Science Pioneers from India and their contribution to world

Discussion in 'General Multimedia' started by Brood Father, Mar 17, 2017.

  1. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    We as an Indian have a long and rich history in terms of science , astronomy , medicine and mathematics . Starting from Aryabhatta , Bhaskara till C.V Raman , we didnt have any dearth of such great men
    Unfortunately today we have forgotten their contribution and we only give their dues when west acknowledges them
    Lets change the trend and start shouting the names of Indian scientist from the distant past to the present

    Avoid trolling and lets sensible discussion commence
     
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  3. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    Satyendra Nath Bose

    Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose is known for working with Albert Einstein on the Bose-Einstein Condensate and as namesake of the boson, or “God particle.”

    Synopsis
    Physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, born on January 1, 1894, in Calcutta, India, discovered what became known as bosons and went on to work with Albert Einstein to define one of two basic classes of subatomic particles. Much of the credit for discovering the boson, or "God particle," was given to British physicist Peter Higgs, much to the chagrin of the Indian government and people.

    Early Life
    Physicist Satyendra Nath Bose was born in Calcutta (now Kolkata), West Bengal, India, on January 1, 1894, the eldest and only male of seven children. Bose was a brainiac early on. He passed the entrance exam to the Hindu School, one of India's oldest schools, with flying colors and stood fifth in the order of merit. From there, Bose attended Presidency College, where he took an intermediate science course and studied with renowned scientists Jagadish Chandra Bose and Prafulla Chandra Ray.

    Bose received a Bachelor of Science in mixed mathematics in 1913 from Presidency College and a Master of Science in the same subject in 1915 from Calcutta University. He received such high scores on the exams for each degree that not only was he in first standing, but, for the latter, he even created a new record in the annals of the University of Calcutta, which has yet to be surpassed. Fellow student Meghnad Saha, who would later work with Bose, came in second standing.

    Between his two degrees, Bose married Usha Devi at age 20. After completing his master's degree, Bose became a research scholar at the University of Calcutta in 1916 and began his studies on the theory of relativity. He also set up new departments and laboratories there to teach undergraduate and graduate courses.
     
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  4. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    Research and Teaching Career
    While studying at the University of Calcutta, Bose also served as a lecturer in the physics department. In 1919, he and Saha prepared the first English-language book based on German and French translations of Albert Einstein's original special and general relativity papers. The pair continued to present papers on theoretical physics and pure mathematics for several years following.

    In 1921, Bose joined the physics department at the University of Dhaka, which had then been recently formed, and went on to establish new departments, laboratories and libraries in which he could teach advanced courses. He wrote a paper in 1924 in which he derived Planck's quantum radiation law without referencing classical physics—which he was able to do by counting states with identical properties. The paper would later prove seminal in creating the field of quantum statistics. Bose sent the paper to Albert Einstein in Germany, and the scientist recognized its importance, translated it into German and submitted it on Bose's behalf to the prestigious scientific journal Zeitschrift für Physik. The publication led to recognition, and Bose was granted a leave of absence to work in Europe for two years at X-ray and crystallography laboratories, where he worked alongside Einstein and Marie Curie, among others.

    Einstein had adopted Bose's idea and extended it to atoms, which led to the prediction of the existence of phenomena that became known as the Bose-Einstein Condensate, a dense collection of bosons—particles with integer spin that were named for Bose.

    After his stay in Europe, Bose returned to the University of Dhaka in 1926. Although he did not have a doctorate, Einstein had recommended he be made a professor, and so Bose was made head of the physics department. But upon his return, Bose did not publish for a significant period of time. According to a July 2012 New York Times article in which Bose is described as the "Father of the 'God Particle,'" the scientist's interests wandered into other fields, including philosophy, literature and the Indian independence movement. He published another physics paper in 1937 and in the early 1950s worked on unified field theories.

    After 25 years in Dhaka, Bose moved back to Calcutta in 1945 and continued to research and teach there until his death in 1974.

    Recognition and Honors
    Several Nobel Prizes were awarded for research related to the concepts of the boson and the Bose-Einstein Condensate. Bose was never awarded a Nobel Prize, despite his work on particle statistics, which clarified the behavior of photons and "opened the door to new ideas on statistics of Microsystems that obey the rules of quantum theory," according to physicist Jayant Narlikar, who said Bose's finding was one of the top 10 achievements of 20th-century Indian science.

    But Bose himself responded simply when asked how he felt about the Nobel Prize snub: "I have got all the recognition I deserve."

    The Indian government honored Bose in 1954 with the title Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award in India. Five years later, he was appointed as the National Professor, the highest honor in the country for a scholar. Bose remained in that position for 15 years. Bose also became an adviser to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, as well as president of the Indian Physical Society and the National Institute of Science. He was elected general president of the Indian Science Congress and president of the Indian Statistical Institute. In 1958, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society.

    About 12 years after Bose's death on February 4, 1974, the Indian parliament established the S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences in Salt Lake, Calcutta.

    Regardless of the honors and recognition his own country bestowed upon Bose, the international community failed, for the most part, to regard him as a scientist who made a major discovery. When in the summer of 2012 people celebrated the international cooperation that led to a breakthrough in identifying the existence of the boson particle, they credited British physicist Peter Higgs and the Higgs boson particle.

    "Many in India were smarting over what they saw as a slight against one of their greatest scientist," The Huffington Post wrote in a July 10, 2012, article. The article also quoted an editorial written earlier that week in The Economic Times, which said, "Many people in this country [India] have been perplexed, and even annoyed, that the Indian half of the now-acknowledged 'God particle' is being carried in lower case."

    The editorial went on to say that what people do not realize that is the naming of all bosons after Bose "actually denotes greater importance."
     
  5. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    The Bosons , or as we know it by the better half of Higgs-Boson(or the God Particle) was named in honor of S.N.Bose
     
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  6. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    Highlights of his illustrated career

    • He served as a lecturer in the physics department of the University of Calcutta from 1916 to 1921. Along with a former classmate, the future astrophysicist Meghnad Saha, he published the English translations of Albert Einstein’s original papers on special and general relativity in 1919.In 1921, he was offered the post of a Reader in the department of physics at the University of Dhaka. There he helped to set up new laboratories to teach advanced courses in science.
    • He had been working along with Saha on quantum physics and relativity theory for some years now. In 1924, he wrote a paper on deriving Planck's quantum radiation law that offered a solution that had never been thought of before.
    • He sent this paper to Albert Einstein who recognized the significance of Bose’s studies and translated the Paper into German. This paper, though just four pages in length was of seminal importance to the new discoveries in the field of physics.
    • Bose and Einstein first came up with the prediction of a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons and its complex interactions in what came to be known as the Bose-Einstein condensate in 1924-25.
    • Bose achieved international recognition when his findings were promoted by Einstein and he got an opportunity to work for two years in European X-Ray and crystallography laboratories. During this time Bose also became acquainted with Louis de Broglie and Marie Curie.
    • He returned to Dhaka in 1926 and applied for the post of a Professor at the University. Since he did not possess a doctorate, he was not qualified enough for the post. But he was made the Head of the Department of Physics on Einstein’s recommendation.
    • Continuing his work in research, Bose designed the equipment for an X-ray crystallography laboratory. He served as the Dean of the Faculty of Science at Dhaka University until 1945.
    • At the time of partition he returned to Calcutta where he held the Khaira Chair. He taught at the University of Calcutta till 1956 where he encouraged the students to design their own equipment.
    • Even after his retirement he continued with his research in nuclear physics. Along with physics, he also researched on organic chemistry, geology, engineering and other sciences.
     
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  7. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Senior Member Senior Member

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    Well very good answers but I want to add more

    • Sun is a Star
    Indian astronomers has made the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during day time.
    There is an old Sanskrit shloka (couplet) which states "Sarva Dishanaam, Suryaha, Suryaha, Suryaha" which means that there are suns in all directions. This couplet which describes the night sky as full of suns. In other words, it was recognized that the sun is also a star.
    • Measure of time
      India has given the idea of the smallest and the largest measure of time.

      Krati Krati = 34,000th of a second
      1 Truti = 300th of a second
      2 Truti = 1 Luv
      2 Luv = 1 Kshana
    • Motions of the Solar System
      Aryabhata [476 AD] had discovered earth rotates about its axis. He has clearly calculated the movement of planets and their positions relative to uniformly moving points.
    • Small Pox Vaccination
      Indians had mastered a vaccination technique for small pox way before the Europeans did.A method of inducing immunity known as inoculation, insufflation or "variolation" was practiced before the development of a modern vaccine. This method may have been practiced in India as early as 1000 BC.
    Smallpox vaccine
    • Electric battery
      The ancient text of Agastya Samhita describes the method of making electric battery, and that water can be split into oxygen and hydrogen.
      "Sansthapya Mrinmaya Patre
      Tamrapatram Susanskritam
      Chhadyechhikhigriven Chardrarbhih
      Kashthpamsubhih.
      Dastaloshto Nidhatavyah
      Pardachhaditastah
      Sanyogajjayte Tejo
      Mitravarunsangyitam"
    • Nonviolence: More a civilisational contribution than a 'discovery', the active promotion of kindness and strict nonviolence as a rudiment of life spans the entirety of India's known history, from the ancient concepts of 'Ahimsa', to Mahatma Gandhi's policy of 'Satyagraha' (insistence on truth). It forms a core of the Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh traditions
    "India will teach us the tolerance and gentleness of mature mind, understanding spirit and a unifying, pacifying love for all human beings." Will Durant, American Historian.

    • Carburised Steel: Ancient Indians were known pioneers in metallurgy, and had mastered the production of high quality steel more than two thousand years before the process was finally demystified (including through the scientific investigations of Michael Faraday) in Britain and Europe. The legendary Indian Wootz Steel was a source of astonishment to other great civilisations.
    • Complex Hydraulic Engineering: Since the time of the Indus Valley civilisation over 5,000 years ago, and until the onset of the European colonial era in the recent past, India had created and sustained a vast and highly advanced network of canals, along with intricate irrigation, water management and sewage systems. These sewage systems were so advanced that they were designed to automatically self-clear systems blockages, as well as account for smell and odour. The world's first flush toilets were also in use in India over 3,000 years ago, and were a feature of most homes in the Indus Valley Civilisation - the largest ancient civilisation in the world.
    • Calculus
      George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester claims to have uncovered evidence that Indian scholars described the infinite series, a cornerstone of calculus, 250 years before Newton and Leibniz. There is also evidence that this discovery may have been transmitted to Europeans at the time by traveling Jesuit scholars.
    • University
      The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world is believed to have studies there.
    • Yoga
      Representing a complete system of social, physical, mental and spiritual development; the origins of yoga date to some 5,000 years ago in the Indus-Sarasvati civilization of northern India. The first references to the history of yoga can be found in the Rig Veda.
    • Fiber Optics
      [​IMG]
    Dr. Narinder Singh Kapany, is widely recognized as the ‘Father of Fiber Optics’ for his pioneering work in Fiber Optics technology eloquently on his entrepreneurial journey.

    • Ink
    [​IMG]
    Many ancient cultures and civilizations independently discovered and prepared ink for writing purposes. The source of carbon pigment used in Indian Ink (called musi) used in ancient India, was India. Since 4th century BC, the practice of writing with ink with a sharp pointed needle was common in South India.
    • Binary Code
      [​IMG]

      Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BC). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.
    • Fibonacci Numbers
      [​IMG]
      The Fibonacci numbers were first described by Virahanka, Gopala and Hemachandra as an outgrowth of earlier writings by Pingala.
      • Decimal System, Quadratic formula and Zero!
    • [​IMG]
      It was in 7th century CE when Brahmagupta found the first general formula for solving quadratic equations. The decimal system (or the Hindu number system), which was a precursor of the Arabic numeric system, was developed in India between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.
    • Ruler
      [​IMG]
      Rulers were first used by the Indus Valley Civilization prior to 1500 BCE. Made of ivory, the rulers found during excavation, reveal the amazing accuracy of decimal subdivisions on it.

    Refrences

    20 Clever Inventions You Probably Didn't Know Were Made By Indians
    Great Inventions and Discoveries by Indians
    Fifteen Indian Inventions and Discoveries That Shaped the Modern World | Philosophy Blog on Speakingtree.in
    16.2k Views ·
     
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  8. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Senior Member Senior Member

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    Source :-https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-of-the-greatest-discoveries-inventions-made-by-Indians

    10. Suits Game


    The popular game of cards originated from India & was known as Krida-patram (which literally means “painted rags for playing”).

    11. Cataract Surgery

    image source

    Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE) had the knowledge of performing cataract surgery. It spread to China from India. Greek scientists would visit India to get operations done and also to learn the nitty-gritties.

    12. Diamond Mining

    Worldwide, India was the only source of diamonds until the discovery of mines in Brazil in the 18th century. Almost 5000 years ago, diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India.

    13. Water on Moon

    image source

    ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 made the startling discovery that our moon is not a dry ball of rocks. The discovery of lunar water is attributed to the Chandrayaan mission.

    14. Radio/Wireless communication

    image source

    We all know that Marconi received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for contribution to the development of wireless telegraphy. But the first public demonstration of radio waves for communication was made by Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose in 1895, two years prior to Marconi’s similar demonstration in England.

    Sir Bose was posthumously credited (more than a century later) for his achievement. The fact remains that this discovery truly shaped the face of modern wireless communication.

    15. Flush Toilets

    Flush toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization. These existed in most homes and were connected to a sophisticated sewage mechanism. The civilization was prominent in hydraulic engineering.

    16. Binary Code

    image source

    Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BC). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.
     
  9. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Senior Member Senior Member

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    [​IMG]
    Indian student builds a working Iron Man exosuit for just US $750
    (Vimal Govind - YouTube)

    [​IMG]GWYN D’MELLO | Fri, 12 Aug 2016-09:30pm , Mumbai , DNA webdesk
    The engineering student from Kerala designed a robotic suit capable of lifting 150 kilograms, and wants to build it for the military.


    Ever wished you could have your own Iron Man suit of armour? Clearly, uber-geek Vimal Govind Manikandan did. But instead of pining and wishing like most of us would, he just went ahead and built his own.

    Sure, the suit can’t fly, and by Manikandan’s own admission isn’t very good at walking either, but that doesn’t in any way diminish the achievement. The engineering student from Malappuram was looking to build an exosuit for the military and in heavy industry, one that can used to lift weights human’s can’t, among other jobs.


    According to Al Jazeera, the suit weighs 220 pounds (approximately 100kg), and can lift 330 pounds(approximately 150kg) using a combination of battery-powered hydraulics. The best part? It cost Manikandan and his team only about US $750, or roughly Rs 50,000, to make. That might seem like a lot of money, but it’s important to keep in mind that even some of the cheapest exosuits for people with walking disabilities cost in the tens of thousands of dollars.

    In fact, Manikandan’s paper (which you can find here) has been internationally recognised. His idea was voted the best of 13 countries at the International Conference on Mechatronics and Manufacturing (ICMM 2016).

    According to the AJ report, Manikandan says he was inspired by Hollywood movies to build the robot, especially the exosuits in the Avatar movie. In fact, this is isn’t even Manikandan’s first exosuit. His team built their first prototype back in 2015, which was much larger but mechanically-powered.

    Manikandan says his team are working on improving the prototype, especially to fix it’s walking ability, which is a little restricted right now. But until we can get a glimpse of Manikandan’s perfected exosuit, you can instead watch a man-machine hybrid dance, to pass the time.
     
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  10. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan

    Srinivasa Ramanujan was one of India's greatest mathematical geniuses. He made substantial contributions to the analytical theory of numbers and worked on elliptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series.

    Ramanujan was born in his grandmother's house in Erode, a small village about 400 km southwest of Madras. When Ramanujan was a year old his mother took him to the town of Kumbakonam, about 160 km nearer Madras. His father worked in Kumbakonam as a clerk in a cloth merchant's shop. In December 1889 he contracted smallpox.

    When he was nearly five years old, Ramanujan entered the primary school in Kumbakonam although he would attend several different primary schools before entering the Town High School in Kumbakonam in January 1898. At the Town High School, Ramanujan was to do well in all his school subjects and showed himself an able all round scholar. In 1900 he began to work on his own on mathematics summing geometric and arithmetic series.

    Ramanujan was shown how to solve cubic equations in 1902 and he went on to find his own method to solve the quartic. The following year, not knowing that the quintic could not be solved by radicals, he tried (and of course failed) to solve the quintic.

    It was in the Town High School that Ramanujan came across a mathematics book by G S Carr called Synopsis of elementary results in pure mathematics. This book, with its very concise style, allowed Ramanujan to teach himself mathematics, but the style of the book was to have a rather unfortunate effect on the way Ramanujan was later to write down mathematics since it provided the only model that he had of written mathematical arguments. The book contained theorems, formulae and short proofs. It also contained an index to papers on pure mathematics which had been published in the European Journals of Learned Societies during the first half of the 19th century. The book, published in 1856, was of course well out of date by the time Ramanujan used it.

    By 1904 Ramanujan had begun to undertake deep research. He investigated the series ∑(1/n) and calculated Euler's constant to 15 decimal places. He began to study the Bernoulli numbers, although this was entirely his own independent discovery.

    Ramanujan, on the strength of his good school work, was given a scholarship to the Government College in Kumbakonam which he entered in 1904. However the following year his scholarship was not renewed because Ramanujan devoted more and more of his time to mathematics and neglected his other subjects. Without money he was soon in difficulties and, without telling his parents, he ran away to the town of Vizagapatnam about 650 km north of Madras. He continued his mathematical work, however, and at this time he worked on hypergeometric series and investigated relations between integrals and series. He was to discover later that he had been studying elliptic functions.

    In 1906 Ramanujan went to Madras where he entered Pachaiyappa's College. His aim was to pass the First Arts examination which would allow him to be admitted to the University of Madras. He attended lectures at Pachaiyappa's College but became ill after three months study. He took the First Arts examination after having left the course. He passed in mathematics but failed all his other subjects and therefore failed the examination. This meant that he could not enter the University of Madras. In the following years he worked on mathematics developing his own ideas without any help and without any real idea of the then current research topics other than that provided by Carr's book.

    Continuing his mathematical work Ramanujan studied continued fractions and divergent series in 1908. At this stage he became seriously ill again and underwent an operation in April 1909 after which he took him some considerable time to recover. He married on 14 July 1909 when his mother arranged for him to marry a ten year old girl S Janaki Ammal. Ramanujan did not live with his wife, however, until she was twelve years old.

    Ramanujan continued to develop his mathematical ideas and began to pose problems and solve problems in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. He devoloped relations between elliptic modular equations in 1910. After publication of a brilliant research paper on Bernoulli numbers in 1911 in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society he gained recognition for his work. Despite his lack of a university education, he was becoming well known in the Madras area as a mathematical genius.
     
  11. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    In 1911 Ramanujan approached the founder of the Indian Mathematical Society for advice on a job. After this he was appointed to his first job, a temporary post in the Accountant General's Office in Madras. It was then suggested that he approach Ramachandra Rao who was a Collector at Nellore. Ramachandra Rao was a founder member of the Indian Mathematical Society who had helped start the mathematics library. He writes in [30]:-

    A short uncouth figure, stout, unshaven, not over clean, with one conspicuous feature-shining eyes- walked in with a frayed notebook under his arm. He was miserably poor. ... He opened his book and began to explain some of his discoveries. I saw quite at once that there was something out of the way; but my knowledge did not permit me to judge whether he talked sense or nonsense. ... I asked him what he wanted. He said he wanted a pittance to live on so that he might pursue his researches.

    Ramachandra Rao told him to return to Madras and he tried, unsuccessfully, to arrange a scholarship for Ramanujan. In 1912 Ramanujan applied for the post of clerk in the accounts section of the Madras Port Trust. In his letter of application he wrote

    I have passed the Matriculation Examination and studied up to the First Arts but was prevented from pursuing my studies further owing to several untoward circumstances. I have, however, been devoting all my time to Mathematics and developing the subject. Despite the fact that he had no university education, Ramanujan was clearly well known to the university mathematicians in Madras for, with his letter of application, Ramanujan included a reference from E W Middlemast who was the Professor of Mathematics at The Presidency College in Madras. Middlemast, a graduate of St John's College, Cambridge, wrote [3]:-
    I can strongly recommend the applicant. He is a young man of quite exceptional capacity in mathematics and especially in work relating to numbers. He has a natural aptitude for computation and is very quick at figure work. On the strength of the recommendation Ramanujan was appointed to the post of clerk and began his duties on 1 March 1912. Ramanujan was quite lucky to have a number of people working round him with a training in mathematics. In fact the Chief Accountant for the Madras Port Trust, S N Aiyar, was trained as a mathematician and published a paper On the distribution of primes in 1913 on Ramanujan's work. The professor of civil engineering at the Madras Engineering College C L T Griffith was also interested in Ramanujan's abilities and, having been educated at University College London, knew the professor of mathematics there, namely M J M Hill. He wrote to Hill on 12 November 1912 sending some of Ramanujan's work and a copy of his 1911 paper on Bernoulli numbers.

    Hill replied in a fairly encouraging way but showed that he had failed to understand Ramanujan's results on divergent series. The recommendation to Ramanujan that he read Bromwich's Theory of infinite series did not please Ramanujan much. Ramanujan wrote to E W Hobson and H F Baker trying to interest them in his results but neither replied. In January 1913 Ramanujan wrote to G H Hardy having seen a copy of his 1910 book Orders of infinity. In Ramanujan's letter to Hardy he introduced himself and his work [10]:-

    I have had no university education but I have undergone the ordinary school course. After leaving school I have been employing the spare time at my disposal to work at mathematics. I have not trodden through the conventional regular course which is followed in a university course, but I am striking out a new path for myself. I have made a special investigation of divergent series in general and the results I get are termed by the local mathematicians as 'startling'.
     
  12. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    Hardy, together with Littlewood, studied the long list of unproved theorems which Ramanujan enclosed with his letter. On 8 February he replied to Ramanujan [3], the letter beginning:-
    I was exceedingly interested by your letter and by the theorems which you state. You will however understand that, before I can judge properly of the value of what you have done, it is essential that I should see proofs of some of your assertions. Your results seem to me to fall into roughly three classes:(1) there are a number of results that are already known, or easily deducible from known theorems;(2) there are results which, so far as I know, are new and interesting, but interesting rather from their curiosity and apparent difficulty than their importance;(3) there are results which appear to be new and important... Ramanujan was delighted with Hardy's reply and when he wrote again he said

    I have found a friend in you who views my labours sympathetically. ... I am already a half starving man. To preserve my brains I want food and this is my first consideration. Any sympathetic letter from you will be helpful to me here to get a scholarship either from the university of from the government. Indeed the University of Madras did give Ramanujan a scholarship in May 1913 for two years and, in 1914, Hardy brought Ramanujan to Trinity College, Cambridge, to begin an extraordinary collaboration. Setting this up was not an easy matter. Ramanujan was an orthodox Brahmin and so was a strict vegetarian. His religion should have prevented him from travelling but this difficulty was overcome, partly by the work of E H Neville who was a colleague of Hardy's at Trinity College and who met with Ramanujan while lecturing in India.

    Ramanujan sailed from India on 17 March 1914. It was a calm voyage except for three days on which Ramanujan was seasick. He arrived in London on 14 April 1914 and was met by Neville. After four days in London they went to Cambridge and Ramanujan spent a couple of weeks in Neville's home before moving into rooms in Trinity College on 30th April. Right from the beginning, however, he had problems with his diet. The outbreak of World War I made obtaining special items of food harder and it was not long before Ramanujan had health problems.

    Right from the start Ramanujan's collaboration with Hardy led to important results. Hardy was, however, unsure how to approach the problem of Ramanujan's lack of formal education. He wrote [1]:-

    What was to be done in the way of teaching him modern mathematics? The limitations of his knowledge were as startling as its profundity. Littlewood was asked to help teach Ramanujan rigorous mathematical methods. However he said ([31]):-
    ... that it was extremely difficult because every time some matter, which it was thought that Ramanujan needed to know, was mentioned, Ramanujan's response was an avalanche of original ideas which made it almost impossible for Littlewood to persist in his original intention. The war soon took Littlewood away on war duty but Hardy remained in Cambridge to work with Ramanujan. Even in his first winter in England, Ramanujan was ill and he wrote in March 1915 that he had been ill due to the winter weather and had not been able to publish anything for five months. What he did publish was the work he did in England, the decision having been made that the results he had obtained while in India, many of which he had communicated to Hardy in his letters, would not be published until the war had ended.
    On 16 March 1916 Ramanujan graduated from Cambridge with a Bachelor of Science by Research (the degree was called a Ph.D. from 1920). He had been allowed to enrol in June 1914 despite not having the proper qualifications. Ramanujan's dissertation was on Highly composite numbers and consisted of seven of his papers published in England.

    Ramanujan fell seriously ill in 1917 and his doctors feared that he would die. He did improve a little by September but spent most of his time in various nursing homes. In February 1918 Hardy wrote (see [3]):-

    Batty Shaw found out, what other doctors did not know, that he had undergone an operation about four years ago. His worst theory was that this had really been for the removal of a malignant growth, wrongly diagnosed. In view of the fact that Ramanujan is no worse than six months ago, he has now abandoned this theory - the other doctors never gave it any support. Tubercle has been the provisionally accepted theory, apart from this, since the original idea of gastric ulcer was given up. ... Like all Indians he is fatalistic, and it is terribly hard to get him to take care of himself.
     
  13. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    On 18 February 1918 Ramanujan was elected a fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and then three days later, the greatest honour that he would receive, his name appeared on the list for election as a fellow of the Royal Society of London. He had been proposed by an impressive list of mathematicians, namely Hardy, MacMahon, Grace, Larmor, Bromwich, Hobson, Baker, Littlewood, Nicholson, Young, Whittaker, Forsyth and Whitehead. His election as a fellow of the Royal Society was confirmed on 2 May 1918, then on 10 October 1918 he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge, the fellowship to run for six years. The honours which were bestowed on Ramanujan seemed to help his health improve a little and he renewed his effors at producing mathematics. By the end of November 1918 Ramanujan's health had greatly improved. Hardy wrote in a letter

    I think we may now hope that he has turned to corner, and is on the road to a real recovery. His temperature has ceased to be irregular, and he has gained nearly a stone in weight. ... There has never been any sign of any diminuation in his extraordinary mathematical talents. He has produced less, naturally, during his illness but the quality has been the same. ....

    He will return to India with a scientific standing and reputation such as no Indian has enjoyed before, and I am confident that India will regard him as the treasure he is. His natural simplicity and modesty has never been affected in the least by success - indeed all that is wanted is to get him to realise that he really is a success.

    Ramanujan sailed to India on 27 February 1919 arriving on 13 March. However his health was very poor and, despite medical treatment, he died there the following year.
    The letters Ramanujan wrote to Hardy in 1913 had contained many fascinating results. Ramanujan worked out the Riemann series, the elliptic integrals, hypergeometric series and functional equations of the zeta function. On the other hand he had only a vague idea of what constitutes a mathematical proof. Despite many brilliant results, some of his theorems on prime numbers were completely wrong.

    Ramanujan independently discovered results of Gauss, Kummer and others on hypergeometric series. Ramanujan's own work on partial sums and products of hypergeometric series have led to major development in the topic. Perhaps his most famous work was on the number p(n) of partitions of an integer n into summands. MacMahon had produced tables of the value of p(n) for small numbers n, and Ramanujan used this numerical data to conjecture some remarkable properties some of which he proved using elliptic functions. Other were only proved after Ramanujan's death.

    In a joint paper with Hardy, Ramanujan gave an asymptotic formula for p(n). It had the remarkable property that it appeared to give the correct value of p(n), and this was later proved by Rademacher.

    Ramanujan left a number of unpublished notebooks filled with theorems that mathematicians have continued to study. G N Watson, Mason Professor of Pure Mathematics at Birmingham from 1918 to 1951 published 14 papers under the general title Theorems stated by Ramanujan and in all he published nearly 30 papers which were inspired by Ramanujan's work. Hardy passed on to Watson the large number of manuscripts of Ramanujan that he had, both written before 1914 and some written in Ramanujan's last year in India before his death.
     
  14. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    Ramanujan Work in study of black holes

    London: Almost a century after his death, Indian maths genius Srinivasa Ramanujan’s cryptic deathbed theory has been proven correct and scientists say it could explain the behaviour of black holes.
    While on his death-bed, Ramanujan wrote a letter to his mentor, English mathematician G.H.Hardy in 1920, outlining several new mathematical functions never before heard of, along with a hunch about how they worked.
    American researchers now say Ramanujan’s formula could explain the behaviour of black holes, the Daily Mail reported. “We have solved the problems from his last mysterious letters. For people who work in this area of math, the problem has been open for 90 years” Emory University mathematician Ken Ono said.
    A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.
    Born in a rural village in Tamil Nadu, Ramanujan, a self-taught mathematician, spent much of his time thinking about mathematics that he flunked out of college twice, Ono said.
    The maths genius’s letter described several new functions that behaved differently from known theta functions, or modular forms, and yet closely mimicked them. Functions are equations that can be drawn as graphs on an axis, like a sine wave, and produce an output when computed for any chosen input or value, the report said.
    Ramanujan conjectured that his mock modular forms corresponded to the ordinary modular forms earlier identified by Carl Jacobi, and that both would wind up with similar outputs for roots of 1.
    “It wasn’t until 2002, through the work of Sander Zwegers, that we had a description of the functions that Ramanujan was writing about in 1920,” Ono said.
    Ono and colleagues drew on modern mathematical tools that had not been developed before Ramanujan’s death to prove this theory was correct. “We proved that Ramanujan was right. We found the formula explaining one of the visions that he believed came from his goddess,” Ono said.
    Researchers were also stunned to find the function could be used even today. “No one was talking about black holes back in the 1920s when Ramanujan first came up with mock modular forms, and yet, his work may unlock secrets about them,” Ono said. Ramanujan died young at the age of 32 on April 26, 1920.
     
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  15. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Senior Member Senior Member

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    If i remember correctly there waas a Movie based on Ramanujan
     
  16. HariPrasad-1

    HariPrasad-1 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Vinod Dham

    The man who build first computer chip.

    Vinod Dham
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    [​IMG]
    [improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
    This biography of a living person needs additional citations forverification. (September 2016)
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    Vinod Dham
    [​IMG]
    Born 1950 (age 66–67)
    Pune,India
    Residence USA&India
    Citizenship India
    Education BE&MS[1]
    Alma mater University of Delhi&Cincinnati
    Er.Ing.Vinod Dham ( Gurmukhi: ਵਿਨੋਦ ਧਾਮ) is an Engineer;Entrepreneur&VC[disambiguation needed].He is popularly known as thePentium Engineer for his contribution to the development of highly successful Pentium processors of Intel Co.[2][3][4] He is a Mentor; Advisor&sits on the Boards of many Co. including promising startups funded through his India-based fund–Indo-US Venture Partners,[5] where he is founding Managing Director.

    Er.Ing.Vinod Dham's accomplishment as the "Pentium Engineer" and as an Indian-American technology pioneer from Silicon Valley, is being celebrated at a first-ever exhibition on South Asians in the National Museum of Natural History at the storied Smithsonian in Washington DC, highlighting Indian-Americans who have helped shape America.[6][7][8]



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinod_Dham
     
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  17. Brood Father

    Brood Father Senior Member Senior Member

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    The west are very keen to acknowledge S.Ramanujan , Even they made a movie on his career "The Man who knew Infinity"
    Sadly for our bollywood he
    Yes it is "The man who knew Infinity" , a Hollywood movies in which Dev Patel played the character of Ramanujan
     
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