Nuclear Fusion Power: India & the ITER project

Discussion in 'Strategic Forces' started by Gladiator, Jul 23, 2009.

  1. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    What is ITER?​


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    International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor, in short ITER is a large-scale scientific experiment that aims to demonstrate that it is possible to produce commercial energy from fusion.

    The Q in the above formula symbolizes the ratio of fusion power to input power. Q ≥ 10 represents the scientific goal of the ITER project: to deliver ten times the power it consumes. From 50 MW of input power, the ITER machine is designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power - the first of all fusion experiments to produce net energy.
    During its operational lifetime, ITER will test key technologies necessary for the next step: the demonstration fusion power plant that will capture fusion energy for commercial use.

    The science going on at ITER - and all around the world in support of ITER - will benefit all of mankind.
     
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  3. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    ITER Background & Indian participation​


    Fossil fuels were the energy source that shaped 19th and 20th century civilization. But burning coal, oil and gas has proved highly damaging to our environment. Carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse effect gases, and fumes all contribute to the disruption in the balance of our planet's climate.

    Global energy consumption is set to triple by the end of the century. And yet supplies of fossil fuels are depleting and the environmental consequences of their exploitation are serious. Two questions loom over humanity today: how will we supply all this new energy, and how can we do so without adding dangerously to atmospheric greenhouse gases?

    No single nation can face these challenges alone.

    International Collaboration for a New Source of Energy

    Twenty-three years ago, a group of industrial nations agreed on a project to develop a new, cleaner, sustainable source of energy.

    At the Geneva Superpower Summit in November 1985, following discussions with President Mitterand of France and Prime Minister Thatcher of the United Kingdom, General Secretary Gorbachev of the former Soviet Union proposed to President Reagan of the United States an international project aimed at developing fusion energy for peaceful purposes.

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    US President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev of the Soviet Union agreeing to pursue an international effort to develop fusion energy for the benefit of all mankind. Geneva, 1985.​

    The ITER project was born. The initial signatories: the former Soviet Union, the USA, the European Union (via EURATOM) and Japan, were joined by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea in 2003, and by India in 2005. Together, these seven nations represent over half of the world's population.

    In ITER, the world has now joined forces to establish one of the largest and most ambitious international science projects ever conducted. ITER, which means "the way" in Latin, will require unparalleled levels of international scientific collaboration. Key plant components, for example, will be provided to the ITER Organization through in-kind contributions from the seven Members. Each Member has set up a domestic agency, employing staff to manage procurements for its in-kind contributions. The ITER Members have agreed to share every aspect of the project: science, procurements, finance, staffing ... with the aim that in the long run each Member will have the know-how to produce its own fusion energy plant.

    Selecting a location for ITER was a long process that was finally concluded in 2005. In Moscow, on June 28, high representatives of the ITER Members unanimously agreed on the site proposed by the European Union - the ITER installation would be built at Cadarache, near Aix-en-Provence in Southern France.

    ITER Agreement is signed

    The ITER Agreement was officially signed at the Elysée Palace in Paris on 21 November 2006 by Ministers from the seven ITER Members. In a ceremony hosted by French President Jacques Chirac and the President of the European Commission M. José Manuel Durao Barroso, this Agreement established a legal international entity to be responsible for construction, operation, and decommissioning of ITER.

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    Elysée Palace, Paris, France on November 21, 2006. (Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India and the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Atomic Energy, Dr. Anil Kakodkar can be seen 3rd from right)​

    A "Broader Approach" agreement for complementary research and development was signed in February 2007 between the European Atomic Energy Community (known by its initials EURATOM) and the Japanese government. It established a framework for Japan to conduct research and development in support of ITER over a period of ten years. Within the Broader Approach three projects were set into motion that focus on the following areas: materials testing, advanced plasma experimentation and simulation, and the establishment of a design team to prepare for DEMO, the demonstration power plant which will be the next step after ITER. The Broader Approach projects carry great importance for the advancement of fusion energy and will complement the global efforts on realizing ITER.

    On 24 October 2007, following ratification by all Members, the ITER Agreement entered into force and officially established the ITER Organization.
     
  4. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    July 2007: Union Cabinet approves Indian participation in ITER project


    The Union Cabinet gave its approval for the following:

    i) To the project titled Indian Participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, at a base cost of Rs.2500 crore. The FE component calculated at base cost will be Rs.1129 crore.

    ii) To constitute an Empowered Board by the Governing Council of Institute for Plasma Research with sufficient powers required for effective implementation of the project within the framework of the agreement signed among the parties to the ITER and ITER International Organisation and also within the sanctioned amount for the project of Rs.2500 crore. This shall, inter alia, include:

    a) Full financial powers, particularly powers in respect of single limited and restricted tendering process and administrative powers to the total extent of the budgetary sanction and resource allocation for the project.

    b) Full autonomy in laying down the rules, procedures and guidelines for financial, administrative and any other matters related to the execution of the project.

    c) Full autonomy in deciding the delegation of powers in financial and administrative matters in conformity with the various stipulations and guidelines of the Government and Central Vigilance Commission.

    d) Power to create posts and lay down suitable recruitment norms depending upon size and nature of activities subject to over all sanctioned manpower requirement.

    To ensure this the Empowered Board, in turn, shall frame administratively and financially sound policies and put into place procedurally transparent rules, regulations and practices.

    India’s joining ITER is recognition of India’s scientific and technical capability in fusion energy.

    Considering India’s large energy needs in future, our gaining technological capability in fusion energy will be of considerable long term benefit.

    India’s participation in ITER will allow India to leapfrog in terms of our national technological capability in fusion energy.
     
  5. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    Euphoric Indian media reacts​


    Aiming for the sun: India joins the world​


    India will join the United States, Russia, China, Japan, the European Union and Korea in a 4.6 billion euro ($5.4 billion or Rs 25,000 crore) experimental fusion reactor project, it was revealed on Wednesday.
    If you are wondering just what that means, read on:

    What is ITER?

    It stands for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which is supposed to harness fusion energy to produce energy for civilian purposes. Fusion is the process of fusing two small nuclei to form a bigger nucleus. It is the process by which the sun radiates energy and by which hydrogen bombs work. In the sun, hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium, emitting vast amounts of nuclear energy.
    Fusion is the opposite of fission, which is the principle by which atom bombs work – by splitting a heavy nucleus into two smaller nuclei.
    But ITER -- pronounced like 'fitter' without the 'f' -- is all about making the energy released in the fusion process work for mankind, not against it.
    Incidentally, ITER means 'the way' in Latin. Experts believe with fossil fuel reserves fast depleting, nuclear energy is the way to meet mankind's ever-increasing energy needs.

    Why nuclear fusion?

    Because fuel required for fusion is abundant and inexhaustible, the fusion process is considered safe, and fusion plants do not damage the environment.

    So why haven't countries taken to fusion energy in a big way?

    Since the 1950s, scientists all over the world have been trying to harness fusion energy for peaceful uses. But, so far, the fusion machines have been able to produce only small amounts of energy. ITER plans to change that.

    Where and when will ITER be built?

    ITER is being constructed in southern France at Cadarache, near the Aix-en-Provence. It should be operational by 2016.

    How much energy are we talking about here?

    As mentioned before, fusion powers the sun and the stars. So, theoretically, fusion can yield huge amounts of energy. But ITER is aiming at producing 500 MW of energy.

    When was ITER planned?

    Plans for ITER began in 1985. After many rounds of negotiations and planning -- which are unavoidable for a project that involves so many countries -- the work on the design of the reactor started on in 2001. Even as you read this, ITER's design is being finetuned in Naka, near Tokyo, Japan, and in Garching, near Munich, Germany. Teams of scientists from the participating countries are also working on it.

    Why was India included?

    As Dr V P Raja, head of the Indian delegation in Jeju, Republic of Korea, said: "Our scientists have already designed and fabricated two tokamak devices [a kind of nuclear reactor, the ITER will also be a tokamak device] Aditya and the steady state superconducting tokamak SST 1. Many technologies of relevance to the forefront of fusion research have been developed by our scientists and engineers in collaboration with our industries. We thus bring to the table a combination of strong commitment from the government and special scientific and technological skills, which are of relevance to ITER and to fusion research."
    The whisper in official circles is also that India's inclusion into the ITER project is a result of the India-US nuclear agreement of July 18.
    Aiming for the sun: India joins the world
     
  6. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    India’s contributions to the ITER project


    ITER will be built mostly through in-kind contributions by the seven partners, meaning they will build their share of ITER components through an appropriately formed Domestic Agency (DA) and industries and deliver them to ITER for final assembly of the device.

    India will be contributing, like other partners except the host EU, about 10% of the ITER construction cost (EU pays about 40% coz the ITER is being built in France and rest of the six members including India contribute 10% each).

    Most of this will be in the form of components made by the Indian industry and delivered to ITER.Only a small part (~1%) will be paid in cash to a common fund for in-cash procurements by the ITER International Team.

    Following are the ITER components to be delivered by India:

    • Cryostat and Vacuum vessel pressure suppression system

    • Vessel ferromagnetic inserts

    • Cryolines and cryo-distribution system

    • Heat rejection and water cooling system components

    • Ion Cyclotron heating and current drive sources, power supplies and control systems

    • Startup Electron Cyclotron heating source, power supply and control system

    • Diagnostic Neutral Beam

    • Some diagnostic systems
     
  7. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    Nuclear Fusion Research in India​


    Nuclear Fusion research in India is primarily carried out in the Institute for Plasma Research (though other institutions like BARC are involved too). IPR is an autonomous Physics research institute, involved in research in various aspects of plasma science including basic plasma physics, research on magnetically confined hot plasmas and plasma technologies for industrial applications. Apart from basic research, the institute is currently in the process of building a Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). A Tokamak is a kind of nuclear reactor (the ITER will also be a tokamak device). IPR has previously built a Tokamak called ADITYA.
     
  8. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    ADITYA Tokamak​


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  9. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    SST 1 Tokamak​


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  10. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    SST 1 Tokamak​


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  11. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    Toroidal and Poloidal field coils​


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  12. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    Cryogenics​


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  13. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    Vaccum vessel and Cryostat​


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  14. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    To be continued......
     
  15. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Nice thread gladiator
     
  16. Gladiator

    Gladiator Regular Member

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    Thanks buddy! Still incomplete though. I l keep updating periodically.
     
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  17. xebex

    xebex Regular Member

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    Exterminating an Emo means one low-life less!
    ^^Pics arent working Gladiator.
     
  18. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Boon to fusion: Scientist finds new way to predict heat layer troublemaker

    Boon to fusion: Scientist finds new way to predict heat layer troublemaker

    Researchers at a recent worldwide conference on fusion power have confirmed the surprising accuracy of a new model for predicting the size of a key barrier to fusion that a top scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has developed. The model could serve as a starting point for overcoming the barrier.

    "This allows you to depict the size of the challenge so you can think through what needs to be done to overcome it," said physicist Robert Goldston, the Princeton University professor of astrophysical sciences and former PPPL director who developed the model.

    Goldston was among physicists who presented aspects of the model in late May to the 20th Annual International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Aachen, Germany. Some 400 researchers from around the world attended the conference. Results of the model have been "eerily close" to the data, said Thomas Eich, a senior scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching, Germany, who gave an invited talk on his measurements. The agreement appears too close to have happened by chance, Eich added.

    Goldston's model predicts the width of what physicists call the "scrape-off layer" in tokamaks, the most widely used fusion facilities. Such devices confine hot, electrically charged gas, or plasma, in powerful magnetic fields. But heat inevitably flows through the system and becomes separated, or scraped off, from the edge of the plasma and flows into an area called the divertor chamber.

    The challenge is to prevent a thin and highly concentrated layer of heat from reaching and damaging the plate that sits at the bottom of the divertor chamber and absorbs the scrape-off flow. Such damage would halt fusion reactions, which take place when the atomic nuclei, or ions, inside the plasma merge and release energy. "If nothing was done and you took this right on the chin, it could be a knockout blow," said Goldston, who published his model in January in the journal Nuclear Fusion.

    Solving this problem will be vital for future machines like ITER, the world's most powerful tokamak, which the European Union, the United States and five other countries are building in France to demonstrate fusion as a source of clean and abundant energy. The project is designed to produce 500 megawatts of fusion power in 400 second-long pulses, which will require researchers to spread the scrape-off heat as much as possible to protect the divertor plate.

    Goldston's model could help guide such efforts. He began pondering the width of the heat flux during an international physics conference in South Korea in 2010. Looking at the latest scrape-off layer data based on improved measurements, he estimated-literally on an envelope-that the new widths could be produced without plasma turbulence, a factor that is typically considered but is notoriously difficult to calculate.

    This led him to search for a way to estimate the width of the surprisingly thin layer, and to gauge how the width would vary as conditions such as the amount of electrical current in the plasma varied.

    The way plasma flows inside tokamaks provided the major clue. The ions within the charged gas gyrate swiftly along the magnetic field lines while drifting slowly across the lines.

    At the same time, the electrons also in the plasma travel very rapidly along the lines and carry away most of the heat. Goldston arrived at his prediction by determining how fast these subatomic particles flow into the divertor region, and how long it therefore takes them to reach it. The result "is what we call a 'heuristic' estimate, based on the key aspects of the physics, but not a detailed calculation," said Goldston.

    His estimate confirmed what Goldston had suspected: the width of the scrape-off layer nearly matched the results of a calculation, made without considering turbulence, for determining how far the ions drift away from their field lines. "What's stunning is how closely the values correspond to the data, both in absolute value and in variation with the plasma current, magnetic field, machine size and input power," Goldston said.

    "This does not mean that turbulence plays no role, but it suggests that for the highest performance conditions, where turbulence is weakest, the motion of the ions is dominated by non-turbulent drift effects." This will be true in the case of ITER, he added, since it is designed to operate in high-performance conditions.

    Researchers are developing techniques for widening the scrape-off layer. Such methods include pumping gas into the divertor region to keep some heat from reaching the plate. Physicists use deuterium, a form of hydrogen, to block the heat, and are injecting nitrogen to turn other parts of the heat into ultraviolet light. (While charged deuterium ions are already in the plasma, the deuterium gas that is injected into the divertor region to block the heat is not electrically charged.)

    These strategies look promising. "We know that they will work," said Goldston. "The outstanding question is whether they will work completely enough" to mitigate the heat flux at ITER's highest power levels, without introducing so much gas that it cools the fuel. Physicists around the world are conducting experiments to understand the process better.

    For Goldston, calculating the width of the scrape-off layer marks the latest research effort in a 40-year career at PPPL, which began when he was a graduate student. Along the way he helped to pioneer techniques for heating the plasma, and developed a widely used method called "Goldston scaling" for predicting how long heat is retained in a tokamak plasma.

    "First, heat is injected into the plasma," Goldston said of how tokamaks operate. "Second, that heat is retained while much more heat is generated by fusion reactions. Finally, the resulting heat has to come out of the plasma. Without thinking about it, I have been following heat along this trajectory throughout my whole research career," he added.

    "We have made great progress on the first two steps, and now the most exciting challenge, to me, is the one that comes because of our success so far. Now we need to learn to handle the the outflow of heat from a high-power fusion energy source."
     
  19. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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  20. W.G.Ewald

    W.G.Ewald Defence Professionals/ DFI member of 2 Defence Professionals

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  21. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    This is all speculation. One breakthrough and everyone will be running to the moon for Helium-3.
     

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