http://warfare.ru/?catid=312&linkid=2181 SS-N-27 Sizzler - 3M-54E 3M-54E1 3M-14E 91RE1 91RE2 Length [m] 8.22 6.2 6.2 8.0 6.5 Diameter [m] 0.533 0.533 0.533 0.533 0.533 Launch Weight [kg] 2,300 1,780 1,780 2,050 1,300 Maximum Range [km] 220 300 300 50 40 Speed [Mach] Depends on flight mode Subsonic Mode: Mach 0.6 - 0.8, Supersonic Mode: Mach 2.9 0.6 - 0.8 Terminal Stage Speed for the 3M-54E1 0.6 - 0.8 Terminal Stage Speed for the 3M-14E 2.5 Ballistic Stage Speed for the 91RE1 2.0 Ballistic Stage Speed for the 91RE2 Warhead Weight [kg] 200 400 400 76 76 Control System Inertial + Active Radar Homing Inertial + Active Radar Homing Inertial Inertial Inertial Flight Path Low-Flying Low-Flying Ballistic Ballistic Ballistic The Club missile system is designed to destroy submarine and surface vessels and also engage static/slow-moving targets, whose co-ordinates are known in advance, even if these targets are protected by active defences and electronic countermeasures. There are two 'known' modifications of the system; Club-S (for submarines) and Club-N (for surface vessels). The Club-N can be installed in vertical launch cells or in angled missile boxes. Both systems are based on common hardware, the only difference being the design of the missile launchers and missile transport-launching containers. Five types of missiles - 3M-54E, 3M-54E1, 3M-14E, 91RE1 and 91RE2 - have been developed for the Club ASCM. The Club-S can be armed with a 3M-54E or 3M-54E1 anti-ship missile, 3M-14E submarine-to-coast missile or a 91RE1 anti-submarine torpedo. The Club-N can be armed with a 3M-54E or 3M-54E1 anti-ship missile, 3M-14E submarine-to-coast missile or a 91RE2 anti-submarine torpedo. The missile is 6.2 meters long, which is the same as the length of the standard torpedo tubes used by Western navies. It is designed according to the double-stage cruise scheme. The first solid-fuel stage ensures the missile's launch from a universal vertical launcher of a surface craft or from a submarine torpedo tube with a diameter of 0.533 meters. The 3M-54E missile has a range of 300 km. For the majority of its trajectory it flies at a high subsonic speed. The first stage drops off when the missile reaches the prescribed altitude and its second stage sustainer engine goes into action. This is the time when the missile's wing and tail assembly unfold. The altitude of its flight goes down to 10-15 metres above the sea surface and the missile heads towards the target in accordance with the target designations, fed before the start into the memory of its board guidance system. The targeting on the cruise sector of the trajectory is effected by an inertia navigation system. The end sector of the missile's flight with the homing head active proceeds only five metres above the water surface. At 60 km from its target the third, solid-fuel stage separates from the missile, accelerates to supersonic speed and overcomes the defence zone of the target vessel. In spite of its relatively small launch weight of 1,570 kilograms, the missile has a range of 300 kilometres and a powerful 450-kilogram warhead, which can blow up very large surface craft. The missile's moderate weight allows even warships with a small displacement to take aboard quite a few of such deadly weapons. India is making substantial purchases of the Novator 3M-54 Alfa missile to equip Kilo class submarines and its new frigates. The first two Indian 877YeKM submarines (Kilo class, according to NATO classification) will be armed with the latest Russian 3M-54E antiship cruise missiles. These missiles will also be fitted onto three frigates which are being built to order for the Indian navy at the Baltic shipyard in St Petersburg. Each of the frigates will carry eight antiship missiles which will be launched from vertical launch containers on the bow of the ship. It is believed that an air-launched variant will be purchased to arm the Tu-142s currently in service and the six to eight additional aircraft being sought by the Navy. If an air-launched version of the Alfa is procured, it is anticipated that India's Tu-22M3s will eventually be equipped to fire them. The Klub-S is launched from a torpedo tube while the Klub-N is fired from a 533mm vertical-launch tube. The sub- and ship-launched varieties differ in booster type. There are five types of Klub. Two come in three-stage "long" versions and are about 8 m long. They fit into Russian torpedo tubes but do not fit the standard Western 533 mm tubes, which are usually only 6.5 m long. This means that all five types can be used in Russian-built subs, whereas Western subs can only use the three "short" types. The supersonic 91RE1 (long) and 91RE2 (short) types are anti-submarine missiles, armed with a 324mm self-homing torpedo. Both types go ballistic after launch, directed to the target area via INS. Their ranges are 50 and 40 km, respectively. The subsonic 3M14 (NATO: SS-N-30), is a land-attack cruise missile, with a range of 300 km. It has an integrated INS/GLONASS mid-course navigation system and a Scene Matching Area Correlator seeker (it is similar technology to the DSMAC in the U.S. BGM-109 Tomahawk) The last two types are anti-ship missiles. The 3M54 (or 3M54E in the export version) long missile is a supersonic, three-stage missile. The first stage is a booster, while the second is a winged cruise stage. It can be launched vertically, from an angled launcher, or from a torpedo tube. At an altitude of up to 150 m the solid-propellant booster is jettisoned, and the under-fuselage air intake is extended. The turbojet sustainer engine is started, and at the same time, the wings and tail surfaces are extended. The missile transitions to cruise mode and descends to its cruising altitude of 10 to 15 m above sea level. At a distance of about 30 to 40 km from the target, the missile climbs to a higher altitude and activates its ARGS-54 active radar seeker. After the target is located and the INS updated, at about 20 km from the target, the terminal (third) stage separates. The missile accelerates to supersonic speed (Mach 2.9) and attacks using the ARGS-54 active/passive seeker to guide the diving missile. For the last 15-20 km, the missile descends to 3-5 m above the wave tops, with some loss of speed. The ARGS-54 was developed by Radar MMS, of St. Petersburg. It can detect targets from 60 km, at a 45-degree angle. The warhead of the supersonic 3M54E is a penetration type, weighing 200 kg. The missile has low radar signature and could be covered in RAMs. High speed and maneuvers increase its penetration capabilities. The missile's range is 220 km. The 3M54E1 version is designed for export only. It is a short, subsonic version of the 3M54E. The ARGS-54 seeker is mounted directly in the second stage, along with the 400 kg warhead. It flies at Mach 0.6-0.8 at about 150 m in altitude initially, descending to 15 m. At about 40-50 km from the programmed target, the missile climbs again to locate the target itself. Having done so, it descends again to a very low (3-5 m over smooth sea and 5-10 m over rrough sea) altitude. The seeker is activated again for terminal engagement during the last 20-30 km. The missile's range is 300 km. The Klub family has not yet been accepted into Russian service but has already been exported. Eight vertical launchers are mounted on three Indian Talwar-class frigates, built in Russia. It will probably be accepted into service with Lada-class submarines built for the Russian Navy and possibly also for the Amur version for the Indian Navy. The submarine would carry up to 18 torpedoes and Klub-S missiles in various combinations and would have six torpedo launchers. The first sub of the class for the Russian Navy, the St. Petersburg , was laid down in December 1997. The first export version was also laid down in the same month and was named the Amur . Interestingly, the Klub system is also to be used by Yaseni-class submarines (NATO: Granay), along with the 24 launchers for the Oniks system. The Klub-S is to be fired from 533 mm torpedo tubes (the ship also has 650 mm torpedo tubes). The development of the Klub started in the late 1980s. The current family, commonly referred to as the 3M54 Klub, includes the submarine-launched Klub-S and ship-launched Klub-N groups. The Klub-S is launched from a torpedo tube, while the Klub-N is fired from a 533 mm vertical-launch tube. The sub- and ship-launched varieties differ in booster type. There are five types of Klub. Two come in three-stage "long" versions and are about 8.2 m long. They fit into Russian torpedo tubes but do not fit the standard Western 533 mm tubes, which are usually only 6.5 m long. This means that all five types can be used in Russian-built subs, whereas Western subs can only use the three "short" types. The supersonic 91RE1 (long) and 91RE2 (short) types are anti-submarine missiles, armed with a 324mm self-homing torpedo. The subsonic 3M14 (short) is a land-attack cruise missile, with a range of 300 km. The 3M54 (3M54E in the export version) (long) missile is a supersonic, three-stage anti-ship missile. The first stage is a booster, while the second is a winged cruise stage. It can be launched vertically, from an angled launcher, or from a torpedo tube. The missile transitions to cruise mode and descends to its cruising altitude of 10 to 15 m above sea level. At a distance of about 30 to 40 km from the target, the missile climbs to a higher altitude and activates its ARGS-54 active radar seeker. After the target is located and the INS updated, at about 20 km from the target, the terminal (third) stage separates. The missile then accelerates to supersonic speed (Mach 2.9) and attacks using the ARGS-54 active/passive seeker to guide the diving missile. For the last 15-20 km, the missile descends to 3-5 m above the wave tops, with some loss of speed. The 3M54E1 version is designed for export only. It is a short, subsonic version of the 3M54E. The ARGS-54 seeker is mounted directly in the second stage, along with the 400 kg warhead. The missile's range is 300 km. 91RE1 AND 91RE2 ANTISUBMARINE MISSILES ( Klub-N/S) Length, m 8.0 6.5 Diameter, m 0.533 0.533 Firing range up to 50 up to 40 Weight, kg: launch 2,050 1,300 warhead 76 76 Flight speed, M up to 2.5 up to 2.0 Guidance system inertial Trajectory ballistic The missiles are intended to engage submarines of the enemy. The 91RE1 missile is fired from submarine torpedo tubes. The 91RE2 missile is fired from unified vertical launchers of surface ships. They have no equivalents. 91RE1 / 91RE2 (SS-N-27 Sizzler) The 91RE1 (Klub-S) and 91RE2 (Klub-N) anti-submarine torpedoes, use a separating underwater missile with a hydro-acoustic seeker and have been designed to destroy submarines. They differ only in their booster configuration. In the Klub-S, the missiles are launched from the submarine's torpedo tubes, while the Klub-N uses ship-mounted launchers and so can fire in any direction. Both variants use a rocket-booster to reach the designated target area. This considerably extends the target-engagement range in comparison to a conventional torpedo. In the case of the 91RE2 variant, it allows surface vessels to create a far larger defensive perimeter against submarine threats. The 91RE2 weights 1200 kg and has a maximum range of 40 km. The 91RE1 variant allows the launch submarine to engage the target submarine much earlier than a conventional tube-launched torpedo. The 91RE1, is designed to be launched from a 533mm torpedo tube at depths of up to 150 meters while the launch submarine is traveling at up to 15 knots. The missile weighs a total of 2050 kg. At the maximum launch depth, target engagement can be at a range of up to 50 km. The 91RE1 and 91RE2 anti-submarine missile have a largely ballistic flight profile. The maximum velocity indicated in the table below relates to the ballistic phase, and not the speed at which the weapon emerges from the torpedo tubes or re-enters the water! The missile continues to accelerate during its burn, until the motor cuts out and it coasts to the top of its trajectory. The APR-3 torpedo payload is released and a parachute is deployed to reduce velocity and prevent break up on splash down, upon which the torpedo engages the target submarine. 3M54E1 / 3M54E1 (SS-N-27 Sizzler) The 3M54E three-stage anti-ship missile consists of a booster, a subsonic cruise low-flying sustainer stage and a low-flying supersonic terminal stage. For surface vessels of smaller displacement or with shortened torpedo launchers, the system uses the 3M54E1 anti-ship missile, which has a booster and a subsonic cruise sustainer stage, but carries a heavier warhead than the 3M54E missile. After launch from either a vertical or angled deck-mounted launcher or from a submarine torpedo tube, the 3M54E and 3M54E1 follow similar trajectories. At an altitude of up to 150 metres, the solid-propellant booster is jettisoned, the under-fuselage air intake is extended, and the air-breathing sustainer engine is started. At the same time the wings and tail surfaces are extended, and the weapon descends to its cruising altitude of 10 to 15 metres above sea level. At a distance of up to 30 to 40 km from the target, the missile climbs to higher altitude and activates its ARGS-54 active homing radar seeker. Developed by the Radar-MMS company of St. Petersburg, the ARGS-54 seeker has a maximum operational range of 60 km. As the missile continues towards the target at subsonic speed, the seeker scans from +45? to -45? in azimuth, and from and +10? to -20? in elevation. The ARGS-54 is 70 cm long, 42 cm in diameter, and weighs 40 kg without the radome. It can operate in precipitation conditions of up to 4mm/sec and in heavy sea conditions of up to sea state 6. After the target is detected and the seeker has locked on, the 3M54E1 flies on at high subsonic speed to destroy the target. The 3M54E, on the other hand, reaches its target in a different manner. At 20 km from the target, the 3M54E's supersonic solid rocket-powered third-stage terminal 'dart' separates from the missile, descends to 3 to 5 metres above sea level and accelerates to a supersonic speed of Mach 2.9 in a zigzagging terminal run to hit its target. On the one hand helps in penetration of the enemy ship's air defenses, but on the other hand, due the high velocity the missile to become aerodynamically heated, giving it a relatively high infrared signature. A universal FCS is used to plan the flight mission, upload this to the missile, and conduct pre-launch preparations. Both versions use a common shore-based system for planned inspection and maintenance of the missiles. Since the different types of missile are compatible with a common shipboard system, the user can load the vessel with whatever mix of weapons is best suited to the planned mission. An un-named official with the Novotar Design Bureau, when describing the 3M54E variant, said "The Alfa combines aspects of the U.S. Harpoon and French Exocet besides the U.S. Tomahawk. This configuration offers speed, better fuel economy and a greater accuracy rate than the current Western missiles. Once launched from ship, submarine or aircraft, the 1.5 ton missile cruises at subsonic speed 4.5 meters above the sea to evade radar." Both the 3M54E1 and 3M54E are small weapons which are difficult to detect on radar, especially should even basic radar signature reduction techniques be applied to them. The use of a bandpass radome and minimal absorbent coatings could push the weaponâ€™s head on radar cross section down to that of a large grapefruit. The official adds, "At around 40 miles to its approach to the target, the forward section of the missile separates and ignites a solid booster, which rockets the missile to a supersonic speed of Mach 2.9. The purpose of this is to defeat current anti-missile systems with the Alfa missile's sheer speed. By the time the missile is within enemy radar range, it is already doing Mach 2.9. Within seconds it will be upon its target, even before existing anti-missile systems can fire their engines. Its ability to attack land targets is enhanced by a new homing and guidance system that put it in the Tomahawk league." The Klub presents new challenges to Western defenses like Phalanx CIWS and Aegis currently found aboard many Western-built naval vessels. The Klub-S ASCM is planned to be incorporated into Russia's next generation Amur Class submarine, reportedly of which the first vessel is being built for the Indian Navy. However, that is yet to be confirmed from reliable sources. 3M14E (SS-N-30) Russian Designation 3M14E / P-900 Kalibr 3M14EE/TE / P-900 Kalibr NATO / DoD Designation SS-N-30 Type Land-attack cruise-missile Guidance Inertial / GLONASS plus image Correlation Warhead 400kg HE FRAG-HE or submunitions Propulsion Solid-rocket booster and turbojet sustainer Range 275 km Speed Mach 0.6-0.8 Length 6.20 m 8.20 m Body Diameter 533 mm 645 mm Wingspan 3,080 mm n.k. Launch Weight 1,770 kg 1,951 kg Flight Path Low-flying, terrain hugging The 3M14E LACM has been designed to destroy ground-based targets and consists of a booster stage and a subsonic low-flying sustainer stage. The onboard control system includes a barometric altimeter used to maintain altitude in terrain-following mode (making the weapon stealthier than designs which rely on radar altimeters), plus a receiver for the GLONAS Satellite navigation system. The missile has a low flight altitude, 20 meters above sea and 50-150 meters over land. At the terminal stage of the flight the guidance is effected by the â€˜Korrelatsionayaâ€™ system. This guidance system employs a Scene Matching Area Correlator package, which guides the missile to a set of coordinates within a preprogrammed image surrounding the target â€“ it is similar technology to the DSMAC in the BGM-109 Tomahawk. European sources claim this guidance package can hit completely hidden targets providing their location is well known relative to visually prominent features surrounding the aimpoint. The missile exists in two versions - the 3M14E for submarine-launch and the 3M14TE for surface ships. Designed to be fired from standard 533mm torpedo tubes, the missile is almost identical in shape to that of the Klub-S / Klub-N 3M54E1 anti-ship missile. Pre-launch preparation and handling are done using the same hardware as is used for the other missiles of the Klub-S / Klub-N system. The only difference between the two land-attack variants is that the 3M14E can be launched from a depth of 30-40m below the sea surface, while the 3M14TE surface ship version is compatible with vertical or slant launch from the TPS (transportno-puskovoy stakan) transport-launching container. The modified 3M14EE missile fitted with an enlarged conventional unitary fragmentation warhead or bomblets (a mix of incendiary, AP, HE, which can be varied to meet requirements). The 3M14E and 3M14TE are intended for use against stationary ground targets such as administrative and economic centres, weapon and petrochemical storage areas, command posts, seaports, and airports. Once the mission data needed by the mid-course navigation system has been prepared, it is loaded into the missile's onboard computer prior to launch. Both versions are launched under the power of a tandem solid-propellant rocket booster fitted with four small lattice stabilisers. Once the missile has reached flying speed, it is powered by a small turbojet engine. For most of the flight to the target area, the missile flies autonomously, following the pre-programmed route and turning points. Once over land, it uses a terrain-following flight path that will make it a difficult target for enemy air defences. This low-level flight mode poses a higher load on the wings and missile structure than flight over the sea surface, so the land-attack missile has slightly redesigned wings of shorter span and deeper chord, plus a stronger structure.