S-400 SA-20 Triumf

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by A.V., Mar 3, 2009.

  1. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    The Triumf S-400 is a new generation of air defense and theater anti-missile weapon developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an evolution of the S-300PMU [SA-10] family. This new system is intended to detect and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 km (2- 2.5 times greater than the previous S-300PMU system). The Triumf system includes radars capable of detecting low-signature targets. And the anti-missile capability of the system has been increased to the limits established by the ABM Treaty demarcation agreements -- it can intercept targets with velocities of up to 4.8 km/sec, corresponding to a ballistic missile range of 3,500 km.
    The system was developed through the cooperation of the Almaz Central Design Bureau, Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau, Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Instruments, St. Petersburg Design Bureau of Special Machine Building and other enterprises.

    The Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau has developed two new missiles for Triumf.

    The "big" missile [designation otherwise unknown] has a range of up to 400 km and will be able to engage "over- the-horizon [OTH]" targets using a new seeker head developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau. This seeker can operate in both a semiactive and active mode, with the seeker switched to a search mode on ground command and homing on targets independently. Targets for this missile include airborne early warning and control aircraft as well as jammers.
    The 9M96 missile is designed to destroy aircraft and air- delivered weapons at ranges in excess of 120 km. The missile is small-- considerably lighter than the ZUR 48N6Ye used in the S-300PMU1 systems and the Favorit. The missile is equipped with an active homing head and has an estimated single shot kill probability of 0.9 for manned aircraft and 0.8 for unmanned maneuvering aircraft. a gas-dynamic control system enables the 9M96 missile to maneuver at altitudes of up to 35 km at forces of over 20g, which permits engagment of non- strategic ballistic missiles. A mockup of the missile was set up at an Athens arms exhibition in October 1998. One 9M96 modification will become the basic long-range weapon of Air Force combat aircraft, and may become the standardized missile for air defense SAM systems, ship-launched air defense missile systems, and fighter aircraft.
    These new missiles can be accomodated on the existing SAM system launchers of the S-300PMU family. A container with four 9M96's can be installed in place of one container with the 5V55 or 48N6 missiles, and thus the the standard launcher intended for four 48N6Ye missiles can accommodate up to 16 9M96Ye missiles. Triumf provides for the greatest possible continuity with systems of the S-300PMU family (PMU1, PMU2), making it possible to smoothly change over to the production of the new generation system. It will include the previous control complex, though supporting not six but eight SAM systems, as well as multifunctional radar systems illumination and guidance, launchers, and associated autonomous detection and target indication systems.
    The state tests of the S-400 system reportedly began in 1999, with the initial test on 12 February 1999. As of May 1999 the testing of S-400 air defense system was reportedly nearing completion at Kapustin Yar, with the first systems of this kind to be delivered to the Moscow Air Force and Air Defense District in the fourth quarter of 1999. However, as of August 1999 government testing of the S-400 was slated to begin at the end of 1999, with the first system complex slated for delivery in late 2000. The sources of the apparent one-year delay in the program are unclear, though they may involve some combination of technical and financial problems with this program. Russian air defense troops conducted a test of the new anti-aircraft missile system S-400 on 07 April 2000. At that time, Air Force Commander Anatoly Kornukov said that serial production of the new system would begin in June 2000. Kornukov said air defense troops would get one S-400 launcher system by the end of 2000, but it would be armed with missiles of the available S-300 system.

    On condition of normal funding, radars with an acquisition range of 500-600 km should become operational by 2002-2003. However, other sources report that while it was ordered by the Defence Ministry, the military has nothing to pay for it with, so it is unclear when the Russian military will get this new weapon.

    The Russian Air Force is studying a reduction in the number of types of air defense weapons, and it is possible that Triumf will become the only system being developed, providing defense both in the close-range and mid-range as well long-range zones.

    http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/airdef/s-400.htm
     
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  3. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    Russia's S-400 air defense system may be world's best

    Russia is testing a new missile for its formidable S-400 Triumf air defense system that, if it performs according to its claimed specifications, is the most formidable long-range anti-aircraft and anti-missile defense system in the world.

    Three-star Col. Gen. Alexander Zelin, the commander of the Russian air force, announced testing plans for the new missile Tuesday, the RIA Novosti news agency reported.

    RIA Novosti described the S-400 Triumf -- NATO designation SA-21 Growler -- as being "designed to intercept and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 kilometers (250 miles) -- twice the range of the U.S. MIM-104 Patriot and 2.5 times that of the S-300PMU-2."

    The report said the S-400 was projected to remain the backbone of Russia's theater air and missile defense systems at least until 2020, and possibly even until 2025.

    "The S-400 system is being successfully deployed with air defense units. At present, we are testing a new missile for this system," Zelin said, according to the report


    http://www.upi.com/Security_Industr...system_may_be_worlds_best/UPI-36691230740065/
     
  4. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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  5. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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  6. pyromaniac

    pyromaniac Founding Member

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    Russian S-400 Missile Can Hit Radar, AWACS Aircraft

    The new Russian air defence S-400 Triumf system is capable of hitting radar reconnaissance and AWACS planes, which raises considerably its competitiveness on the world arms market, says the article "Triumf is put on alert", published in the May issue of the Voenny Parad journal which is now being put on sale and is distributed among subscribers. The S-400 is designed to hit modern and future attack aircraft at a distance of 400 km: tactical and strategic aviation jets, cruises of the Tomahawk type and other missiles", the article notes. Triumf successfully fights air targets, manufactured with the use of "stealth" technology at all altitudes of their combat operation and at maximum distances. When creating this system, Russian specialists used latest technologies in the radar industry, microelement base and computer engineering. In the opinion of general designer Vladimir Svetlov, Triumf is the world's first system which can selectively work with the use of several types of missiles. "The long-range missile has no analogues. It eclipses the American Patriot-3 system by around 100 percent, as does the French Aster, he claimed.

    In the opinion of Russian Defence Minister Igor Sergeyev who participated in recent proving ground testing of the new air defence system, it is expedient to invest funds in S-400 development, since it yields a 150 percent advantage as against the present military hardware for the "efficiency-cost" criterion. Military experts, familiar with the world weapons market, believe that deliveries of the Russian Triumf to other countries can radically change the concept both for the use of air attack vehicles and methods of counteraction. NATO countries, using AWACS reconnaissance systems, will be forced to look for new possibilities to organise reconnaissance and control during air operations. They will need for this purpose several years and many dozen billions of dollars of investments in R&D work.


    http://www.fas.org/news/russia/1999/FTS19990505000617.htm




    By the way the stats on this baby;


    40N6 Specs are

    Range 400 km
    Max Speed 4000m/s ( Mach 12 )
    Max Altitude: 185 km
    Guidance : INS + ARH + IIR ???

    48N6DM (upgraded missile found from the S-300)

    Range 250 km
    Max Speed 2,100 m/s (Mach 6 )
    Max Altitude 25 km
    Guidance INS + SARH + TVM




    p.s. Here is a Comprehensive analysis............http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-Grumble-Gargoyle.html
     
  7. pyromaniac

    pyromaniac Founding Member

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    Russia plans to start exporting S-400 missile system in 2009

    Russia could start producing the S-400 Triumf (NATO codename SA-21 Growler) air defense complex for export from 2009, the head of the Almaz central design bureau said Monday.

    "Within two years, our forces will test this system to ensure that there are no problems with it [on the market]... and then we will start producing them for export from 2009," Igor Ashurbeili said.

    He said the first S-400 complexes will be deployed at an air defense missile regiment in the town of Elektrostal, about 50 km to the east of Moscow, adding that under the state arms program, several dozen regiments are to be equipped with new systems.

    He said this may not be enough to cover Russia's entire territory, but was sufficient to protect the main cities and strategic installations.

    The S-400 Triumf is a new air defense missile system developed by Almaz as an upgrade to the S-300 family.

    It has been designed to intercept and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 kilometers (250 miles), or twice the range of the MIM-104 Patriot, and 2.5 times that of the S-300PMU-2.

    In April, Colonel-General Yury Solovyov, commander of the Air Defense Forces Special Command (former Moscow Military District Air Defense Command), said the system could also be used for limited purposes in missile and space defense, but that it is not intended to destroy intercontinental ballistic missiles.

    However, he said the system is capable of destroying stealth aircraft, cruise missiles and ballistic missiles with an effective range of up to 3,500 kilometers (2,200 miles) and a speed of up to 4.8 kilometers (3 miles) per second.

    The Russian Air Defense Forces, which are part of the Air Force, currently deploy more than 30 regiments equipped with S-300 missile complexes, which will be gradually replaced with S-400 systems.





    For all those who had their fingers crossed....
     
  8. pyromaniac

    pyromaniac Founding Member

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    Analysis of Russian missile defence

    Summary

    Russia displayed the new S-400 surface-to-air missile system at the MAKS 2007 air show in Moscow that began Aug. 21. Although Belarusian Defense Minister Col. Gen. Leonid Maltsev expressed interest in acquiring it, Moscow is not ready to export the S-400.

    Analysis

    Russia displayed its latest surface-to-air missile system, the S-400 Triumf, at the Aug. 21-26 MAKS 2007 air show in Moscow. The system was tested successfully in July and is now slowly being deployed around Moscow. Other countries, including Belarus, are keenly interested in the latest air defense technology. However, Igor Ashurbeily, CEO of S-400 producer Almaz Central Design Bureau, made it clear Aug. 23 that the system will not be exported until 2009. Russian air defense considerations, financial prudence and foreign policy all tend to argue for even longer delays in export.



    History

    Air defense is hardwired into the Russian military psyche. For much of the Cold War, Russia was at an extreme disadvantage in terms of intercontinental reach — especially in terms of aerial reconnaissance and strategic bombers. To put it simply, Russia was more vulnerable to U.S. reconnaissance planes and strategic bombers than the United States was to Soviet planes.

    Part of this is geography, part is history. The United States began designing an intercontinental bomber to reach Tokyo the moment the Japanese fleet bombed Pearl Harbor. The Russians, on the other hand, were fighting a massive and devastating land war against the seasoned German army. They had little time or patience for the niceties of long-range aviation. That disparity defined how each emerged from World War II to wage the Cold War. Air defense — particularly surface-to-air missiles — was consequently a major strategic consideration for the Soviets.
    Today

    At the apex of this tradition are the late models of the S-300 series, especially the S-300PMU2, which are renowned as some of the best air defense hardware money can buy. Their range and capability make them coveted strategic defensive assets. With exceptionally long ranges, they can reportedly engage stealth aircraft and low-flying cruise missiles, and even intercept shorter-range ballistic missiles.

    The S-400 is the most recent variant. Despite the new designation, at one point the program was known as the S-300PMU3. The S-400 is quite similar to its older cousins, especially in outward appearance.

    If the nomenclature here is beginning to get a bit dense, that is no accident. The Soviets became quite adept at clouding their military capabilities by using confusing basic distinctions. Two “variants” of the same system could bear little apparent and even less actual resemblance to one another.

    This also cuts the other way. Moscow can use changes in nomenclature to make two quite similar systems appear to be very different. These skills are not lost on today’s Kremlin.
    Export

    This is where export considerations begin to come into play. The ruse works only while no one else knows the finer points of the system. As long as the latest missiles remain sealed in their launch canisters and the electronic emissions of their engagement radars remain more or less out of the reach of American hands, the unknown remains unknown.

    Widespread proliferation of S-400 batteries would make them increasingly accessible to study — clandestine or otherwise — by the U.S. military. (The Department of Defense acquired several components of various older versions of the S-300 from former Soviet Union states in the 1990s.) Such study would allow a concrete picture of the system’s capabilities to emerge. A concrete picture defines the parameters of a problem, and a problem with parameters allows for the creation of concrete solutions.
    Resale Value

    The second reason Moscow is unlikely to let the S-400 slip out the door any time soon is that the Russian military-industrial complex has become particularly adept at refurbishing and upgrading old equipment and turning it around at a profit. Indeed, it is still selling variants of air defense systems with roots in the late 1950s. The Kremlin can then use this money to finance production and upgrades of the latest systems for itself. Meanwhile, it locks in a returning customer, who keeps coming back for upgrades and replacements for hardware that is much closer to slipping into obsolescence. This kind of thinking has an economic logic to it.
    Foreign Policy

    More than anything else, the export of strategic weapon systems is a tool of foreign policy. Such sales can help facilitate military cooperation or simply aid the enemy of one’s enemy. Moscow certainly was not playing nice when it delivered shorter-range Tor-M1 surface-to-air missile systems to Iran. But Russia thus far appears to have refrained from selling more serious systems — such as late-model S-300 systems — to either Iran or Syria, despite sincere efforts on the part of both Tehran and Damascus. That is a line Moscow has decided not to cross with Washington.

    Moscow has not widely sold the latest models of the S-300 system, and the Russians are hardly likely to begin exporting the S-400 before they expand production of its predecessor systems. Circumstances can change, however, especially as the United States continues to push toward a pair of ballistic missile defense bases in Europe, and Moscow is taking this potential shift into consideration.


    Russia Holds its Ground


    Ultimately, the S-400 builds on its predecessor. It is almost certainly an incremental improvement over the S-300PMU2. Those improvements, however, largely appear to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary. However, even if the S-400 is little more than the S-300PMU2 with a new paint job, it is still one of the best strategic air defense assets money can buy. And Russia gains little from the system’s capabilities being distributed internationally and pinpointed any further.

    Although the deployment of the S-400 around Moscow hardly equates to Russia’s readiness to put the system on the export market, the fielding of this “next generation” will lead almost inexorably to the increased export of later-model S-300s. That alone will facilitate a qualitative leap in air defense for a number of buyers.

    Though the only true test for such systems is a shooting war, Russian air defense technology appears to be, at the very least, holding its ground in the face of generational advances by the U.S. Air Force — and that technology will become increasingly available for the right price.



    http://www.stratfor.com/russia_fundamentals_russian_air_defense_exports
     
  9. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Almaz-Antey S-400 Triumf / SA-21
    Самоходный Зенитный Ракетный Комплекс С-400 'Триумф'

    The Almaz S-400 Triumf or SA-21 'Growler' system is the subsequent evolution of the S-300PMU2, trialled in 1999. The label S-400 is essentially marketing, since the system was previously reported under the speculative label of S-300PMU3. At least one report claims that funding for the development of the Triumf was provided in part by the PLA.
    The principal distinctions between the S-400 and its predecessor lie in further refinements to the radar and software, and the addition of four new missile types in addition to the legacy 48N6E/48N6E2 used in the S-300PMU2 Favorit. As a result an S-400 battery could be armed with arbitrary mixes of these weapons to optimise its capability for a specific threat environment. The 30N6E2 further evolved into the more capable 92N2E Grave Stone, carried by a new 8 x 8 MZKT-7930 vehicle. The additional range required a significantly uprated transmitter tube to provide the higher power-aperture performance needed, in additional to an improved exciter and automatic frequency hopping capability. The 96L6 Cheese Board is offered as an 'all altitude' battery acquisition radar, also carried by a 8 x 8 MZKT-7930 vehicle. A new 3D phased array acquisition radar is employed, the 91N6E derived from the 64N6E2, and the 40V6M/MD mast is an available option. The 55K6E command post is employed, carried by an 8 x 8 Ural 532301 truck.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
     
  10. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    S-400 48N6E2/E3 SAM specifications.

    TEL options include the 5P85TE2 semitrailer, towed by a 6 x 6 BAZ-64022 and improved 5P85SE2. To date photos of the latter have not emerged, EU sources claim the MZKT-7930 is employed - the latter is likely for commonality reasons as it is used for two of the new radars. Demonstrators used the baseline 5P85SE on a MAZ-7910.

    48N6E3 and 40N6 Surface to Air Missiles

    The first missile added to the system is the 48N6E3/48N6DM (Dal'naya - long range), an incrementally improved 48N6E2 variant with a range of 130 nautical miles.

    The second missile added to the S-400 is the new 40N6, a long range weapon with a cited range of 215 nautical miles, intended to kill AWACS, JSTARS and other high value assets, such as EA-6B/EA-18G support jammers. Further details of this weapon remain to be disclosed. The range improvement to around twice that of the 48N6E2 suggests a two stage weapon, or a much larger motor casing with a larger propellant load.

    Extended range missile shots typically involve ballistic flight profiles with apogees in excess of 40 km. The protracted development of the 40N6 suggests that directional control through the upper portions of the flight profile may have presented difficulties. One advantage of such flight profiles is that the missile converts potential energy into kinetic energy during the terminal phase of its flight, accelerating as it dives on its target. This provides higher endgame G capability in comparison with flatter cruise profiles used in legacy designs.
    9M96E and 9M96E2 Surface to Air Missiles

    The third and fourth missiles are in effect equivalents to the ERINT/PAC-3 interceptor missile recently introduced to supplement the MIM-104 in Patriot batteries. These are the 9M96E and 9M96E2, largely identical with the latter version fitted with a larger booster. Fakel claim the 96M6E has a range of 21.6 nautical miles, and the 9M96E2 64.8 nautical miles, with altitude capabilities from 15 ft AGL up to 66 kft and 100 kft respectively.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    The 9M96 missiles are hittiles designed for direct impact, and use canards and thrust vectoring to achieve extremely high G and angular rate capability - they are not unlike a scaled up R-73/AA-11 Archer dogfight missile in concept. An inertial package is used with a datalink from the 30N6E radar for midcourse guidance, with a radar homing seeker of an undisclosed type. The small 53 lb (24 kg) blast fragmentation warhead is designed to produce an controlled fragment pattern, using multiple initiators to shape the detonation wave through the explosive. A smart radio fuse is used to control the warhead timing and pattern. It is in effect a steerable shaped charge.
    The smaller size of these weapons permits four to be loaded into the volume of a single 48N6E/5V55K/R launch tube container - a form fit four tube launcher container is used. A single 5P85S/T TEL can thus deploy up to 16 of these missiles, or mixes of 3 x 48N6 / 4 x 9M96E/E2, 2 x 48N6 / 8 x 9M96E/E2 or 1 x 48N6 / 12 x 9M96E/E2. The stated aim of this approach was to permit repeated launches against saturation attacks with precision guided munitions - in effect trading 9M96 rounds for incoming guided weapons. Fakel claim a single shot kill probability of 70% against a Harpoon class missile, and 90% against a manned aircraft.

    The addition of the 9M96E/E2 missiles, which amount to a combined ABM and point defence weapon designs, is part of a broader Russian strategy of deploying air defence weapons capable of defeating PGM attacks, including the AGM-88 HARM family, and follow-on defence suppression weapons, the latter types intended to disable the S-400 battery acquisition and engagement radars. The advantage in using the 9M96E/E2 for this purpose is that it avoids the additional technical and operational complexity of directing other "counter-PGM" point defence weapons such as the Tor M1/M2, Tunguska M and Pantsir S/S1 series.
     
  11. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Almaz-Antey Samodyerzhets
    Самоходный Зенитный Ракетный Комплекс 'Самодержец'

    The recently announced 'Samodyerzhets' system is the latest evolution in the S-300PMU family of missiles. It is a fusion of technologies from the S-400 and PVO-SV S-300VM systems, designed as a dual role SAM/ABM system.

    Russian sources claimed in 2003 that the system 'combine the far range of the S-300VM missile and the advanced electronics of the S-400 missile'. Jane's identified, in 2004, the use of the extended range 9M82M Giant B round from the S-300VM, in an enhanced S-400 system. The TELAR configuration has yet to be disclosed. We include a diagram of a likely TEL configuration based on the 5P85TE.

    [​IMG]

    Novator 9M82 / SA-12B Giant

    The S-300V/SA-12 and S-300VM/Antey-2500, despite sharing designations with the S-300PMU systems, are entirely unique weapons produced originally by Antey, prior to the forced merger of Antey and Almaz. Fully mobile, on tracked chassis based on the MT-TM utility vehicle, the S-300V system was intended to replace the cumbersome 2K11/3M8 Krug/1S12 Long Track/1S32 Pat Hand/SA-4 Ganef system, and provide divisional SAM and ABM capabilities. Design objectives were air defence, defeat of Pershing ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and supersonic standoff missiles like the AGM-69 SRAM.

    [​IMG]

    9M82 Giant SAM

    The 9A82 and 9A83 TELARs carry two Novator designed 9M82 Giant long range SAM/ABMs, and four 9M83 Gladiator SAM/ABMs respectively. Each TELAR is equipped with a steerable high gain antenna used to transmit midcourse guidance commands to the missiles and provide continuous wave illumination of the target for the missiles' semi-active radar seekers during the terminal guidance phase - one source cites 10-12 kW of CW power rating. The TELARs are controlled by the 9S32 Grill Pan using either cables or a bidirectional radio datalink, permitting the TELARs to return status information to the guidance radar. The 9A82 TELAR is optimised for engaging targets at higher altitudes, and can slew its antenna through 180 degrees in azimuth, and 110 degrees in elevation, while the 9A83 TELAR has an elevating and telescoping mast providing antenna coverage of the full upper hemisphere - this arrangement is intended to extend the engagement footprint against low altitude targets. The TELARs are supplemented by the 9A84 and 9A85 TEL/Transloaders, essentially dumb launchers which can be used only with guidance/illumination from a nearby TELAR, and equipped with loading cranes instead of antenna booms.

    The smaller 9M83 Gladiator SAM/ABM is intended to engage aerial targets at all altitudes, including cruise missiles, and smaller TBMs. The much larger 9M82 Giant has higher kinematic performance and is intended to kill IRBMs, SRAM class supersonic missiles, but also standoff jamming aircraft at long ranges. Both weapons employ two solid propellant stages, with thrust vector control of the first stage (10,225 lb/4,636 kg mass in the Giant and cca 5,000 lb/2275 kg in the Gladiator) and aerodynamic control of the 2,800 lb (1,200 kg) second stage, using four servo driven fins, and four fixed stabilisers. The guidance and control packages, and much of the weapon airframes are identical, the principal distinction being the bigger booster stage of the Giant and its larger stabilisers.

    A cold start ejector is used to expel the missile from the launch tube, the first stage burns for about 20 seconds, upon which the missile transitions to its midcourse sustainer. During midcourse flight the missile employs inertial navigation with the option of command link updates. In the former mode it transitions to its semi-active homing seeker during the final 10 seconds of flight, in the latter 3 seconds before impact - a technique preferred for heavy jamming environments. Russian sources claim the semi-active seeker can lock on to a 0.05 square metre RCS target from 16.2 nautical miles. The midcourse guidance system attempts to fly the most energy efficient trajectory to maximise range. A two channel radio proximity fuse is used to initiate the 330 lb (150 kg) class smart warhead which has a controllable fragmentation pattern to maximise effect.

    The engagement envelope of the baseline Giant is between 3,200 ft AGL to 100 kft, and ranges of 7 to 54 nautical miles. The system can launch the missiles at 1.5 second intervals, and a battalion with four batteries can engage 24 targets concurrently, with 2 missiles per target, and has a complement of between 96 and 192 missiles available for launch on TELAR/TELs. A TELAR can arm a missile for launch in 15 seconds, with a 40 second time to prepare a TELAR for an engagement, and 5 minute deploy and stow times - a genuine shoot and scoot capability.

    The cited single shot kill probabilities for the Giant 40% to 60% against IRBMs and 50% to 70% against the AGM-69 SRAM - ballistic missiles with re-entry velocities of up to 3 km/s can be engaged.

    The S-300V has been supplanted by the enhanced S-300VM, using the 9S15M2, 9S19M, 9S32M and 9S457M components, and improved 9M82M and 9M83M missiles. This system has been marketed as the Antey 2500, intended to highlight its capability to engage 2,500 km range IRBMs with re-entry velocities around 4.5 km/sec. The 9M82M has double the range of the 9M82 against aerial targets, at 108 nautical miles, and increased terminal phase agility - a single shot kill probability of 98% is claimed against ballistic targets.
     

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