North Cachar Hills (N.C.Hills)

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    North Cachar Hills -A bird's eye view


    Name of the District :- North Cachar Hills
    District created :- 02-02-1970
    Head Quarters :- Haflong
    Sub-Divisions :- i) Haflong
    ii) Maibang
    No. of Villages :- 552
    Distance from State :- 368 k.m.


    Mode of Communication:
    Air Service :- Though there is no direct Air connection to N.C.Hills District, one can fly up to Silchar or Guwahati, from where easy road & railway services to the district are available.

    Available Bus services :-
    From Guwahati To Haflong (Network(Pvt.) Time - 8.30 p.m.)

    From Nagaon to Haflong
    Nagaon A.S.T.C. 10.00 a.m.
    Nagaon Pvt. 06.00 a.m. & 11.15 a.m.

    Railway service :-
    B.G.Express Guwahati 3.15 p.m. Lumding 7.30 p.m.
    Inter City Express Guwahati 7.00 p.m. Lumding 10.45 p.m.
    Barak Valley Express Lumding 7.15 a.m. Haflong 11.30 a.m.
    Tripura Passenger Lumding 9.15 a.m. Haflong 1.45 p.m.
    Cachar Express Lumding 9.15 p.m. Haflong 2.00 a.m.
    Barak Valley Express Silchar 7.00 a.m. Haflong 1.00 p.m.
    Cachar Express Silchar 5.00 p.m. Haflong 11.45 p.m.


    District Boundary :-
    East : Manipur & Part of Nagaland
    West : Meghalaya & Part of Karbi-Anglong
    North : Karbi-Anglong & Part of Nagaon
    South : Cachar

    Area of District :- 4890 Sq. k.m.
    Total Population :- 1,86,189 (as per 2001 Census)
    Total Voter :- 1,26,705(Male: 49677; Female: 44646)
    Literacy :- 68.59%
    Total Polling Stations:- 139
    Total Nos. & Names of:- 5 (five nos.) viz.
    Dev. Blocks i)Haranagajao ITDP Block,
    ii) Jatinga Valley Dev. Block
    iii) Diyung Valley Dev. Block
    iv) Diyungbra ITDP Block,
    v) New-Sangbar Dev. Block
    Various ethnic Tribal inhabitants :
    1) Dimasa, 2) Jeme-Naga,
    3) Hmar, 4) Kuki,
    5) Biate, 6) Hrangkhol,
    7) Khelma, 8 Jaintia,
    9) Karbi, 10) Vaiphei

    Traditional way of cultivation:- Jhum or shifting
    cultivation

    No. & Names of Town :- 4 (four) viz.,
    1) Haflong, 2) Maibang,
    3) Mahur 4) Umrangso
    Total No. of Assembly & :- 1 (One) viz.
    Parliamentary Constituency 16-Haflong(ST) LAC

    It is a segment of
    3-Autonomous
    District(ST) Parliamentary Constituency.

    Total Nos. of Police Station :- 4(four) viz.
    1) Haflong, 2) Mahur,
    3) Maibang, 4) Umrangso
    Geographical Area
    N.C.Hills is the most hilly and undulated districts of Assam. It has an area of 4890 sq. k.m.s which is 6.24 percent of the total area of the state.

    It consists of two sub-divisional administrative units namely Haflong and Maibang and 5(five) Development blocks namely-

    i) Harangajao ITDP block

    ii) Jatinga Valley Development block

    iii) Diyang Valley Development block

    iv) Diyungbra ITDP block

    v) New Sangbar Development block.

    There are 552 revenue villages and as the district fall under the 6th schedule area, development administration has been conducted by the Autonomous Council, there are 27 MDCs areas and they represent as local bodies at grass root level, selected on public franchise like the PRI representatives in the plain districts.

    Geographical feature

    Physical: The North Cachar Hills district is situated at southern part of Assam & is bounded by Nagaland & Manipur state in the east, Cachar district of Assam in the south, Meghalaya state & the part of Karbi-Anglong district in the west & another part of karbi-Anglong & Nagaon district in the north.
    Latitude : Between 25o 3/ N and 25o 47/ N.

    Longitude : Between 92o 37/ E and 93o 17/ E.

    Altitude : (a) Eastern Region :- 600-900 metres

    (b) Northern Region :- 1000-1866 metres.

    Geographical Area : 4890 Sq. k.m..

    Railway Area : 133.25 k.m.

    Hills: The major portion of the district is covered by hills. The main range is Borail of which " Thumjang" is the highest peak at 1866 metres & Hempeupet is the 2nd highest peak at 1748 metre. The other main range is Khartheng range from Dittokcherra to Garampani .

    Rivers: The main rivers are Kapili, Dehangi, Diyung, Jatinga, Jenam, Mahur, Langting etc, of these Diyung river is the longest river having the length of 240 k.m. Almost all rivers originate from Borail.

    Climate: Rainfall is heavy during the months from May to September, but it is not evenly distributed throughout the district. Climate condition is also not uniform. rainfall in Borail range is heaviest. Annual average in this range varies from 2200 mm to 2700 mm while in the Langting- Manderdisa-Diyungmukh area it receives much less rain( i.e., from 1200 mm. to 1800 mm.).
    The average mean maximum temperature varies from 24o C to 30o C. The average mean minimum temperature varies from 10o C to 14o C .

    The average relative humidity varies from 73% to 84%.

    Types of Forest & its area : The areas covered by forest in the District is as shown below :

    1. Langting Mupa Reserve Forest : 497.55 Sq. k.m.
    2. Krungming Reserve Forest : 124.42 Sq. k.m.
    3. Barail Reserve Forest : 89.93 Sq. k.m.
    4.Unclassed State Forest : 3854.00 Sq. k.m.
    5. Hatikhali Proposed Reserve Forest : 18.06 Sq. k.m.
    6. Panimur Proposed Reserve Forest : 28.70 Sq. k.m.
    7. Barail Proposed Reserve Forest : 17.60 Sq. k.m.

    Important Forest Species & Forest Produces:

    Important tree plants naturally available are Haldu, Gamari, Titachopa, Nahar, Bonsum, Bogipoma, Bola, Koroi, Bhelu, Makri, Sal etc.

    Minor Forest Produces available are Bamboo, Cane, Broom sticks, Tezpat, Dalchini, Oranges, Tannins, Medicinal plants & herbs, Honey, Sand, Gravels etc.

    Wild life: Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Barking Deer, Screw Hollock, Gibbons, Black Bear, Wild dog, Wild Buffalo, Mithun etc are the main inhabitants of the hill ecosystem. The varieties of birds, snakes, tortoise & other reptiles, etc too, enrich the hills biodiversities.

    Minerals: Lime stone & coal in small quantity are found in the neighbourhood of garampani . Carbonaceous shale is available in Baga area. Good quality of lime stone low in magnesea & suitable for cement manufacturing is also available.

    Map

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    Last edited: Jun 3, 2010
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  3. Oracle

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    North Cachar Hills. . . . . . a heaven to the senses where one touches the sweetest dream with one’s fingers, mountains float in the distant sky and the clouds descend to lie below one’s feet. . . . .

    Adoringly described by the visitors as 'Switzerland of the East', the North Cachar Hills is a district garlanded by hills. This dreamland of north-east is an unending saga of undulating hills and valleys, gently flowing streams and waterfalls, where the very breeze that wafts across the paddy fields and the bamboo forests is redolent with the fragrance of the land in which man and animal live in perfect harmony with nature.

    Whether you travels by road or take the quaint train over the century-old track, the scenes that unfold in an unending procession seem like picture-postcards, crafted by gifted hands that understand something of the pristine beauty of nature. The towns and villages that come into view through the rolling mist and the clouds that float around blend so beautifully with the emerald-green landscape that the visitor begins to wonder how this paradise survived so long against the march of progress.

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    Waiting to be discovered are a hundred other wonders that seem one with the legends and folklore of the land and its people. A fascinating mosaic of ethnic, cultural and tribal mix, the people of N.C.Hills embody in their lives all the values derived from centuries of shared living on the lap of nature. Equally enticing is the flora and fauna of the land, which has the famed Jatinga village where, drawn by some mysterious alchemy of earth and sky, disoriented birds come in thousands in the cloudy months of September and October to a flaming tryst with the dinger.

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    Savouring the customs and traditions of the people, their colourful festivals and bazaars and their hospitality compete with the local brew makes a visit to NCHills doubly rewarding. The salubrious climate round the year, the leisurely pace of life and the bounties of nature all combine to beckon the tourists with the promise of an experience they would love to treasure.
     
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    History of N.C.Hills

    N.C.Hills district was a part of Kachari Kingdom before 1832. The kingdom was extended from Jamuna in the North to the foot-hills of Lushai Hills in the south & from the Kopili in the west to the Angami & Katcha Naga hills beyond the Dhansiri in the east. The Dimasa Kachari kings had their Capitals successively at Dimapur, Maibang, Kashpur & lastly at Horitikor ( Karimganj district near Badarpur ). In 1830, the Dimasa king Gobinda Chandra was assasinated by his own general Gambhir Singh, after that the British annexed the southern part of the kingdom on 14th August 1832 under the doctrine of Lapsi. The rest was ruled by last Dimasa General Tularam. In 1837 a portion of Tularam’s kingdom was further annexed to the British Empire & constituted into a sub-division of Nagaon district in 1837 with Head quarter at Asalu. In 1854, on the death of Tularam, the remaining portion of his kingdom was finally annexed to the British Empire & added to the Asalu sub-division.

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    In 1867 this sub-division was abolished & apportioned into three parts among the districts Cachar, Khasi & Jaintia Hills & Nagaon.

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    The present North Cachar Hills district was included in the old Cachar district with Asalu being only police outpost. In 1880, this portion was constituted into a sub-division with Head quarters at Gunjung under Cachar district.

    This head quarter was shifted to Haflong in 1895. Since then Haflong continues to be the Head quarter. In 1951, after commencement of the constitution of India, North Cachar Hills as specified under paragraph 20 of the sixth schedule to the constitution, ceased to be a part of Cachar district. This part along with Mikir Hills constituted a new civil district namely “ United district of North Cachar & Mikir Hills” with effect from 17th November, 1951. According to the provision of sixth schedule, two different councils were constituted later on, viz., North Cachar Hills District Council & Mikir Hills District Council within the geographical boundary of that district. N.C.Hills District Council was inaugurated on 19th April, 1952.
    In 2nd February, 1970, Government declared an independent administrative district, viz., North Cachar Hills District with the geographical boundary of autonomous North Cachar Hills district council. It may be mentioned here that at present this autonomous council possesses administrative control over almost all departments of the district except Law & order, Administration & Treasury Deptt.
     
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    People & Culture

    North Cachar Hills is a land of sensuousness. The population of the district comprises of various tribes & races who maintain their own dialect, culture, customs & usages. Apart from various tribes, non-tribals also account for a sizable amount of the population. They are mostly government employees, traders, graziers living in urban & semi-urban area. The small and serene villages shelter the lovely people – warm and fascinating – and as colourful as the land itself. Among the various tribes, the prominent ones are :

    Dimasa Zeme Hmar Kuki Biate Hrangkhol

    The Dimasa Kacharis : The Kacharis are the most widely spread tribe in northeast India. They are said to be the earliest inhabitants of the Brahmaputra Valley. The Kacharis belong to the Indo-Mongoloid (Kirata) group which include the Bodos and their allied tribes. They have prominent Mongoloid features with high cheek bones, slit eyes and a slight growth of hair in the body and scant beard. They call themselves Bodo or Bodo-fisa in the Brahmaputra valley and Dimasa or Dima-fisa or ‘sons of the great river’ in the North Cachar Hills & Karbi- Anglong district.

    The Dimasa Kacharis greatly inhabit the northern half of the North Cachar Hills and ravines of the Jatinga valley and the adjoining tract.

    The Dimasas believe in the existence of a supreme being Madai – Under whom there are several Madais including family deities and evil spirits. The religious practices of the Dimasas are reflected in their Daikho system. A Daikho has a presiding deity with a definite territorial jurisdiction and a distinct group of followers known as Khel. Every Dimasa Kachari family worships its ancestral deity once a year before sowing the next paddy. It is known as Madai Khelimba. This is done for the general welfare of the family. And Misengba is for the good of the whole community. They cremate their dead. The dead body is washed and dressed in new clothes, the corpse is placed inside the house on a mat. A fowl is thrashed to death and placed at the foot of the deceased so that it might show the deceased the right path to heaven. The widow does not tie their hair till cremation. The dead body is cremated by the side of a river or stream.

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    The Dimasa have a tendency to build their houses on hill slopes with a river or streamlet flowing nearby. The dwelling houses are built on plinth of earth – in two rows facing each other with a sufficiently wide gap in between.

    An important institution of the village is Hangsao. It is an association of unmarried boys and girls of the village. It is organized for the purpose of working together in cultivation and lasts only for one year. Throughout the year, the members of the Hangsao work together in the Jhums cutivating by rotation an area of land at every member’s field.

    Music and dance play an important role in the day-to-day life of the Dimasa Kacharis. They sing and dance expressing their joy at the youth common houses ‘Nadrang’ or at the courtyard of the ‘Gajaibaou’s house in popular common festival like Bushu or Hangsao – manauba. The female owner of the house, where the Bushu festival is held, is called ‘Gajaibaou’.

    By using their traditional musical instruments like Muri, Muri-wathisa, Supin Khram, Khramdubung, they present their traditional dances named – Baidima, Jaubani, Jaupinbani, Rennginbani, Baichargi, Kunlubani, Daislelaibani, Kamauthaikim Kaubani, Nanabairibani, Baururnjla, Kailaibani, Homaudaobani, Rongjaobani, Dausipamaikabani, Daudngjang, Nowaijang, Dailaibani, Narimbani, Rogidaw bihimaiyadaw, Maijaobani, Maisubanai, Richibbani, Michai bonthai jibnai, Homojing ladaibani, Berma charao paibani, Mangusha bondaibani, Madaikalimbani etc.

    The males put on the traditional dresses like richa, rikaosa, paguri rimchau and rimchaoramai to perform the folk dances. The females put on Rigu, rijamfini, rijamfinaberen, rikaucha, rikhra, jingsudu etc. and wear ornaments like Kaudima, Khadu, Kamautai, Longbar, Panlaubar. Chandraral, Rongbarcha, Enggrasa, Jongsama, Ligjao, Jingbri, Yausidam etc.

    The dance forms of the Dimasa Kacharis are complex in character. They are strictly dependent on instrumental music. No songs are used. Khram (drum) follows the rhythm of the Muri (fife) and so also the dancers. Though one may find the music trilling from Muri to be monotonous, but there are variations with noticeable microtones for different dance forms. That is why young men practice dancing at Nadrang during leisure hours and the village kids follow the rhythm and stepping at a distance from an early age.

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    The Zeme Nagas : The Zeme Nagas are distributed in North Cachar Hills and parts of adjoining Manipur and Nagaland states. They are classified by the anthropologists as one of the sub-tribes of the Kacha Nagas. The Zemes living in Nagaland call themselves Zeliang and those of the Manipur borders are known as Zeliangrong.

    Originally they migrated from Nagaland via Manipur and settled down in the north-eastern part of N.C.Hills and south of Maibang, the ancient capital of the Kachari kings. They also settled as far as the bank of the river Kopili. With the decline of the Kachari power, the Zemes became easy victims of the depredations of the mighty Angami Nagas in the neighbourhood. As a result, some of the Zemes migrated to the west and settled in the hills beyond the Diyung valley. They speak their own zemi dialect and are living peacefully along with the other tribes like Dimasa Kachari, Kuki, Hmar for more than two centuries. The Zemes are well built, strong ang healthy with thick black hair and a fair complexion.

    The Zemes have six clans – Napame, Nkuame, Heneume, Nriame, Sogame, and Pnma. Of them Napame and Nkuame are considered as belonging to the same clan and marriage between these two clans is not encouraged. The clans are exogamous. There is a system of bride price which is paid in terms of Mithuns by the bridegroom to the bride’s parents.

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    TheThe Zeme Nagas are animist and they believe in the existence of one supreme God and eight other gods under Him who are associated with health, water etc. They believe in witchcraft and black magic. They also believe in the existence of a spiritual world. When a man dies, they believe, he takes a journey to this spiritual world and provisions of food etc. are made for this occasion by keeping aside a share in a basket from the feast to the departed soul held by the realtives of the deceased. The deadbody is put in a coffin and buried. A flat stone slab with some markings is placed on the grave as a symbol of identification.

    The Zeme villages are on the breezy hill-tops. Each village has dormitories for young boys and girls. The boys’ dormitories are called Hangseuki and the girls’ are known as Langseuki. All the young unmarried boys and girls spend the night in their respective dormitories. As soon as one is married he or she ceases to be a member of the dormitory which are considered as centers of learning as well as village recreational activities. The girls are taught weaving, spinning, singing and dancing etc. and the boys are taught wrestling, hunting and making of handicrafts. These dormitories also serve as guest houses.

    Though a small section of the Zemes have been converted to Christianity, the larger section still honour their traditional festivals connected with agricultural activities and other social institutions. They celebrate some six important festivals during the year.

    Youth dormitories play an important role in celebrating their festivals. The main festivals are – Heleibame, Sangbambe, Fokfatmi, Engkamngi, Siami and Kahagaba – mostly connected with agricultural activities.

    Of the folk dances of the Zemes the popular ones are – Haripivelim, Johumpeselim, Kanguibelim, Kerapsaplim, Hakalim, Nbzchuinelim etc.

    In their songs and dance performances they use their traditional musical instruments – Inchum, Hembeu, Inlubai, Kebuike, Metiyah, Inar, Kumtoi, Into etc.

    The Zeme traditional male dresses are named as Injingni, Heni, Mopahai, Lauhepai, Khampefai etc. The young boys decorate their legs with rice powder paste and tie cane ropes just below the knee. The girls wear Mini Hegiangnine, Faimang, Faitik, Limfai and ornaments made of silver, brass and colourful bird feathers for the earlobes.

    http://img20.imageshack.us/img20/4135/zeme.jpg

    The Hmars: The Hmars migrated from China and settled first in Burma and scattered around Manipur, Mizoram and North Cachar Hills in Assam. They are of Mongoloid stock. Though the tribe is divided into exogamous clans but they do not strictly adhere to exogamy. Monogamy is strictly followed. Arranged cum Love-Marriages are preferred .

    The system of bride price is still prevelant & the youngest daughter usually gets an extra price called 'Nuzum'. Earlier they practiced animism & their God was “Pathien” & sacrifices were offered for his appeasement. Now almost the whole of the tribe is converted into Christianity & they have built churches in their villages & religious rites are performed according to the tenets of Christianity.The Hmars built their villages on hill -tops & houses are constructed on wooden planks. Slash & burn system of agricultural practices is still at large amongst the Hmars.

    Even after long years of migration from their original abode, the Hmars still adhere to their traditional culture through observing their traditional festivals connecting with agricultural cycle & other community rites & practices. Their cultural traditions are best reflected in their folk songs & dances. Khuong (drum) is the main part of the musical instrument. The other musical instruments are Pheiphit (whistle made of bamboo), Theihlea (bamboo flute), Darkhuong (gong), Darbu (set of small gong), Darmang (flat brass gong), Seki (set of mithun horn), Hna Mut (Leaf instrument), Perkhuong (guitar made of bamboo) etc.

    According to the Hmar geneology, the following are the major clans. They are Lawitlang, Zote, Lungtau, Thiek, Khawbung, Pakhuong, Faihriem, Darngawn, Leiri, Ngurte, Khiengte, Pautu and Ngente.

    The chief of their village council is called “LAL” .He is selected from amongst the youngest son except Leiri & Faihriem Clans.He is all-powerful and everybody follows his leadership and directive.

    The Hmar womenfolk are great weavers in their tiny loin looms. They dye their homespun yarns into different colours and weave exquisite clothes for the family. Man and women wear different kind of clothes. Hmar – am is finely woven cloth for the aristocratic womenfolk, Tawn lo – puon is a breast cloth never to be touched by a man, Tharlaikawn is a body wrapper with coloured strips on the back for the women. Ngo – tlong is a white wrapper for women, Thangsuo – Puon is for the great hunters and heroes who have earned the title ‘Thangsuo” for valour, Rukrak – puon is a long wrapper for village aristocrats, Hmar – puon is a common cloth with black and white strips, Daraki is a dhoti for the malefolk, Paihar is a chaddar for men, Lukawm is a soft cloth for man’s headgear, Puondum is a chaddar for menfolk and Puon – Kernei is the finely woven breast wrapper for the village maidens.

    The festival highlighting agricultural practices is Sikpuiruoi and Butukhuonglom. They express their happiness in Dar lam and Parton lam dances by rhythmic beating of the drums. To honour a great hunter they perform Pheiphitlam dance accompanied by melodious tune trilling from their flutes. To perform Fahral Tawk lam, they use bamboo poles like the Mizos (in their famous Cheraw dance).

    The Hmars perform a number of dances –the Harvest dance is called Chon lam, the hunting dance is known as Salu lam and a privately organized festival dance is popular as Thangkawngvailak. The dancers, both boys and girls, put on their colourful traditional dresses and the boys wear headgear Tawnlairang made of bird’s feathers or Lukhum made of bamboo, and the colourful shawl called Hmar puon. The girls adorn themselves with ornaments like Kutsabi (ring), Banbun (bangles), Nabe (earings), Thi (Seeded Necklace), Thi val (beaded ornaments), Thi hna (beaded ornaments) etc, and wear exquisitely embroidered Puons, Puonbil and Zakuo.They rejoice in drinking ‘ Zu’ (rice beer) and the oldman and woman smoke in their ‘Tuibur’ pipes at their hearts content.

    The Hmars are great hunters and while returning with precious games, they dance ‘Salu lam’ to mark their victory.

    The Hmars love dancing so much that the very thought of the dance arena brings out the dancers in them. And they dance ‘Chon lam’ while proceeding to the arena.

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    Oracle New Member

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    The Kukis: The Kuki is a generic term for a number of mixed group of people who have migrated into India through Burma from central Asia. In Burma they are called Chin & in Indian frontier states they are best identified as Kukis.

    The Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India lists 37 number of tribes in the Kuki group of people in Assam. They are….

    1. Baite or Biete, 2. Changsan, 3. Chongloi, 4.Doungel 5.Gamlhou 6. Gangte 7. Guite 8. Hangsing 9. Haokip or Haupit. 10.Haolai 11.Hengna 12. Hangsing 13.Hrangkhawl or Rongkhol 14. Jongbe 15. Khawchung 16. Khwathlang 17. Khelma 18. Kholhou 19. Kipgen 20. Kuki 21. Lienthang 22.Lhangunm 23. Lhoujem 24. Lhouvum 25. Lupheng 26. Mangjol 27. Misao 28. Riang 29. Sairhem 30. Selnam 31. Singson 32. Sitlhou 33. Sukte 34. Thado 35. Thangew 36. Uibuh 37. Vaiphei

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    Being of mongoloid stock the Kukis are strongly built in features and are stout. They are patriarchal in social organization and the sons inherit the property. Marriage among the Kukis are monogamous and cross-cousin marriage is preferred.

    The Kukis prefer to live on the hill tops and their villages are cluster of houses closely constructed to protect from alien raiders. The village headman wields considerable power in their day-to-day life affairs. The headman is assisted by some wise man called Siemang and Pachong & all house-hold heads of the village congregate to discuss & resolve matters relating to the village & the community. Though Christianity has brought considerable changes in their socio-economic life, yet the Kukis still adhere to much of their old customs, laws and habits which their illustrious forefathers adopted from time immemorial.

    The Kukis grow dwarf cotton and spun yarns for their own use. They use vegetable dyes in a myriad of hues and weave dreamlike designs mostly geometric in nature. The menfolk prefer colourful Sangkhol, a jacket & a pheichawm(short lungi or dhoti) and wrap a chaddar which is sometimes embroidered like a snake skin.They also wear head dresses viz., tuhpah, delkop.

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    The women adorn themselves with a nih-san( red slip) underneath a pon've(a wrap around) which was worn from above the chest. The ornaments included bilba( earings), hah-le-chao(bracelets & bangles), khi(necklace) & occassionaly bilkam ( a type of ring shaped earing to stretch the ear lobe . They split their tresses into two and wrap them over their heads into fine knots.

    Both men and women enjoy smoking from their intricately crafted pipes named differently. Those made from stones and brass-metal is Sumeng golong, only made from brass-metal is Sum thin golong and those craved out of wood with a brass spout is called Gojung golong.

    After the harvest is over, the Kukis observe the Chavang kut festival at the country-yard of the village headman. They perform traditional dances like Jongchalam, Malkanglam etc. to the tune of their traditional musical instruments – Khuong, Dahbo, Pheipit, Gosem, Dah-pi, Dah-cha, Pengkul, theile, theiphit,selki etc. Other festivals are Mim Kut, Sa-ai, Chang-Ai, Hun, Chawn le Han etc.

    The participating families wear their traditional dresses Sangkhol, Khamtang, Ponmonvom, saipikhup and the malefolk adorn with Sangkhol, Delkop etc.

    The harvest season is always a time for festivities, dancing and singing. The Kukis express the farmer’s happiness in Jongchalam by body breaks and rhythmic steps. And when the days of hard toil in their jhum fields are over, the Kukis rejoice while dancing Malkanglam.

    Sagolpheikhal is a dance to express victory in war or in successful group hunting.

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    The Biates : Believed to be an off shoot of the Lushai-Kuki-Chin group, the Biates migrated from Central China and entered India to settle in northern part of Mizoram from where they were pushed by later immigrants to present day North Cachar Hills in the early 19th century.

    The Biates have their own dialect and cultureal traits which are expressed through many a festivals in different occasions. Among them the agriculral festivals like Cemchoikut, Pamcharkut, Lahangkut harvest festival observed by families separately Jolsuak and Salulam to honour the brave hunters of ferocious animals.

    During the festive days they consume liberal quantities of Zu fsice beer while dancing and singing their traditional dances like Buontumlam, Kolrikhelam, Rikifacholam, Partonlam, Sulribum-lam, Thingpuilethluk-lam, Meburlam and Darlam in tune with their musical instruments named Dar-ribu, Jamluang, Rossm, Khuang etc.

    Both the boys and girls wear their traditional dresses and ornaments during performance of these dances. The girls put a decorated cane ring as a head gear and drape their favourite Jakua, Choipuan, Puanbomzia etc. The boys wear Lukom Jakua, Diarkai etc. The girls ornaments include Rithai, Kuarbet, Bangun, Ritai etc.

    On the first day of broadcasting seeds in their jhum fields, the Biate women perform Meburlam dance to please ‘Nbupathien’, their god for crops and bounty. They dance with bamboo tubes in their hands and touch each other’s in a rhythmic way.

    After they return from the fields the women sometimes gather in a courtyard and dance dance Rikifachoilam, imitating the wild parrots pecking grains from their jhum fields.

    In winter, almost all Biate women go to a nearby stream or riverlet and dance Tuipuilen thluk in praise of the legendary mermaids. They break their bodies like waves in a ocean in tune with the accompanying flute.

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    The Hrongkhols : Differently described by the ethenographes as Hrangkawal, Rongkhol or Hrongkhol, this tiny group of people of the great Kuki tribe is scatteredly thriving in the North Cachar Hills. Mainly agriculturists, they practice jhum cultivation and build their houses on wooden slit and use bamboo profusely for the floor as well as the walls and thatch for the roofs.

    The womenfolk use puans dyed in black and relish smoking from tiny but elaborate smoking pipes like those used by the Mizos of the southern districts.

    The Hrangkhols observe the harvest festival called Rual-Chapak and invite the spring season through Parangat festival.

    ‘Parangat’ means flower. When the spring comes, flowers bloom everywhere. The Hrangkhols observe Parangat on a full moon day. The festval begins in the vening and continues till next morning. Except the main entry to the village, all other paths are closed for the day. The youngmen collect wild flowers from the nearby forest and offer them to the oldest man of the village in adecorated busket. And thereafter they greet each other and welcome the advent of spring. They sing and dance the whole night with drinking bouts of rice-beer in the silvery moonlight.

    Like other hill tribes, fish is a symbol of prosperity to the Hrangkhol. They imitate community fishing in their Soksolkirlam dance. It is a rhythmic expression of their prayer for health and happiness.

    The Hrangkhols present a special dance ‘Bhailam’ to welcome honourable persons into the village. The male dancers wear Churia, Kamis, Lukom, Changkaltak and the female participants wear Ponbomtak, Ponamnei, Kongkhit, Thepbop etc. They use cornaments called Jakcher, Chumhrui, Lirthei etc.

    In these festivals the performance of songs and dance are the main attractive items. They participate in their folk dances known as Darlam, Doinkini, Rochemiam and Soksollam. They play on their traditional musical instruments like Dar, Cheranda, Rochem, Theile etc.

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  9. Oracle

    Oracle New Member

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    Places to Visit​


    HAFLONG: Up in the rugged terrains stands Assam’s only hill station Haflong, where one can see the rainbow down below. It is the Dist. Head Qr. of N.C.Hills District. The hills emerge from the heart of Assam like chorus of silent hymns & rise up to the sky like the crescendo. The sportive clouds play around the cliffs like gleeful children. The limitless green rolls away to distant horizon in a beautiful rhythm. Hilly Assam is a land of sensuousness. A heaven to the senses where one touches the sweetest dream with one’s finger. The mountains float in the distant sky. The clouds descend & snugly lie below one’s feet.
    Where to stay : Circuit House, Dak-Bunglow ( Addl. Circuit House), Council's Guest House, Hotel Elite, Hotel Jayashree, Hotel Eastern.
    What to wear : Heavy woollen in Winter. Cotton in Summer.

    Other attraction : Exciting Trekking in Borail Hills, Traditional dances of the Tribals.

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    JATINGA: Just 9 kms from Haflong. World wide famous for bird mystery (Birds Harakiri). The migratory birds come during the months August to November & it becomes the ornithologist's attraction. From the elevated watch tower one can see them yielding to their death wish & their little plumage dropping down.

    MAIBANG:Located on the bank of the river Mahur and 53 kms from Haflong. Maibang once flourished as the capital of Dimasa, kachari Kingdom. Stone house & temple of Kachari king & other ruins of the kingdom are the main attractions of the place.
    Where to stay : P.W.D. Guest House, Irrigation I.B.

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    UMRANGSO:112 km from Haflong & 224 kms from Guwahati .The huge Hydel plant has come up under North East electric Power Corporation(NEEPCO) with dams in the Kopili river.
    Near Umrangso, there is a Hot spring( GARAMPANI),the water of which is believed to have medicinal value.

    Where to stay : NEEPCO Guest House, P.W.D. Guest House,D.C.'s I.B., & other Guest Houses of Cement factories.

    PANIMOOR:Approximately 120 kms away from Haflong, & 8-10 kms from Haflong Tiniali,The Kopili River turns into a thrilling waterfall, rolling over the rocks of Panimoor.

    Where to stay : Forest Inspection Bunglow, PWD IB at Diyungmukh

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    Other beautiful places of N.C.Hills are Laisong, Semkhor, Gunjung, Khorongma, Harangajao, Pathar Nalla waterfalls in the Khrungming Reserve Forest etc.
     
  10. Oracle

    Oracle New Member

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    Jatinga Bird Mystery​


    As fog comes on a moonless night......
    When the wind blows in direction right....
    Jatinga turns into an island of search light,
    & birds appear like ghosts from nowhere.


    Jatinga, famous for the phenomenon of birds “committing suicide”, is located on a spur of the Haflong ridge, the head quarter of the district. It itself is an offshoot of the main ridge of the Borail range. It is centrally located at the junction of the roads leading to Haflong, Lumding and Silchar. Here the mist & fog lie like a veil around the beautiful face of the damsel from September to November. During these late monsoon months, mysterious behaviour of birds takes place. However, some other conditions are also necessary for the phenomenon to occur. The air must be foggy, cloudy or misty. If there is slight rain, it would be even better. The wind must be from south to north. It should be moonless dark nights. And the best time is between 7 p.m. and 10 p.m.

    Curiously, most of the doomed birds do not attempt to fly away after they land near the lights. They look dazed and disheveled, perhaps due to the trauma of the whole shocking experience. Such birds fall easy prey to the villagers. Some of the birds hovering around the light sources are brought down by a vigorous swing of the bamboo poles. Catapults are also used to bring down the birds in flight as well as those perching on the trees and bushes near the light sources. However, contrary to the popular belief, birds do not commit suicide. Under circumstances not yet fully explained, these birds get caught in the fog and wind, get disoriented and seek solace of the light sources put out by the villagers. They hit against trees or other objects and get injured in their flight towards the light source. The villagers hit the hovering birds with bamboo poles or catapults to bring them down

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    Various studies have been conducted to unravel the causes behind this phenomenon. The record maintained show that 44 species have been attracted to the light sources. It has been established that the birds are not attracted to the entire Jatinga Ridge but only to a well-defined strip, 1.5 km long and 200 metres wide. Invariably the birds come in only from the north and attempts at placing the lights on the southern side of the ridge to attract the birds have failed. Another interesting fact has been brought out is that no long distance migratory bird gets attracted to the light traps. The victims are resident birds of the adjacent valleys and hill slopes.

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    The unusual behaviour of the birds seems to occur due to the peculiar weather conditions at Jatinga. There also appears to be a correlation between the breeding period of the birds and the Jatinga phenomenon. Studies also reveal that the flight of water birds to Jatinga may be attributed to heavy rains and floods and submergence of their natural habitat in the surrounding areas. It has been observed that there was a high congregation of birds at Jatinga during 1988 which happened to be a year of high floods. Renowned ornithologists Dr. Salim Ali, Dr. S.Sengupta, A. Rauf etc have carried out researches on this subject. However, no single hypothesis comprehensively explains the Jatinga mystery till date. The problem deserves deeper scientific study from various angles.

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  11. Oracle

    Oracle New Member

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    Nature​


    Borail Hills Range
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    A view of Haflong Town
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    Haflong-Jatinga Road
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    Haflong Lake in the Evening
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    Mist and Sunrise
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    Last edited: Jun 3, 2010
  12. Oracle

    Oracle New Member

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    Pathar Nalla Waterfall
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    Train
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    British Made Tunnel
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    Jatinga 1
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    Jatinga 2
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    Last edited: Jun 3, 2010
  13. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Make this thread legend on DFI.. rated 7 star
     
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