Recalling Baloch history

Discussion in 'Balochistan - Freedom Struggle' started by S_BALOCH, Sep 21, 2011.

  1. S_BALOCH

    S_BALOCH New Member

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    Recalling Baloch history

    The recent deplorable killing of Professor Saba Dashtiari is yet another episode in Baloch history rooted in the creation and consolidation of Pakistan. Much of the current discussion of today, and of the last six decades, fails to take into cognisance the history behind the Baloch national struggle.

    The Baloch are a very peculiar social organism with their secularity and their strong tribal networks and leadership. These factors meant that in the 1940s the Islamic rhetoric of the Muslim League failed to make an impact on the Baloch. The only strong political party in the area was the Kalat State National Party (KSNP) which was nationalist and secular in its outlook and aligned with the Congress. The KSNP took its cue from the Khan of Kalat, Ahmed Yar Khan, who, with some historical justification, claimed that Kalat was never a part of India. The British never accepted this claim but Jinnah unequivocally accepted it and signed an agreement to the effect on August 11, 1947. Satisfied by this agreement, the Khan established two houses of parliament in October 1947 to ascertain the will of the people concerning the future of the state. While not ‘democratic’ in the modern sense, the Darul Awam (House of Commons) and Darul Umara (House of Lords) were broadly representative of public opinion in the state.

    The debates in these houses were a clear indication of the aspirations of the Baloch and Brahui people. Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo, the leader in the Darul Awam, clearly stated: “We have a distinct civilisation… We are Muslims but it is not necessary that by virtue of being Muslims we should lose our freedom and merge with others. If the mere fact that we are Muslims requires us to join Pakistan, then Afghanistan and Iran should also amalgamate with Pakistan”. We are ready to have friendship with that country on the basis of sovereign equality but by no means [are we] ready to merge with Pakistan…” The Baloch knew that under accession their separate identity and unique heritage was being threatened; they only wanted alignment with Pakistan, not accession.

    Unfortunately, Pakistan rejected the legitimate concerns of the Baloch. Pakistan never treated Kalat as a non-Indian state and insisted on unconditional accession. To attain this objective, the Pakistani government used several ploys, including the buying off of Kalat state feudatories (Kharan and Las Bela) through lavish privy purses, and the elevation of the Gichki sardar of Mekran — a Kalat district sardar — to princely status. The end result of these machinations, including a threat of military action, was that the Khan acceded to Pakistan in March 27, 1948.

    As expected, public reaction against the accession was strong and the brother of the Khan, Abdul Karim, repudiated the accession and led the first of many insurgencies against Pakistan. The rest of Baloch history is a litany of broken promises, threats and repression by the government. In July 1948, Abdul Karim was induced to return on an assurance of amnesty, but the promise was immediately broken. The later story of Nauroz Khan is now a legend in Balochistan. Since then — in 1958, 1977 and now — the Baloch have articulated their grievances through an armed revolt, since the government refuses to listen to their concerns.

    It is high time that successive governments stop treating the Baloch insurgency as a law and order problem and assess it in its historical context. The government needs to come to the negotiating table with respect for the distinctiveness and autonomy of the Baloch, a clear remorse for the repression of yester years, and bring to an end the divide and rule game in the province. The solution to the Baloch issue will not be easy, but it needs to be tackled now or else even going back to the drawing board might not convince the Baloch to stay in Pakistan.


    Published in The Express Tribune, June 15th, 2011.
     
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  3. agentperry

    agentperry Senior Member Senior Member

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    will balochistan stop its struggle against pakistan rule if given autonomy?? or will they go on with their struggle until they gain complete independence. moreover what is the leadership of baloch resistance like? after late akbar bugti is there anyone left to regroup baloch and guide them to independence?
     
  4. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

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    Can you tell us something about how some areas of Balochistan were passed on to Iran ?
     
  5. Tomcat

    Tomcat Regular Member

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    paaji the Brits had their hand in this Pie as well in 1849. British and Persian empires divided Baluchistan into many parts. In the 19th century, in western Baluchistan, many revolts took place against Persian occupation. At the end of 19th century, when Sardar Hussein Narui Baloch started an uprising against Persia which was crushed by joint Anglo-Persian mission forces. The struggle between Persian empire and the British in eastern Baluchistan, gave western Baluchis a chance to gain control of their territory in Western Baluchistan. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bahram Khan succeeded in gaining control of Baluch- lands. In 1916, the British empire recognized him king of Baluchistan. Mir Dost Muhammad Khan Baluch, Bahram Khan's nephew, succeeded to the throne, and in 1920, he proclaimed himself Shah-e-Baluchistan (Persian for King of Baluchistan) but in 1928, Reza Shah came into power and Persian forces started operations against Baluchi forces with the help of British. The Baluch were defeated and Mir Dost Muhammad Khan Baluch captured. In the same year, Mir Dost Muhammad Khan Baluch was executed in a Tehran prison. Baluchis were not happy with British and raised their voices against the occupation of Western Baluchistan by Persia at Baluch Conference of Jacobabad.
     
  6. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    I had a link that stated that Balochistan got independence from Britain on 11 Aug 1947.

    can anyone confirm this?
     
  7. Daredevil

    Daredevil On Vacation! Administrator

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    This is what I found about the Balochistan Independence day.

    11 August – Balochistan Independent Day


    Three days before Pakistan’s secession from India. Balochistan was already declared an independent state. The independence of Balochistan was recognised by the management of the upcoming Pakistan through an announcement from Dehli on 11 August 1947.

    On 12 August 1947 The New York Times published Pakistan's announcement which read: "Karachi, Aug, 11, 1947 [AP] - Among the congratulatory messages read to the Pakistan assembly today was one from United States Secretary of State George C. Marshall. An announcement from New Dehli said that Kalat, Moslem State in Balochistan, had reached an agreement with Pakistan for a free flow of communication and commerce, and would negotiate for decisions on defense, external affairs and communications. Under the agreement Pakistan recognizes Kalat as an independent, sovereign state with a status different from that of Indian states". [The New York Times, Published: August 12, 1947, Copyright © The New York Times]

    Within 24 hours of the declaration of Independence 1947, the Khan of Kalat formed Baluchistan's House of Commons and the House of Lords. On 16th December 1947 Khan of Kalat called a meeting of both houses of Balochistan to discuss the possibility of joining Pakistan. All the members from both Houses had unanimously rejected the idea of joining Pakistan.

    However the state of Pakistan invaded Balochistan on 27 March, 1948. The illegal and forceful occupation of Balochistan by the Pakistani army had resulted in killing of many workers and members of the Independent State of Balochistan and imprisonment of the Khan of Kalat and his family members in their palace. Deaths, destruction, torture, imprisonment of Baloch people and looting and plundering of their natural resources have been the outcome of this occupation since then. From that very moment the freedom loving Baloch people have been struggling against Pakistani occupation and in order to regain their lawful sovereign independent state. August 11 is Balochistan Independence Day and Baloch mark this day as the ‘National Day' and they are adamant to celebrate it until such time when Balochistan is liberated from the foreign occupiers.

    Earlier on the same day (11th of August 2009) there will be a protest in front of 10 Downing Street to highlight the ongoing Human Rights violations in Balochistan by both Iran and Pakistan. The protest is also meant to highlight the recent heinous acts of these states i.e. the mass abductions, arrest and humiliation of political and student activists and other innocent citizens in Pakistani occupied Balochistan and mass executions of Baloch political prisoners in Iranian occupied Balochistan. A petition will be handed over to the British prime minster at the end of the protest.
     
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  8. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Daredevil,

    Thanks a lot.

    It should be archived since this is an important aspect.

    Likewise, one should also archive the skullduggery adopted by Pakistan to merge NWFP into Pakistan.

    That would show Pakistan in the correct light when they speak about post Independence arrangements.
     
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  9. Daredevil

    Daredevil On Vacation! Administrator

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    Here is an interview of Nawabzada Marri by Najam Sethi. In this video you can see overall grievances of Baluchis and Pakistani perfidy in oppressing them. You can also get some background/history of the Baluchi viewpoints, issues and struggle.











     
    Last edited: May 10, 2015
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  10. S_BALOCH

    S_BALOCH New Member

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    Kindly Read This regarding your first question ,
    http://www.thefridaytimes.com/beta2/tft/article.php?issue=20110923&page=5


    M
    any think that Bugti's death was the end of Baloch Struggle , but the truth is this was the event that ignited the current struggle !
    Right now this struggle is leaded by Baloch leaders in exile , Brahumdag Bugti (Nawab Akbar's grandson ) and sons of Khair Baksh Marri !
     
  11. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    S Baloch,

    Balochistan got Independence on 11 Aug 1947, as gleaned from sources available in the public domain.

    Could you enumerate for us in detail as to how Pakistan convinced Balochistan to join Pakistan.

    If Balochistan joined Pakistan, how is it that the Balochistan did not protect their rights and got exploited in return?

    What were the circumstances that gave the Pakistan administration a free run to dominate all the regions and diminish their regional development and using the resources and funds of these region, develop only the 'core area' of Pakistan?
     
  12. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    This I found in one of the hard disk and so I regret I do not have the link.
     
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  13. Yusuf

    Yusuf GUARDIAN Administrator

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    As student of history I want to share with you about Kalat.
    The sorrowful state of affairs of Balocnistan were created because the cheat and deceit on the part of Mr. Jinnah and weakness on the part of Mir Ahmed Yar khan played pivotal role to put it into permanent bondage of subjugation.
    In 1946 the newly elected Labor Party Government headed by Clement Attlee in Britain decided to send a 3-member Cabinet Mission to India in a final bid to devise the methodology for the transfer of power in India. The Mission comprising the Secretary of State for India, Lord Pethic Lawrence, AV Alexander and Sir Stafford Cripps arrived in India on March 24, 1946. The Khan of Kalat, on the advice of Mr, Jinnah the legal advisor to the Kalat state at the time, approached the Mission on behalf of his government to discuss the future status of his state in the scheme of independence for India. The Mission advised the Khan to have his case prepared by legal experts. Eminent lawyers as I I Chundrigar, Sir Sultan Ahmed, Sardar BK Memon and Sir Walter Monkton were hired to prepare the case for the Kalat state, which after vetting by the Quaid himself, was submitted to the Mission in the form of a memorandum. This memorandum, briefly, re-stressed the following major points:
    That Kalat is an independent and sovereign state its status is different from other princely states of British India , its relations with the British government being based on various mutual agreements and treaties. That Kalat is not an Indian state, its relations with India being of only a formal nature by virtue of Kalat's agreements with the British and that with the ceasing of the Agreement of 1876 with the Kalat government, Kalat would regain its complete independence, as it existed prior to 1876. All such regions including Quetta Municipality as were given under the control of the British in consequence of any treaty will be returned to the sovereignty of the Kalat state, and resume their original status as parts of the Kalat state.
    On March 22, 1947, Lord Mountbatten, the last of the Viceroys of India, arrived in Delhi to wind up British supremacy in this part of the British dominions. The final partition plan of June 3, 1947 stated in respect of transfer of power in India. Mr, Jinnah wrote to the Khan of Kalat that since the position of the Kalat State was different from the other Indian States, representation on behalf of the state should be made directly to the Viceroy in Delhi to discuss the future position of Kalat and the return of Baloch regions hitherto under the control of the British Government. Accordingly, the Chief Secretary of Kalat State was sent to Delhi with a draft of the new position of Kalat as prepared by legal experts. This resulted in a round table conference, held on August 4, 1947, in which Lord Mountbatten, Mr, Jinnah, Mr Liaqat Ali Khan, Chief Minister of Kalat, Sir Sultan Ahmed, the legal Advisor of Kalat State and the Khan of Kalat took part in the deliberations The following points were agreed upon:

    "Kalat State will be independent on August 5, 1947, enjoying the same status as it originally held in 1838, having friendly relations with its neighbors. In case the relations of Kalat with any future government got strained, Kalat will exercise its right of self-determination, and the British Government should take precautionary measures to help Kalat in the matter as per the Treaties of 1839 and 1841."
    As a corollary to the round table conference at Delhi, another agreement was signed between Kalat and Pakistan on August 4, 1947. The points agreed upon were broadcast on August 11, 1947, as under:

    "The Government of Pakistan agrees that Kalat is an independent state, being quite different in status from other states of India; and commits to its relations with the British Government as manifested in several agreements.. ... In the meantime, a Standstill Agreement will be made between Pakistan and Kalat by which Pakistan shall stand committed to all the responsibilities and agreements signed by Kalat and the British Government from 1839 to 1947 and by this,.... In order to discuss finally the relations between Kalat and Pakistan on matters of defense, foreign relations and deliberations will be held in the near future in Karachi." A few weeks after the agreement, the Agent to the Governor-General informed the rulers of Kharan and Lasbela that the control of their regions had been transferred to the Kalat State. Hence they once again came under the direct influence of Kalat. The Marri and Bugti tribal region was also returned into the Kalat fold soon after.
    Thus the whole of Balochistan came under the suzerainty of the Khan of Kalat in the same confederacy of Baloch tribes that Nasir Khan I, in 1666-67, was able to create. The Kalat government made a formal declaration of its independence on August 15, 1947, soon after the end of British supremacy, and a day after Pakistan's coming into being on the map of the subcontinent. Immediately, a delegation comprising the Kalat prime minister and foreign minister was sent to Karachi, the then capital of Pakistan, for discussions and an honorable settlement vis-a-vis relations with Pakistan in the light of the mutually endorsed Standstill Agreement of August 11, 1947. To shock and grief of Khan of Kalat Mr, Jinnah coarsely persuaded the Khan to expedite the merger. The Khan replied, "I have great respect for your advice...... but Balochistan, being a land of numerous tribes, the people there must be duly consulted in the matter prior to any decision I take; for, according to the prevalent tribal convention, no decision can be binding upon them unless they are taken into confidence beforehand by their Khan." With this provisional agreement, the Khan returned to Kalat and promptly summoned the Kalat State Houses of Parliament, the Dar-ul-Awam and Dar-ul-Umra and proposed to the House to accord him a mandate on the matter of Kalat's merger with Pakistan. Both the Houses, however, contended unanimously that the proposal of Kalat's merger militated against the spirit of the earlier agreement arrived at between Kalat Government and the spokesmen of Pakistan on August 4, 1947, as also against the Independence Act of 1947. This decision of Kalat's Parliament was forwarded to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan, for necessary processing. Shortly afterwords, the Mr, Jinnah visited Sibi and during his stay there insisted upon the Khan to sign the merger documents in his personal capacity. Finding reluctance in Khan Govt: Pakistan Cabinet under the leadership and instruction of Mr, Jinnah working on a scheme to breakup the 500-year old state. The nature of their scheme, as it turned out subsequently, was tantamount to a political castration of the Baloch people. Illegally and in violation of of 4th August 1947 round table conference declaration and agreement made by Mr, Jinnah on the very day with Khan, Stand Still Agreement and also Govt; of Pakistan's earlier decion, it had decided to punish and encircle Kalat and Baloch people cut off Kharan and Lasbela by giving them an equal status as Kalat and obtaining their "mergers" with Pakistan directly. Makran, which had been a part of the Kalat State for the last 300 years, was made independent of Kalat on March 17, 1948; and one of the three Sardars made its ruler. Thus Makran, too, was made a part of Pakistan. These hasty, illogical, irrational and politically illegal and oppressive steps naturally disillusioned the Baloch people. They rightly felt that all their erstwhile services and sacrifices in the cause of Pakistan were now forgotten. So deep was their despair and frustration that several of them wanted to revolt. Meanwhile, the wave of hatred and animosity generated by the irrational policies of the Government of Pakistan against Kalat was fast gaining dangerous dimensions all over Balochistan. Feelings in the tribal areas particularly were running high against Pakistan and the Baloch people were calling the position of the Khan of Kalat himself into question. Things were moving fast towards a show down.
    The Government of Pakistan instructed the Brigadier in Command at Quetta to go on full alert for action against Kalat state and the Agent to the Governor General began to prepare for police action. This was the situation as it stood in the first quarter of 1948 triggered by the illogical actions of the Pakistan. Under duress Khan of Kalat signed the merger documents in his personal capacity on March 27, 1948, in an effort to diffuse the situation in Balochistan. In his autobiography, he admits that he did not have the mandate to sign the merger without the consent of the Houses of Parliament of Kalat State. A fortnight after the merger, on April 15, 1948, the Agent to the Governor General in Balochistan issued an order in the name of Mr, Jinnah, and the legal entity of the Khan of Kalat was abolished and within 20 hours of the order many of the members of the Balochistan Cabinet were arrested or exiled from Balochistan. Prince Abdul Karim's revolt and first Baloch armed struggle started in this back ground,
    Hussain Bux Thebo

    The exact date of Kalat's occupation By Hussain Bux Thebo
     
  14. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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