people are not original* inhabitants of India since in India there is more sunlight so people's skin is dark to restrict damage by sunlight.

    All fair skinned people came as invaders or migrated from central asia and mixed with local people. Since most royal rajputs are fair skinned its fair to assume they weren't with the first group of people to live in India.

    By original i mean first humans to stay in land mass known as India when they migrated out of africa.
     
  10. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

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    1. The fact that Rajputs claim to be staunch Hindus and Indians and protector of Hinduism and Indian culture gives credence to the view that their origins are very much Indian.
    2. I am also convinced that the Rajputs and Gorkhas don't have vedic origins. They were disciples of the great Guru Gorakhnath to protect India from the impending foreign invasions.
     
  11. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Could be a case. But if you look at the present stock, you can find very dark complexioned Rajputs, Muslims; very fair complexioned Dravidians (tamil brahmins) etc. And all these people have been here in the subcontinent for pretty long now (exact amount may differ amongst). Damn confusing. However I actually doubt it is that simple - less sunlight fair skin more sunlight dark skin. Sunlight is quite killing in many other parts of the world. California and Australia to name a few. History is always debatable. God knows what happened exactly, Im outta here :)
     
    Last edited: Nov 12, 2010
  12. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Americans are smart, they work as a small unit with heavy firepower, they mostly fight in night, they observe and call air-support/Arty within mins killing thousands and live with low supply of food and water for months in jungle and mountains, Taliban's also the same only excluding the heavy firepower and hi-tech elements..

    Yes, no-one seems to care for new technology at beginning which was a big mistake, but later in wars HINDU kings did use Cannons effectively, It was the inner security which was compromised also fighting during night was not allowed, Most offensive were done during day and during nigh it was all defensive..

    Again India did have a navy, but it was almost like Chines junks, they were no match for British Ships armed with 100 cannons or more :happy_2:..
     
  13. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

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    1. call me crazy or whatever but the cradle of mankind is India.
    In the south you have dark skinned, in the East you have orientals and in the North you have fair skinned. All face types/colours are found in India ergo it is the fountainhead of mankind.

    2. In the ancient texts (from Ramayana to 500 AD0 there is mention of both fair skinned and dark skinned Indians. There are quite a lot of low sunlight areas in India, and because of caste system there wasn't a lot of intermixing hence differing looks.

    3. Existence of fairskinned brahmins in maharashtra and tamil nadu is as result of intermixing with europeans.
     
  14. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

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    Instead of blaming the cunning/vicious Foreigners and praising the chivalrous/courageous Indians, one ought to appreciate the fact that the Invaders used superior tactics and therefore were triumphant. Same was the case when Brits came.

    Darwin 101 : Survival of the fittest.
     
  15. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Alliance of Rajputs with any central Asian invaders was far from happening till Rajputs were stronger under fewer leaders/kingdoms. Thats was in the initial centuries. Their weakening and Mughals arrival were events close in sequence or parallel. Rajputs alliance even with Mughals was of political nature and few royal marriages on the same agendas. Rajputs allowed no religous bigotry on native population even then. No coercion or conversion propoganda.
    I don't understand the latter part. The origin is Indian and still not vedic ?? Then which is it. They are not dravidians/brahmins.
    Archeological evidences prove the existence of a civilization much before the Indus one. It was alongside the now dried Saraswati river. The river is being traced in present day Rajasthan.
    I'd say there were people here in north. Good advanced people, even before Aryans came. Rajputs originate either from them or from Vedic Aryans. Later with the Sycthian migrations, the stock got mixed. Will have to repeat, Rajputs are not one race, atleast not the present/recent centuries Rajputs that we see.


    Ahem .. May I put it like .. "Survival of the smartest"?
     
    Last edited: Nov 12, 2010
  16. The Messiah

    The Messiah Bow Before Me! Elite Member

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    In australia and california white people settled from europe....the native people of both regions are anything but white.

    The skin releases a pigment according to sunlight and this is done through evolution and takes long not few hundred years. Body creates vitamin d from sun and since sunlight is less in europe and central asia the pigment reduces and skins becomes fair so as to absorb more sunlight while in areas around equator where sunlight is in excess the people get more than sufficient sunlight and excess sunlight causes damage through uv rays and to protect it from it skin gets dark.
     
  17. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Aye Aye Captain. Got that
     
  18. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    No, Its not correct to call all White Skin people are from outside..
    I lived 4 years in Solan HP and during that period i seen people lived beyond kufri i have noticed total white skin people they look 99% Caucasian except the eye which are usually brown sometimes blue, these people live in complete isolation from modern Indian culture, society or the people, Woman cook food and look after animals, Men usually work in small private farms..
     
  19. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

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    I don't know to what point are you replying ?

    But
    1. Rajputs had invited Babur
    2. Rajputs had collaborated with Turkics/Pashtuns
    3. Rajputs did convert to Islam (either by the sword, or for gains or by Sufis etc)


    aka they came after rather much after the Vedic period, in my opinion Rajput tribes were created by Guru Gorakhnath around 12-13 centuries ago.

    That can be true. Infact IVC and the like civilizations and much older civilizations are doted all over India. There is a thread on this topic too.

    If you go by my theory than Rajputs were Indians of various origins who were assemble together by Guru Gorakhnath to protect India and advance Indian culture. This will explain Why Rajputs are spread from Kashmir in the North to Sind in the South and Bihar in the East and MP in the South.
    Correct me if I am wrong Rajputs can't be of partial Scythian stock because in the Chanakya's Arthashashtras the intermixing tribes were not accorded high status.

    You may. :)
     
  20. The Messiah

    The Messiah Bow Before Me! Elite Member

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    You may be correct in this specific regard because in mountains the temp is generally on the colder side and people living in colder climate for thousands of years will be white.

    Im white myself but from seeing India i can conclude that white people are not indegenious to mainland India.
     
  21. civfanatic

    civfanatic Retired Moderator

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    There were light-skinned people in South India for thousands of years.
     
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