PC Alexander on the events of early 60s in TN

Discussion in 'Politics & Society' started by KS, Sep 11, 2012.

  1. KS

    KS Bye bye DFI Veteran Member

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    Actually going through the opinions of some members here, including the powers at the top, there seems to be a very wrong notion about the things that transpired in the late 50s and early 60s - specifically the anti-imposition of Hindi movement, the demand for a separate dravida nadu etc and DMK's idealogy then and now.

    In this context I give full marks to Raj T when he said the Hindi media twists things out of context to make it provocative for it's home audience.

    This is an old interview with PC Alexander, a distinguished bureaucrat, two time Governor and 3 times represented India in UN. This is his take on the "Dravidistan" sentiment and the separatist idealogies of DMK and why the language issue cropped up.

    Rediff On The NeT, Freedom: An interview with Maharashtra Governor P C Alexander

    I will try to find Annadurai's speech in the parliament also, but as of now it remains un-googlable.
     
    Last edited: Sep 11, 2012
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  3. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Why DK and DMK initially asked for Independent Dravida Nadu and later moved towards Independent Tamil Nadu

    Thanjai Nalankilli

    TAMIL TRIBUNE, May 2005 (ID. 2005-05-02)


    ABBREVIATIONS

    DK - Dravidar Kazhagam

    DMK - Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

    "Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra should each SEPARATELY become independent countries and THEN the four should join to form a 'Dravidian Federation'." - Official history of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) by a founding member of DK and DMK, Mr. T. M. Parthasarathy

    A question often asked of me when I speak about the current Tamilnadu Independence Movement is, "why did Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) demand independent Dravida Nadu in its early years and not independent Tamil Nadu?" (Dravida Nadu, as it was contemplated, consisted of the region where Kannadigas, Malayalis, Tamils and Telugus live. These people are of Dravidian origin and spoke the Dravidian languages of Karnataka, Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu. In today's (2005) geographical terms the contemplated Dravida Nadu would encompass the entire Southern India, consisting of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu states.)

    To understand the reason why DK and DMK demanded independent Dravidanadu and not independent Tamilnadu, one has to look into the history of Tamil Nationalist Movement or Tamil National Movement. The earliest call for independence was in fact for Tamil Nadu (and not Dravida Nadu) [Reference 1].

    T. P. Vedachalam of the Justice Party founded Tamil Nation Liberation Association (Tamil Desa Viduthalai Sangam) in Tiruchi in August 1938. The Association held a few meetings around Tamil Nadu and then ceased its operations because the cause was adopted by a larger organization, the Justice Party itself.

    Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy (EVR) of DK and C. N Annadurai (Arinjar Anna or CNA) of DMK also initially called for Tamil Nadu independence. Periyar EVR, who at that time headed the Self-Respect Movement, addressing a meeting in Salem on October 1938, said that, "the best way to preserve the liberty of Tamils is to agitate for separation from the rest of India and the proposed All-India Federation, just as Ceylon and Burma had chosen to stand aloof from India". He was elected President of the Justice Party in December 1938. He said that the separation of Tamil Nadu from the rest of the Indian Subcontinent would be the principal demand of the Party. Justice Party was reformed and renamed Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) in 1944.

    In December 1939, speaking at the "Tamil Nadu for Tamils" Meeting, C. N. Annadurai enunciated the need for independent Tamil Nadu. He would found the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) in 1949.

    In a speech on December 17, 1939, Periyar EVR raised the slogan "Dravida Nadu for Dravidians", changing the earlier slogan "Tamil Nadu for Tamils". It is at the Justice Party State Conference in Thiruvarur on August 24, 1940 that Tamil Nadu Independence Movement morphed into Dravida Nadu Independence Movement. It passed a resolution that, in order to protect Dravidian culture, arts and economy, the Dravidian homeland of Madras Province should be separated from the rest of the Indian Subcontinent and ruled as a separate unit (until the British leave the subcontinent, at which time the Madras Province would become an independent country). Thus what started as Tamil Nadu Independence Movement morphed into Dravida Nadu Independence Movement. At that time both Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy and C. N Annadurai were Justice Party members.

    One reason for Justice Party's call for independent Dravida Nadu (instead of independent Tamil Nadu) could be the influence of Telugu leaders in the Justice Party at that time (Telugus are not Tamils but Dravidians). The top rung Telugu leaders in the Justice Party included A. C. Parthasarathy Naidu, Ragavaiah Naidu, K. V. Reddy Naidu and A. Subbarayalu Reddy. Another non-Tamil leader of the Justice Party was T. M. Nair (a Malayali); he strived very hard for Dravida Nadu independence. These leaders worked well with Tamil leaders of the party like Periyar EVR and Annadurai, and developed a strong bond. Thus what started as Tamilnadu independence movement changed to Dravidanadu independence movement. While the Telugu leaders in the Justice Party aspired for independent Dravida Nadu, there was very little support among the Telugu population. Neither was much support, if any, among the Malayali and Kannadiga population. In contrast, there was substantial active support for a separate country from India among the Tamil population (by no means it was a majority but the support was vocal, active and in substantial numbers).

    After the renaming of Justice Party to Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) in 1944, almost all speeches and writings about Dravida Nadu independence were in Tamil with a sprinkling of English articles. Almost all public meetings and conferences about independent Dravida Nadu were held in Tamil areas. By now it was clear that the push would be for independent Tami Nadu with the concept of a federal Dravida Nadu, consisting of autonomous Andhra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, put in the backburner. This is very clearly stated in the official history of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) by a founding member of DK and DMK, Mr. T. M. Parthasarathy, with an introduction by C. N. Annadurai. Parthasarathy writes in this Tamil book "Thi.Mu.Ka. Varalaaru" (DMK History),

    "Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra should each SEPARATELY become independent countries and THEN the four should join to form a 'Dravidian Federation'."

    Thus DMK's position was to strive for an independent Tamil Nadu (Tamil Country) with the eventual creation of a Dravidian Federation called "Dravida Nau" (Dravidian Country) if and when people of Andhra, Karnataka and Kerala fight for and get independence. DMK abandoned its "independence for Dravida Nadu (or independent Tamil Nadu)" demand in 1963 immediately after the Indian Parliament passed the Sixteenth Amendment to the Indian Constitution that prohibited those who advocate separatism from running for public offices (such as Indian parliament and state legislative assembly) [Reference 2].

    Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) changed its demand for independent Dravida Nadu to independent Tamil Nadu in the 1960s. Party President Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy changed the banner in his Tamil magazine Viduthalai from "Dravida Nadu for Dravidians" to "Tamil Nadu for Tamils". Periyar never gave up his demand for independence although he did not enter into any type of agitation for it after the 1950s; he was concentrating on social reforms in Tamil Nadu. According to Tamil Nationalist Poet Pavalareru Perunjchththiranar, Periyar told him just a few months before his death that he would start an agitation for Tamilnadu independence soon. Periyar passed away in 1973 before starting such an agitation.

    Thus what started initially as Tamil Nadu independence took a turn to Dravida Nadu independence and then took a turn back to Tamil Nadu independence because there was very little, if any, support in Andhra Pradesh (Telugu), Karnataka (Kannada) and Kerala (Malayalam).

    EDITORIAL NOTE: Some Tamil names are spelled differently by different people. Here are some variations of names used in this article:

    Dravida Nadu - Dravidanadu

    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam - Dravida Munnetta Kazagam

    Pavalareru - Pavalareru

    Perunjchththiranar - Perunchththiranar

    Tiruchi - Trichi, Thiruchi, Thiruchirapalli

    Tamil Nadu - Tamilnadu

    T. P. Vedachalam - T. P. Vethachalm

    REFERENCES

    1. DMK and Tamil Nadu Independence: A Recent Political History of TamilNadu (by Thanjai Nalankilli), TAMIL TRIBUNE, November 2003 (28 KB)

    2. DMK, Dravida Nadu and D.B.S. Jeyaraj (by .J. Trivedi and Thanjai Nalankilli), TAMIL TRIBUNE, July 2003 (10 KB)

    RELATED ARTICLES

    1. More Articles on Tamilnadu Independence Movements

    http://www.tamiltribune.com/05/0502.html
     
  4. KS

    KS Bye bye DFI Veteran Member

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    DK's separatist tendencies had/has very little influence on TN politics and that was obvious from the fact we did not go independent when freedom was obtained in '47.
     
  5. devgupt

    devgupt Regular Member

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    1962 war and the Shastri's understanding the gravity of anti-hindi agitation helped solved a potential crisis.
     
  6. ashdoc

    ashdoc Senior Member Senior Member

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    to ask you straight---how much percentage of tamils are seperatist ?

    tell your honest opinion .
     
  7. devgupt

    devgupt Regular Member

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    err - we do not see any separatist movement in Tamil Nadu- isn't that a good enough answer?\
    Why go seraching for a problem which doesn't exist ?
     
  8. kayal

    kayal Tihar Jail Banned

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    I do not know. There is a sure fire way to lnow/ Will India do it? Canada did it in Quebec? Czekoslovakia did it in Slovakia? Indonesia did itin Timor? Will India? I solemnly swear on Tamil that I will abide by the results. I serve the peoplde of Tamil Nadu, nothing more.
     
  9. Tolaha

    Tolaha Senior Member Senior Member

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    As there is no way that one can "conclusively" prove to 'your' satisfaction, you will obviously assume what you think to be the ultimate truth and so go around propagating hatred against 'non-Tamilians'. Isn't this your ultimate agenda?
     
  10. KS

    KS Bye bye DFI Veteran Member

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    If you are not a Hindian, she does not hate you...:pft:
     
  11. kayal

    kayal Tihar Jail Banned

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    >>> I will try to find Annadurai's speech in the parliament also, but as of now it remains un-googlable.

    Pages 362 to 364 of DMK Varalaaru (DMK History) by TM Parthasarathi with a forward by Annadurai himself contains Tamil translatyion of Annadurai's English sppech in parliament. In the speech he says, " I am asking Nehru to consider our Dravida Nadu demand with a open mind", _ We of the Dravidian origin have the right to self determination" Several days later explaing his parliament speech in a public meeting he said, "I am firm on the separate Dravida Nadu demand that I insisted on at the upper house of parliament" (page 365)

    What further proof you want?
     
  12. Tolaha

    Tolaha Senior Member Senior Member

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    I am not sure on 2 aspects with your above statement:

    1. "We" are obviously against anything to do with "Dravidisthan". Would it be taken kindly by the so-called Tamil nationalists?

    2. Are you really, really sure... without any hint of doubt.... that it is a "she"?
     
  13. kayal

    kayal Tihar Jail Banned

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    There is a conclusive way. Canada did it in Quebec. Czekoslovakia did it in Slovakia. Indonesia did itin Timor. Will India do it in TN? THat will once and for all settle the matter. India will not do it because it knows the answer.
     
  14. Tolaha

    Tolaha Senior Member Senior Member

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    Or, maybe, because India wont care. And that is because not more than a handful in TN seem to give a damn to folks like you?
     
  15. Iamanidiot

    Iamanidiot Elite Member Elite Member

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    The day LTTE died so did militant Tamil Sub-nationalists.This church sponsored militant Tamil sub-nationalism will simply not fly thank you
     
  16. KS

    KS Bye bye DFI Veteran Member

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    Lol who gives a fig about Dravida Nadu or Dravidastan (such a fugly name, actually going against our culture)..? Tamil Nationalists care only about Tamil Nadu. Not the four states as it was originally envisioned by Periyar...but hey if you compel us, we might just let you in...:pft:


    The name suggests so...but then this is internet.
     

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