RAW: India's External Intelligence Agency

Discussion in 'Foreign Relations' started by sorcerer, Sep 10, 2015.

  1. sorcerer

    sorcerer Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Apr 13, 2013
    Messages:
    6,203
    Likes Received:
    5,114
    Location:
    India
    RAW: India's External Intelligence Agency


    :india::india::india::india:
    Introduction

    India's external intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), has long faced allegations of meddling in its neighbors' affairs. Founded in 1968, primarily to counter China's influence, over time it has shifted its focus to India's other traditional rival, Pakistan. RAW and Pakistan's spy agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), have been engaged in covert operations against one other for over three decades. The ongoing dispute in Kashmir continues to fuel these clashes, but experts say Afghanistan may be emerging as the new battleground. Islamabad sees India's growing diplomatic initiatives in Afghanistan as a cover for RAW agents working to destabilize Pakistan. It accuses RAW of training and arming separatists in Pakistan's Balochistan Province along the Afghan border. RAW denies these charges, and in turn, accuses the ISI of the July 2008 bombing of the Indian embassy in Kabul.

    The History of RAW
    Until 1968, the Intelligence Bureau (IB), which is responsible for India's internal intelligence, also handled external intelligence. But after India's miserable performance in a 1962 border war with China, the need for a separate external intelligence agency was clear. During that conflict, "our intelligence failed to detect Chinese build up for the attack," writes Maj. Gen. VK Singh, a retired army officer who did a stint in RAW, in his 2007 book, India's External Intelligence: Secrets of Research and Analysis Wing.

    As a result, India established a dedicated external intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing. Founded mainly to focus on China and Pakistan, over the last forty years the organization has expanded its mandate and is credited with greatly increasing India's influence abroad. Experts say RAW's powers and its role in India's foreign policy have varied under different prime ministers. RAW claims that it contributed to several foreign policy successes:

    • the creation of Bangladesh in 1971;
    • India's growing influence in Afghanistan;
    • the northeast state of Sikkim's accession to India in 1975;
    • the security of India's nuclear program;
    • the success of African liberation movements during the Cold War.
    Founded in 1968, primarily to counter China's influence, the agency has shifted its focus over time to India's other traditional rival, Pakistan.
    RAW's first leader, Rameshwar Nath Kao, led the agency until he retired in 1977. Many experts, including officers who worked with him, credit Kao with RAW's initial successes: India's triumph in the 1971 war with Pakistan, and India's covert assistance to the African National Congress's anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa. "To a large extent, it was Kao who raised RAW to the level of India's premier intelligence agency, with agents in virtually every major embassy and high commission," writes Singh. But the organization has been criticized for its lack of coordination with domestic intelligence and security agencies, weak analytical capabilities, and complete lack of transparency.

    The Structure and Function of RAW
    Not much is known regarding the structure of RAW, say experts. The organization started with 250 people and about $400,000. It has since expanded to several thousand personnel, but its staffing and budget remain secret. However, an estimate by the U.S.-based Federation of American Scientists suggests that in 2000, RAW had about eight to ten thousand agents and a budget that experts place at $145 million. Unlike the United States' Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) or Britain's MI6, RAW reports directly to the prime minister instead of the Ministry of Defense.

    [No wonder the Porki Pakis are Spooked!! They have a natural fear of Modi ]

    The chief of RAW is designated secretary (research) in the Cabinet Secretariat, which is part of the prime minister's office. Some officers of RAW are members of a specialized service, the Research and Analysis Service, but several officers also serve on deputation from other services such as the Indian Police Service.

    RAW had two priorities after its formation, writes B. Raman, a former RAW official, in the 2007 book, The Kaoboys of R&AW: Down Memory Lane. The organization worked to strengthen its capability for intelligence gathering on Pakistan and China and for covert action in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Some experts say that RAW's efforts in East Pakistan, which was created from the partition of the Indian state of Bengal and completely separated from the rest of Pakistan, wasaimed at fomenting independence sentiment. Over time, RAW's objectives have broadened to include:

    • Monitoring the political and military developments in adjoining countries, which have direct bearing on India's national security and in the formulation of its foreign policy.
    • Seeking the control and limitation of the supply of military hardware to Pakistan, mostly from European countries, the United States, and China.
    Experts disagree on the amount of influence RAW asserts on India's foreign policy. Sumit Ganguly, a professor of political science at Indiana University, says the agency has no influence on foreign policy. However, Dipankar Banerjee, a retired army official and founding director of the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, a New Delhi-based think tank, says the head of RAW has direct access to the head of state, to whom he provides input and analysis.

    From the early days, RAW had a secret liaison relationship with the Mossad, Israel's external intelligence agency. The main purpose was to benefit from Israel's knowledge of West Asia and North Africa, and to learn from its counterterrorism techniques, say experts.

    RAW's Role in Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka
    RAW played a significant role in the formation of Bangladesh along with the Indian army and other Indian security and intelligence agencies. Besides providing intelligence to policymakers and the army, RAW trained and armed Mukti Bahini, a group of East Pakistanis fighting for the separate state of Bangladesh. Analysts say that RAW also facilitated the northeastern state of Sikkim's accession to India in 1975, and provided military assistance to groups hostile to the pro-China regime in Myanmar, such as the Kachin Independence Army.

    But it was the support for the Tamil separatist group, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Sri Lanka, that brought RAW much criticism from human rights organizations. RAW helped train and arm the LTTE in the 1970s, but after the group's terrorist activities grew in the 1980s-including its alliances with separatist groups in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu-RAW withdrew this support. In 1987, New Delhimade a pact with the Sri Lankan government to send peacekeeping troops to the island, and Indian forces ended up fighting the group RAW had armed. In 1991, Rajiv Gandhi, prime minister of India at the time of the peacekeeping force deployment, was assassinatedby an LTTE suicide bomber.

    It was the support for the Tamil separatist group, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka, that brought RAW much criticism from human rights organizations.


    Covert Action in Afghanistan and Pakistan


    Since its inception in 1968, RAW has had a close liaison relationship with KHAD, the Afghan intelligence agency, due to the intelligence it has provided RAW on Pakistan. This relationship was further strengthened in the early 1980s when the foundation was laid for a trilateral cooperation involving RAW, KHAD, and the Soviet KGB. Raman says RAW valued KHAD's cooperation for monitoring the activities of Sikh militants in Pakistan's tribal areas. Sikhs in the Indian state of Punjab were demanding an independent state of Khalistan. According to Raman, Pakistan's ISI set up clandestine camps for training and arming Khalistani recruits in Pakistan's Punjab Province and North West Frontier Province. During this time, the ISI received large sums from Saudi Arabia and the CIA for arming the Afghan mujahadeen against Soviet troops in Afghanistan. "The ISI diverted part of these funds and arms and ammunition to the Khalistani terrorists," alleges Raman.

    In retaliation, in the mid-1980s, RAW set up two covert groups of its own, Counter Intelligence Team-X (CIT-X) and Counter Intelligence Team-J (CIT-J), the first targeting Pakistan in general and the second directed at Khalistani groups. The two groups were responsible for carrying out terrorist operations inside Pakistan, writes Pakistani military expert Ayesha Siddiqa. Indian journalist, Praveen Swami, writes that a "low-grade but steady campaign of bombings in major Pakistani cities, notably Karachi and Lahore" was carried out. This forced the head of ISI to meet his counterpart in RAW and agree on the rules of engagement as far as Punjab was concerned, writes Siddiqa. The negotiation was brokered by then-Jordanian Crown Prince Hassan bin-Talal, whose wife, Princess Sarvath, is of Pakistani origin. "It was agreed that Pakistan would not carry out activities in the Punjab as long as RAW refrained from creating mayhem and violence inside Pakistan," Siddiqa writes.
    :basanti:[Lawhore] :shoot::india:

    [Porkies lost the dance!!! Deal in Kind and Pakis will keep their tail between their legs and scooot!]

    In the past, Pakistan also accused RAW of supporting Sindhi nationalists demanding a separate state, as well as Seraikis calling for a partition of Pakistan's Punjab to create a separate Seraiki state. India denies these charges. However, experts point out that India has supported insurgents in Pakistan's Balochistan, as well as anti-Pakistan forces in Afghanistan. But some experts say India no longer does this. As this Backgrounder explains, Pakistan is suspicious of India's influence in Afghanistan, which it views as a threat to its own interests in the region. Experts say although it is very likely that India has active intelligence gathering in Afghanistan, it is difficult to say whether it is also involved in covert operations.

    Relations with the CIA
    The CIA assisted in the creation of RAW, says South Asia expert Stephen P. Cohen of the Brookings Institution. However, India's intelligence relations with the CIA started even before the existence of RAW, note experts. After India's war with China in 1962, CIA instructors trained Establishment 22, a "covert organisation raised from among Tibetan refugees in India, to execute deep-penetration terror operations in China," wrote Swami.

    But the CIA's operations with the ISI to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan in the 1980s made RAW very wary. However, it did not stop RAW from seeking the CIA's assistance in counterterrorism training. Raman writes: "One had one more bizarre example of how international intelligence cooperation works." The CIA trained the officers of the ISI in the use of terrorism against an adversary, and at the same time, he writes, it trained RAW and IB officers "in some of the techniques of countering that terrorism." India's intelligence agencies also feel the lack of an equal relationship with the CIA, say experts. Swami says RAW's grievance is that they get little information on Pakistan from the United States; however, Washington expects New Delhi to provide it with intelligence on Afghanistan.


    In 1997, Prime Minister I.K. Gujral shut down both the CITs aimed at Pakistan on moral grounds. Before Gujral, Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao had ended RAW's eastern operations in the early 1990s, as part of his efforts to build bridges with China and Myanmar, say analysts.


    [Peace pansies doing the damage to India]


    Successive RAW leaders attempted to gain fresh authorization for deterrent covert operations, but without success, says Swami. Siddiqa wrote: "The Indian government probably realized that encouraging covert warfare would not only destabilize bilateral relations but was also dangerous for the peace and stability of the entire region.":bs:

    Weaknesses in RAW
    The intrusion of Pakistan-backed armed forces into the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1999 prompted questions about RAW's efficacy. Some analysts saw the conflict as an intelligence failure. However, RAW officials argued they had provided the intelligence but political leadership had failed to act upon it. The Indian government formed a committee to look into the failure and recommend remedial measures. The report of the Kargil review committee was then examined by a group of ministers, established in 2000. The group recommended a formal written charter and pointed out lack of coordination and communication within various intelligence agencies.

    Following the review, a new organization was set up: the National Technical Research Organization (NTRO)—modeled on the U.S. National Security Agency—which would be the repository of the nation's technical intelligence-spy satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and spy planes. The government also decided to create a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), whose head would be the adviser to the Chief of Staffs Committee and the defense minister. The DIA was empowered to conduct transborder operations.

    However, the shakeup of the intelligence apparatus has not removed some problems, especially relating to the overlap of agency activities, say experts. Earlier, RAW was the only organization permitted to conduct espionage operations abroad. Now, both the IB and DIA have the authority to conduct such operations, writes Singh.

    There have also been occasional media reports of penetration inside RAW by other agencies, in particular the CIA. Swami writes that RAW is exceptional amongst major spy agencies in maintaining no permanent distinction between covert operatives who execute secret tasks, and personnel who must liaise with services such as the CIA or public bodies, such as analysts and area specialists. "As a result, personnel with sensitive operational information are exposed to potentially compromising contacts," he writes.
    http://www.cfr.org/india/raw-indias-external-intelligence-agency/p17707
     
  2.  
  3. aliyah

    aliyah Regular Member

    Joined:
    May 30, 2015
    Messages:
    418
    Likes Received:
    302
    RAW agents raced ahead of ISI to nab IM’s Pak operative Waqas in Dhaka .


    A small mistake on part of the ISI in preparing passport for Indian Mujahideen's (IM) Pakistani operative Zia-ur Rehman alias Waqas landed him in the net of Indian agencies. Waqas had been hiding in Bangladesh and was supposed to leave for Pakistan via Nepal when he was apprehended by India's external intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing (RAW).

    According to sources in the security establishment, though there had been some information about the possibility of Waqas being in Bangladesh, Indian agencies were clueless about his exact location. However, their sustained interest in the ISI agent who had been loaned to IM made Waqas's handlers in Pakistan's spy agency worried that their asset had been exposed and needed to be brought home.


    Accordingly, ISI got a passport made for Waqas. However, when he reached the airport, Bangladesh's immigration officials discovered that there was no entry stamp on his passport. Even as they set out to detain him, the commotion attracted the attention of a RAW staffer who swiftly used his smart phone to photograph one of India's biggest tormentors and relayed it to his superiors.


    RAW officers were thrilled when they saw that the six-feet man being held at Dhaka airport was their elusive quarry. What followed was an intense spy game in which Indian agents managed to spirit him away to India without leaving footprints.


    How they managed to get him out of the airport and then to India remains unclear. But Waqas proved his utility by furnishing details of IM cells with whom he had collaborated and who would host him. The success was kept a closely guarded secret and Waqas was "encouraged" to do web chats with IM operatives, particularly Tehseen Akhtar "Monu", without raising suspicion.


    Waqas's monitors made him seek a meeting with Tehseen. Although the IM commander was holed up in Rourkela at the time, intelligence agencies resisted the temptation to get Waqas to seek a rendezvous with him in Odisha's steel city. Instead, Waqas was made to insist that the meeting should happen, as usual, at their known hideout in Nepal.


    As an unsuspecting Tehseen set out for Nepal, Indian agencies alerted their counterparts in the neighbouring country. Nepal Police, in a remarkable example of cross-border counter-terror cooperation, had the meeting point sealed as soon as Tehseen arrived. He was detained and later "pushed" into West Bengal to be "arrested" by Delhi Police


    The operation and the blow it has dealt to IM has been a source of huge respite and pride for Indian agencies. However, the celebration of the success is marred by the regret over the mishandling of Yasin Bhatkal's arrest. Unlike Waqas, agencies never got to spend "free time" with Bhatkal because of what sources allege was the "political cowardice" of Bihar authorities. That a garrulous officer of an agency blurted out the breakthrough to his colleagues in Bangalore did not help


    With the word out about Bhatkal being in Indian custody, TV channels were soon swarming all over, forcing the agencies to comply with the procedures. Now, the top-ranking jihadi terrorist, assured of the safeguards enshrined in the Constitution, has been giving a hard time to interrogators. Sources said the shrewd terrorist would turn back the interrogators by saying he was feeling fatigued, or that he needed to focus on his spiritual obligations.


    That the lesson has been learnt was evident when RAW and IB did not involve others before the stage of arrest in Waqas's case.
     
  4. Hari Sud

    Hari Sud Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Mar 31, 2012
    Messages:
    1,050
    Likes Received:
    847
    Location:
    Ontario
    Please go on.......

    Also would like to know the source.....
     
  5. archie

    archie Regular Member

    Joined:
    Nov 20, 2013
    Messages:
    453
    Likes Received:
    229
    Location:
    India
    Why need a source of covert things by an intel agency
     
    Screambowl likes this.
  6. alphacentury

    alphacentury Regular Member

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2013
    Messages:
    878
    Likes Received:
    1,205
    raja696, Screambowl and sorcerer like this.
  7. Nuvneet Kundu

    Nuvneet Kundu Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jan 15, 2016
    Messages:
    1,462
    Likes Received:
    2,524
    Please also be inquisitive about the motive of people who write such things. Inter-service rivalry is high and sometimes need a outlet for their frustration. Although there are things which could have been done differently, the fact that our country has survived Balkanization attempts and even thrived is a signal that we are doing something right.

    Imagine running a small 10ft X 12ft cake shop in a town. Imagine the kind of threats and dirty tricks you would face from your competitors. Other shops might lower their price, they might try to hire your top chef, they might bad mouth your shop, that's economic warfare, espionage, and information warfare, respectively. At the end of a year, if you survived, you would realize the kind of things you needed to do just to keep a small, harmless cake shop afloat. Imagine the kind of threat a large nation faces and the kind of things we need to do to keep it safe. If the nation has not been disintegrated, it's to the credit of the intelligence agencies who are doing a fantastic job.

    Consider the fact that no one person in the agency has access to all the data on all the recruits, all the operations and all the techniques, to be qualified enough to arrive at an accurate analytical conclusion about a single branch of any agency, much less write an article about the whole agency. Don't let minor tactical issues color your perception of the agencies.
     
    alphacentury and abingdonboy like this.
  8. Bornubus

    Bornubus Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Oct 13, 2015
    Messages:
    4,155
    Likes Received:
    6,928
    RAW has been kept passive compared with 1971 by successive govt. While ISI spread its tentacles in our civilians and military.

    Only recently RAW has been given free hand especially after 26/11.Doval is a competent officer and Paki's piss blood by hearing RAW's name and blame it for APS Peshawar and civilian killings.

    RAW should fully support Baloch and Pashtun and leave the conscience aside this is what Geeta preaches.
     
  9. Screambowl

    Screambowl Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2015
    Messages:
    4,618
    Likes Received:
    3,226
    Location:
    N/A

    and the reaction is seen in all these narebazi in India. Pakis have activated their cells looks like to counter Indian agencies.
     
  10. Bornubus

    Bornubus Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Oct 13, 2015
    Messages:
    4,155
    Likes Received:
    6,928
    This is nothing compared to RAW success in Pak even in the heartland of Karanchi.MQM shooters claimed to be trained in India who carried out target killings.

    Who do you think providing accurate information even the personal phone number of Dawood and his activities in Karachi although he run away from there to FATA.

    Right now we have better advantage to exploit paki fault lines be it Baluchistan or Pashtun resistance.

    As for Condomrade and his red gang,dude they are now fully expose with a life threat for Kanha himself charges on others are of sedition if proven they would be in jail for a long time.
     
  11. VaghaDeva

    VaghaDeva The Wise Wolf

    Joined:
    Feb 27, 2016
    Messages:
    381
    Likes Received:
    143
    Location:
    Mangaluru
    Last edited: Mar 16, 2016
  12. Screambowl

    Screambowl Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2015
    Messages:
    4,618
    Likes Received:
    3,226
    Location:
    N/A
  13. abingdonboy

    abingdonboy Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Sep 13, 2010
    Messages:
    1,759
    Likes Received:
    2,391
    I think there is some truth to this but much of the criticsm of intel agencies should be directed to IB, especially prior to 26/11. RAW has always had a heavy degree of autonomy and from what one can peice together do a good job of serving India's interests abroad. Unlike their Paki counterparts, RAW likes to keep its hand unseen but the fact that the Pakis are absolutely TERRIFIED of them speaks volumes. A lot of RAW's activties are kept out of the limelight which is a double edged sword, on one hand it is for the best for Op Sec, but on the other given the way indians tend to think they fill this lack of information with "they are not doing anything".

    I think it is interesting to see all of these recent "returns" of Jihadis to Indian soil (from KSA, far east, Nepal etc) to be interrorgated, this doesn't happen by accident and when a Jihadi is presented at the border who do we think is bringing them to the border to be transfered to the IB?

    The IB deserves some credit post-26/11 also, they have expanded their reach and one can feel fairly confident in their abilities. A special note should be given to NRTO also- from all accounts these guys are truly unsung hereos and doing a great job. India's technical intel gathering is world class thanks to RAW and NRTO.
     
    kaboom!, topgear and Bornubus like this.
  14. abingdonboy

    abingdonboy Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Sep 13, 2010
    Messages:
    1,759
    Likes Received:
    2,391
    There are parts of this that ring true but most of it contradicts known reforms to the recruiting process made in the past few years (actively targeting young recruits).
     
    alphacentury likes this.
  15. k murali

    k murali Regular Member

    Joined:
    Jan 10, 2016
    Messages:
    245
    Likes Received:
    22
    Indian intelligence agencies are among the worst in the world.

    when Indian army was occupying north-east Si Lankan Island, they intercepted message "anna sethtgu ponar". They interpreted as the death of Tamil commander and distributed the news happily. Actually ithe intercept was about the death of a senior Tamil politician.
     
  16. Screambowl

    Screambowl Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2015
    Messages:
    4,618
    Likes Received:
    3,226
    Location:
    N/A
    Well, it is possible that they fool the ltte that they got it interpreted wrong. so that raw can lure ltte for carrying operation as it is.
     
  17. Nuvneet Kundu

    Nuvneet Kundu Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jan 15, 2016
    Messages:
    1,462
    Likes Received:
    2,524
    It was not wrong to get involved. Indira had written her own script as to the nature of our involvement and it was all going fine as long as she was following it. When Rajiv came, he abruptly reversed the policy and that's what caused the trouble.

    The conditions were such that not getting involved was not an option, that's for sure. Put yourself in the shoes of the leader of India and consider what you would do if hostile western governments are training and arming a guerrilla force in adjacent lands. It so happens that these people share an ethnic link with a large population in your own country so any radicalization of minds across the border will have reverberations on your soil as well. Your state could descend into chaos if you don't get involved in the neighboring land to keep the insurgency contained there. The involvement was in our interest, it's the flip-flop that cost us dearly.
     
    Last edited: Mar 16, 2016
    Bornubus likes this.
  18. Bornubus

    Bornubus Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Oct 13, 2015
    Messages:
    4,155
    Likes Received:
    6,928
    Thousands of Lankan Tamils lives today due to Indian efforts otherwise an easy hunt for both LTTE and Lankan Bigot Army.

    Ever heard of Operation Poolmalai in which India provided food to the besieged Tamils and Lankan Air force was warned to stay away from IAF aircrafts ?

    Add thousands of Indians who spilled their blood for the unity of Lanka.
     
    Nuvneet Kundu and abingdonboy like this.
  19. aliyah

    aliyah Regular Member

    Joined:
    May 30, 2015
    Messages:
    418
    Likes Received:
    302
    R&AW created LTTE . coz in 1971 war srilanka helped Pakistan against india . we managed at that time but we didnt wanted these kind of situation ever develop again in Indian ocean. so a go ahead was given to R&AW . we provided funds,logistics, arms n ammunition , specialized training , and even food too . and thats how TNT>TELO>LTTE was born.
    after indira Gandhi's sudden death rajiv Gandhi (the most dumbest n useless prime minister of india) took charge and without even talking or taking in confidence to R&AW took a decision of sending indian army in srilanka. thousands of indian army soldiers got killed due to operations without intelligence . and whole game changed from thereafter.
    Army lost there soldiers , R&AW lost there assets , india lost its edge.
    so in future if china attacks india, srilanka will again help anti India forces and we will be in same situation again dont think we will be lucky again like 1971.
     
    Nuvneet Kundu and raja696 like this.
  20. k murali

    k murali Regular Member

    Joined:
    Jan 10, 2016
    Messages:
    245
    Likes Received:
    22

    Throwing 24 packets of food from a high flying aircraft is not feeding the starving. It did not.

    The purpose of poomalai was not to feed starving Tamils, but to tell Lankan government that India could do whatever it wants and Lanka cannot do anything about it. Them Rajiv sent a message that Lanka should stop the construction of Voice of America station in Lanka and agree not to allow western naval vessels in trincomalee. Lanka had to agree. It did. In return India sent its Innocent People Killing Force (IPKF) to destroy the defenders of Tamil people in 1987. India failed in its mission and the defeated Indian army left Tamil soil in 1990,

    India never helped Tamil people. It used them to get America out of Lanka. It was cold war time and india was always pro USSR
     
  21. Screambowl

    Screambowl Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2015
    Messages:
    4,618
    Likes Received:
    3,226
    Location:
    N/A

    I don't think apart from Tamilians, any one else might have operated in large numbers in Jaffna as under cover RAW operatives . So this statement is wrong.
     

Share This Page