Muslim Attitude towards Hindu Heroes: Rafeeq Zakaria

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  1. ejazr

    ejazr Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    I have been reading Rafeeq Zakaria's book "Indian muslims:Where have they gone wrong?"-2004. He is the father of TIME Magazine editor and CNN GPS host Fareed Zakaria.

    One of the chapters in his book is titled "Muslim Attitude towards Hindu Heroes" which I found very interesting and wanted to share.
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    Muslim Attitude towards Hindu Heroes:

    Sudheendra Kulkarni, who has risen to be the constant official companion to Prime Minister Vajpayee, in his article 'Rafsanjani's Iran' written some years ago for the last page of Blitz: February 19, 1994, had rightly commended the extolling of the pre-Islamic scholar' Dr. M.B. Karimian, who was then with the Iranian embassy in Delhi. He asked why Indian Muslims should not feel proud of India's pre-Islamic past and hail its national heroes as Iranians do. I appreciated the spirit in which Kulkarni had said this; I also agree with him that we must revere one another's heroes, rites customs and traditions in order to build real bridges of understanding between Hindus and Muslims. In fact, this is the kernel of the teachings of the Quran, which is replete with praises of many other prophets. Indian Muslims have not lagged behind in following it; Urdu literature bristles with respect for their places of worship, their traditions and conventions and their festivals. As compared to its output, there is little to be found in Hindi or other Indian languages in praise of Prophet Muhammed and his companions. However, the common Hindu's ignorance of it is, indeed, colossal; their grievance is not only unfair but also unjust.

    Unfortunately, Kulkarni, despite his erudition, has proved to be no exception. In order to dispel the wrong impression of Hindus about Indian Muslims, I wrote the book "Iqbal: the Poet and the Politician" published by Penguin. I took the poet-philosopher of Islam as the peg. He was no ordinary Muslim. He is adored by Muslims all over the world. His poems are translated in many languages; in consequence he is read in many Muslim countries; in some they are used as textbooks. He is accepted as an authentic voice of Islam. My book deals mainly with Iqbal's perception of Hindus, their philosophy, their culture and also with the insight in which he viewed Hindu spiritual leaders. He has graphically depicted the role of Hindu sages played in bringing enlightenment to the world and the impact their teachings had on humanity. Until his last days, he wrote with great felling about India and the Hindus. He verses abound with love and admiration for them. Because he advocated 'a Muslim India within India' as a constitutional solution to the Hindu-Muslim political tangle, his great contributions to the cementing bonds between the two communities cannot - and should not - be brushed aside. I cannot do better than quote my translation into English of some of his poems on Hindu heroes. In his poem on Rama, Iqbal describes him as Imam-i-Hind, the spiritual leader of India

    The Cup of India has always overflown
    With the heady wine of truth
    Even the philosophers of the West
    Are her ardent devotees
    There is something so sublime in her mysticism
    That her star soars high above constellations
    There have been thousands of rules in this land
    But none that can compare with Rama
    The discerning ones proclaim him
    The spiritual leader of India
    His lamp gave the light of wisdom
    Which outshone the radiance
    Of the whole of mankind
    Rama was valiant, Rama was bold
    Rama yielded deftly his sword
    He cared for the poorest of poor
    He was unmatched in love and compassion


    About the Buddha, Iqbal wrote:
    India and he people did nor care
    For the Buddha's luncent message
    They could not appreciate the worth
    Of this invaluable gem
    What a pity the unfortunate ones
    Could not pick from that lofty tree
    The ripened fruit and taste its sweetness
    They failed to understand
    The secrets of life the Buddha unfolded
    They remained immersed in vague contemplation
    And could not gain from his benediction
    While the Heavens showered
    Their blessings from above
    The soil of India did not prosper
    From the resultant harvest of truth
    Even today for the lowly untouchables
    India continues to be a land of sorrow
    Her people are indifferent
    To the pain of the oppressed
    They only heed the Brahmin
    Who pontificates from his ivory tower
    The Buddha illuminates the lands afar
    Spreading the light of Truth all around


    And here is the description of Vishwamitra in his magnum opus, JavedNama, which was published just a few years before his death. First Iqbal describes him thus:

    An Indian sage sat
    Under the palm tree
    His hair tied on top of his head,
    A man superior to the ordinary
    To him the world was mere fantasy
    He was not bound by the movement of Time

    And then he makes his mentor Maulana Rumi, eulogize Vishwamitra's spiritual greatness:
    The wandered in search is
    Like a fixed star in the planet
    He has more strength than weakness
    His goblet is like the Arch of Heaven,
    His thought soars like Gabriel's wing,
    Like an eagle he pounces
    On the sun and the moon
    And walks beyond the nine spheres
    He tells the people of the world
    In a state of drunkenness
    Of hours calling them idols
    A flame can be seen even in his smoke
    And pride even in his prostration
    Like a flute he laments
    For separation and union
    Both overwhelm him

    Iqbal was extremely fond of Krishna and hailed his philosophy of action which was akin to his own philosophy of Khudi:

    "The heart and mind of the Hindu community has been nourished by the penetrating discussions that its learned thinkers have conducted on the philosophy of action. And finally they have concluded that the struggle of life which makes a man go through the trials and tribulations is directly linked with action; or in other words his existing human self is the result of his past deeds. And so long as this law of action operates, the result will be the same". When Goethe, the well known German poet of the nineteenth century, makes his hero Faust read in the Bible the word 'action' instead of 'speech', Goethe's visionary eye detects the same point, which the Hindu pandits and rishis had observes hundreds of years ago. In this strange way, they had resolved the conflict between authority and freedom or in other words between coercion and responsibility. Undoubtedly their creative ability is worth admiration, particularly the very courageous manner in which they accepted the various philosophical conclusions which this confrontation led to. "They said that when the self is determined by action, then there is only one way of getting out of it and that is by renunciation of action. This was dangerous from both individual and communal points of view and required some ingenious mind to clarify the contradiction. In the intellectual history of manking, the name of Shri Krishna will always be taken with great regard and reverence because it was this magnificent man who attacked the philosophy renditions of his country and his people and placed before them the truth that renunciation does not mean total inaction. Actions is the damnd of nature, which reinforces existence; renunciation means non-attachment or indifference to the results of action."

    There are numerous other poems on Guru Nanak, Swami Teerth, the Himalayas, the Ganga, the Gayatri and such other Hindu topics; I have translated them into English and given then in my book. However, Iqbal is not alone in this respect, there are numerous essays, novels, short stories and poems of different shades and in varied style which extol the virtues of Hindu gods and goddesses, their customs, festivals and traditions. Nazir Akbarabadi captures the spirit of Hinduism in such enchanting rhythms and charming gutturals that there are few poems which can compare with them in sound and imagery; his poems on Holi is a masterpiece. Below is the opening stanza:

    When colorful Holi
    Came sailing with a sweet
    Rapturous motion; when it threw
    Away the veil from the face
    And put forth before the eye
    All shimmering with bright ornaments;
    Then merrily
    She set out her foot
    And the anglets showered a spray
    Of sweet and charming music
    From her eyes flashed
    A successions of coquettish winks
    And some passionate sighs
    Vibrated in her breast.

    The translation cannot capture the beauty and ecsatsy of Nazir's original pieces in Urdu. Likewise, Sikander Ali Wajid's long poem on Ajanta and Ellora caves is moving epitome of a Muslims's involvement with Hindu ethos. The piece-de-resistance is, however, Galib's poem on Kashi. He is the greatest Urdu poet of all times, whose very verse intoxicates the reader. He wrote a long poem in Persian on the spiritual majesty of Benares. It is so beautiful in its expression, so melodious in its rhythm and so full of picturesque imagery that I doubt whether there is anything as captivating in any other language. It is entitled Chirag-i-Dair (Temple Lamps) and has been beautifully translated into English by the well known Urdu novelist and Ganapith Award winner Qurratulain Hyder

    CHIRAG-I-DAIR (Temple Lamps)
    Ghalib's poem on Kashi

    May Heaven keep
    The grandeur of Benares
    Arbour of bliss, meadow of joy,
    For oft-returning souls
    Their journey's end.
    In this weary Temple-land of the world
    Safe from the whirlwind of Time,
    Benaras is forever spring,
    Where autumn turns
    Into the touch of sandal on their foreheads
    Springtime wears the sacred thread
    Of flower-waves
    And the splash of twilight
    Is the crimson mark of Kashi's
    Dust on heaven's brow
    The Kaaba of Hind
    this Conch-blowers dwell
    Its icons and idols
    Are made of the light
    That once flashed on Mount Sinai
    These radiant idolatrous naiads
    Set the pious Brahmins afire
    When their faces flow
    Like moving Lamps
    on Ganga's banks
    Morning and moonrise
    My Lady Kashi
    Picks up the Ganga-mirror
    To see her gracious beauty
    Said I one night to a pristine seer
    (who knew the secrets of whirling time)
    "Sir, you well perceive
    That goodness and faith,
    fidelity and love
    Have all departed from the sorry land
    Father and son are at each other's throat
    Brother fights brother
    Unity and federation are undermined
    Despite these ominous signs
    Why has not Doomsday come?
    Why does not the Last Trumpet sound?
    Who holds up the reins of the Final Catastrophe?"
    The hoary old man of lucent ken
    Pointed towards kashi and gently smiled
    "The Architect," he said, "is fond of this edifice
    Because of which there is color in life
    He would not like it to perish and fall
    Hearing this the pride of Banaras
    Soared to an eminence
    Untouched by the wings of thought

    Apart from Iqbal, as I have mentioned earlier, many other poets and writers have written on the Vedas, the Upanishads and the world renowned Ramayana and Mahabharta. Dozens of their translations are available in Urdu and in several, books commentaries have appeared; the various aspects of their philosophical approach to men and matters have been discussed and dilated upon. It is, indeed an unjustified slur on Muslims that they are not interested in Hindu mythology; many of their scholars have learnt Sanskrit and mastered the language in order to get into the spirit of the Hindu sacred books and understand its varied manifestations. Urdu literature is replete with their contributions; also the plays of Kalidas, for instance, have been the favorites of several Urdu script writers and of dramatic teams and companies. There are enchanting poems on Dassera, Holi, Ganpati and other such festivals; other Hindu rituals and ceremonies are equally in poetry as well as plays
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    There are a lot of interesting tidbits as well in the rest of the book like AlBiruni (one of the early scholars who learned Sanskrit) and later during the Mughals the first translations of Hindu scriptures as well as other works into a foreign language were done in Persian and/or Arabic primarily.
     
    Last edited: Dec 22, 2010
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  3. rcscwc

    rcscwc Tihar Jail Banned

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    There are two sides of Iqbal to be considered.

    Iqbal in later years became a champion of FUNDAMENTALIST islam, and a votary and MASCOT of Pakistan.

    No wonder the idealogue of Pakistan, Allama Iqbal, too, in one of his widely read pan-Islamic poem, captioned 'Tarana' which is a favourite song of Pakistan-based Islamic terrorists operating in Kashmir.

    Witness


    "Muslim hain ham watan hai saara jahan hamara, Chin-o-Arab hamara, Hindustan hamara". Again,"Teghon ke saye main ham pal kar jawan huey hain, Khanjar halal ka hai qaumi nishan hamara". Translated into English it means that "the entire world belongs to us, the Muslims; we have a claim on China and Arabia, and India too belongs to us. We, Muslims, have been brought up under the 'shade of swords' and for that reason the Halali dagger, or butcher's knife, represents the Nation of Islam".



    What he said is directly derived from kuran and hadiths. Muslims have designs to conquer Hindostan.

    Butcher's knife and humanity do no go hand in hand, particularly when the said knife is meant for non muslims.
     
  4. hit&run

    hit&run Elite Member Elite Member

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    Please explain more on this.
    Your assertion is very generalized and nauseating.

    Lets start from unit level.
    You are living in India and what Indian Muslims have done to you so far should be the fathom to explain Muslims in general.
    Muslims i have meet in my life (my friends) are very liberal, well educated, very rational, less superstitious and progressive. Nobody on earth can compare them with your examples.
    I think you have to make distinction between which Muslims you are talking about.
    Why shouldn't we continue this discussion with proper references next time?
     
  5. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

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    I dont think any muslim has right to talk about caste systems in india..
    i know brahmins have done too much wrong with lower caste people but its a fact that they never had so called "Ivory tower"....they were not allowed to earn money but live on only on "Bhiksha" or farming if they had some land(which very few had)..

    unlike islam we dont massacre other sects of our hinduism..like muslims fight and kill each other all over the world..(shia vs sunni vs ahmadias vs 69 sects of islam)

    secondly on bhudha..his message was not different from vedas...he indeed was followed in all over India..which can be seen from so many stupas and budha carvings in maharashtra and rest of India...Buddhism became less popular over the year...
     
  6. hit&run

    hit&run Elite Member Elite Member

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    You are frozen in medieval times. The topic in hand is little younger then what you are talking.

    Muslims born in India were citizen of India, even today their will is the will of our constitution. If constitution can talk about cast so they can.

    Aren't we talking about Indian Muslims? Please provide me an example of this age when Indian Muslims have committed sectarian massacres not Hindus. India had been a state at war from centuries withing. Samrat Ashoka was famous for massacre he committed in kalinga and before; nick named as Chhand Ashok (chandal).
    Same can be said about Muslim invaders or kings who massacred Hindus for expansionist reasons with religious under tone. The times you are frozen were when selection of survival was decided by nature, which encouraged war with different excuses upon less homogeneous groups.

    Why it hurts you if Muslims wants to review/comment/endorse something which vedas do recognize as well. It doesn't gives you advantage if on something you claim monopoly is practiced by someone else. The knowledge was not meant to be specific for a one particular group. Please provide me reference if so. We might have lost the connection but all civilization did influenced each other during the course of human evolution. It wasn't a one way traffic.
     
  7. S.A.T.A

    S.A.T.A Senior Member Senior Member

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    Muslims extolling the virtue of Hinduism and singing paeans of its heroes,although pleasant to hear,are an exception than the general rule.Allama Iqbal was among the foremost of Muslim intellectuals to foster the idea of an Islamic nationhood as against the prevailing vision of an Indian nationhood,Iqbal had scant respect for indian nationhood and called for Balkanization of indian,to quote Iqbal “India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and religions. To base a constitution on the conception of homogenous India is to prepare her for civil war. I, therefore demand a separate Muslim state in the best interest of the Muslims of India and Islam.” .....“I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they cannot live with Hindus in United India.”.Iqbal was so divorced to the idea of an indian nationhood,that when great Britain conferred upon him the title of Knighthood of the British empire in 1922,three years after the massacre of jallianwallah bagh,where a thousand or more Indians were were felled by the British atrocity,Allama Iqbal did not find it fit to follow the foot steps of Rabindranath Tagore,who returned the Knighthood offered to him earlier.

    Its perhaps the greatest of ironies that Muslims supposedly venerate Hindu heroes like Shri Rama and Shri Krishna,but have no qualms in justifying past acts of desecration of the birth pace of these heroes, and still refuse to allow the worshipers of these heroes to build a place worship befitting our common heroes.

    Sorry Mr Zakaria Muslim platitudes to Hindu heroes appear to ring hollow.
     
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  8. hit&run

    hit&run Elite Member Elite Member

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    I still see glass half full and effective to break the ice.

    Even LK Adwani was selective when picked 14 August speech of Jinnah as reference of his gratitude towards him and his nation. Why can not Zakaria, specially when we all sing ''sare Jahan se acha hindustan hamara''.

    Allama Iqbal was not someone upon whom i can generalize whole Muslims community same i will not do for Guru Rabindranath Tagore to generalize all Hindus by his examples specially when Indians were fighting against Imperial Dracula and he was writing welcome songs for the King. Also Jalianwala bag was not the only oppression which Influenced Indians against British rule. Allama Iqbal might have became hypnotic about his religion or plunged deep into Islamic philosophy or bigotry. But he was not communal, i can say.
     
  9. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    I would rather look at the Muslims who have done India proud than those who haven't.

    I daresay that many of them are there, who deserve praise.

    I would not like to cross swords with anyone since it is an emotive issue and quite fruitless in any concrete conclusion since view are many.

    I would rather think that there were and are great Muslims of India, like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, whose real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin, who well versed in many languages viz. Arabic, English, Urdu, Hindi, Persian and Bengali. born on November 11, 1888 in Mecca. His forefather's came from Herat (a city in Afghanistan) in Babar's days. Azad was a descendent of a lineage of learned Muslim scholars, or maulanas. His mother was an Arab and the daughter of Sheikh Mohammad Zaher Watri and his father, Maulana Khairuddin, was a Bengali Muslim of Afghan origins. Khairuddin left India during the Sepoy Mutiny and proceeded to Mecca and settled there. He came back to Calcutta with his family in 1890.

    Because of his orthodox family background Azad had to pursue traditional Islamic education. He was taught at home, first by his father and later by appointed teachers who were eminent in their respective fields. Azad learned Arabic and Persian first and then philosophy, geometry, mathematics and algebra. He also learnt English, world history, and politics through self study.

    Azad was trained and educated to become a clergyman. He wrote many works, reinterpreting the Holy Quran. His erudition led him to repudiate Taqliq or the tradition of conformity and accept the principle of Tajdid or innovation. He developed interest in the pan-Islamic doctrines of Jamaluddin Afghani and the Aligarh thought of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Imbued with the pan-Islamic spirit, he visited Afghanistan, Iraq, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. In Iraq he met the exiled revolutionaries who were fighting to establish a constitutional government in Iran. In Egypt he met Shaikh Muhammad Abduh and Saeed Pasha and other revolutionary activists of the Arab world. He had a first hand knowledge of the ideals and spirit of the Young Turks in Constantinople.

    He was a staunch opponent of partition and supported a confederation of autonomous provinces with their own constitutions but common defence and economy. Partition hurt him greatly and shattered his dream of an unified nation where Hindus and Muslims can co-exist and prosper together.

    Maulana Abul Kalam Azad served as the Minister of Education in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet from 1947 to 1958. He died of a stroke on February 22, 1958.

    Now, what would you feel towards such a devout Muslim who fought against Partition and even when it came, he did not migrate to Pakistan.\?

    Was he not a great Indian, and does it not indicate his love for his roots to come back to India, fight for India's independence and when Partition came, he did not go to the so called homeland of the Muslims - the land of the pure?

    Indian he was and possibly better than many of us, including me.

    While some may feel Indian Muslims may not have the fire that burnt within the Maulana, but could it not be that since all are now free, they feel India is as much theirs as it is for any other Indian and that in India they are more equal than anywhere else in the world?!

    In Pakistan, the Mohajirs (those who have come from India) are treated with suspicion and taken as not try Muslims and are second class.
     
    Last edited: Dec 22, 2010
  10. Sabir

    Sabir DFI TEAM Senior Member

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    How much liberal one person can be depends much on his upbringing, education and surroundings. I have seen Muslims and Hindus who really do not care about religions and incidents took place 500 years ago, and many who still keep poisons in heart for people of other religions. So Hit and Run can find a lot of liberal muslims and rcscwc can find those who has hatred for hindus. Similarly example of both type of hindus are available too. (Even within this page)

    Why so many Hindu vs Muslim threads on DFI this days???? We have many important matters in hands if we really care to be a strong developped nation. Corruption, poverty, health, illeteracy, black money, inefficiency in administration and legal system, poor productivity in our agricultural fields and suicide of farmers, nexas between criminals and politicians.... It is upon us whether we will do something constructive for better tomorrow or freez ourselves as medieval specimens...
     
  11. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Sabir,

    You will not understand why there are so many Hindu vs Muslim.

    From where you come, you will find the animosity a bit difficult to understand.

    Go to the cow belt and you will see the vista!

    My own orderly during war was a Muslim. I daresay he would die to save me as I would to save him and also my Muslim soldiers with equal dedication to my Hindu, Buddhist and Christian soldiers. I had an all India mix.

    Maybe my experience in life allows understanding of peoples, communities and religion without suspicion!
     
    Last edited: Dec 22, 2010
  12. ejazr

    ejazr Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    The Quran does not even mention India first of all. Muslims have designs to conquer India is probably something that you have read on LeT websites. Please don't take LeT as an authentic source of your understanding on Iqbal and make a big mistake.

    Other than that, your reading of Iqbal is erroneous to say the least. The poem you quoted is basically talking about the universality of Islam as value based system. Just like all religions are. No religion, be it Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism or Islam could be or should be bounded in geographic boundaires. These are value systems that are universal in nature. And Iqbal is referring to that.


    Let me quote you some letters that he wrote in the 1930s when Thompson alleged after his 1930 speech at Allahabad (the same one where Pakistanis allege he demanded "Pakistan") that he was against the Pakistan scheme.


    They are part of the book and published in The Idea of Pakistan and Iqbal - A Disclaimer

    Here is one of his letters
    Read his entire speech to understand his sentiment from the source. He never advocated sepratism but a reditribution of provinces so that both communities can have provinces where they feel secure.
    http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/txt_iqbal_1930.html
     
  13. ejazr

    ejazr Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    The purpose of my post was to enlighten people on how Muslims had respect for Hindu heroes. It is unfortunate some people can't see through the hate and accept the reality.

    @rcscwc and @warriorextreme and others with similar sentiment

    Are you surprised that Iqbal or other muslim poets showed respect to Hindu figures? Did that burst the bubble of of muslims doing nothing else but just planning to take over India?

    The poems quoted in book including the Javednama are all those which were written towards the end of his life. When understanding Iqbal you have to leave aside Pakistani propaganda and asses the facts. From none of his public speeches did he advocate the creation of Pakistan. There are letters were he explicitly denounced the creation of Pakistan because it would be the greatest calamity of Punjab as I mentioned in the post above. He passed away in 1937 before "Pakistan" resolution was even passed in the Muslim League convention in 1940.

    In any case, my purpose of posting this was to bring together an appreciation and respect of each others religious beliefs and removal of misconceptions and as a postive viewpoint, espicially since it contains muslims of undivided India. And includes religious scholars and poets among others whohave shown this respect. You have to read the whole book to apprecaite the depth and breadth of muslim thought about this.

    This is for those Indians (and Pakistanis and Bangladeshis) who want to know about their shared of undivided India history and have a postive frame of mind and want to learn untold history. For those Indians (and Pakistanis and Bangladeshis) who can't see past their ideological blinkers and refuse to see history and cling to a narrow vision of exclusivsm, that is their choice. To be honest, I am surprised that anyone would have a negative viewpoint to what I posted but I guess life is filled with surprises :)
     
  14. Iamanidiot

    Iamanidiot Elite Member Elite Member

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    Ejaz undivided Indian history is not for the faint hearted and honestly partition was a good thing in hind sight.If not what would have happened would be different .We will discuss the specifics in PM's if we want

    Both communities have a very vague idea of each others beliefs Ejaz atleast from what I saw from my observations in Hyderabad
     
  15. Iamanidiot

    Iamanidiot Elite Member Elite Member

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    Ejaz want to know your opinion on the revolt of 1857 from the muslim history point of you it is a very significant event...a very significant event...
     
  16. johnee

    johnee Elite Member Elite Member

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    Like SATA said the supposed veneration of hindu heroes seems to be very superficial...atleast thats the sense one gets from the article.
     
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  17. Iamanidiot

    Iamanidiot Elite Member Elite Member

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    rcscwc do not get the quran into this thing.Quran is not the thing here .The book was compiled for the socio-economic CONDITIONS OF THE 7 TH Century and its very good book for that period
     
  18. johnee

    johnee Elite Member Elite Member

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    I think you are making blasphemous comments. Its better to consider the views of muslims before making such sweeping comments.
     
  19. Iamanidiot

    Iamanidiot Elite Member Elite Member

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    Iam telling rcswc to shut up.bringing Religious scriptures into a discussion with superficial knowledge about them makes the discussion toxic
     
  20. johnee

    johnee Elite Member Elite Member

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    Who decides whose knowledge is superficial?!! Anyway, its upto you, what you want to say. I am only saying that dont hurt the religious sentiments by calling the Quran as book suitable for 7th century. Such posts can get this thread locked.
     
  21. rcscwc

    rcscwc Tihar Jail Banned

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    If our constitution is the will of muslims, why such a constitution cannot be be seen in any other muslim country? Constitution is the WILL of Hindus.

    You talk of Ashok. Nowhere is it alleged that he waged a religious war on Kalinga, or massacred prisoners or enslaved women and children. But all these were done by the the muslim invaders.
     
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