military technologies

Discussion in 'Military Multimedia' started by EXPERT, Nov 27, 2013.

  1. EXPERT

    EXPERT Regular Member

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    The THREAD for Military Technologies that are present or on which work is going on.....


    PETMAN (Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin) Humanoid Military Robot, United States of America

    "PETMAN will be used to test and evaluate the next generation hazmat suits and individual protection ensembles used by troops."

    "The anthropomorphic robot will have increased capabilities over the earlier mechanically-operated suit testers."

    Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin (PETMAN) is a humanoid robot being developed for the US Army to test the special clothing used by soldiers for protection against chemical warfare agents. The anthropomorphic robot will have increased capabilities over the earlier mechanically-operated suit testers, which allowed only a limited number of motion movements while conducting tests.
    The PETMAN was unveiled in October 2009. Footage of the robot featuring its capabilities was released in October 2011. It is anticipated to enter into the engineering and manufacturing phase in the third quarter of 2012.
    PETMAN will be used to test and evaluate the next generation hazmat suits and other individual protection ensembles used by troops, in controlled environmental conditions. It could also be used by the US Air Force, Navy and the Marine Corps.
    PETMAN robot development and prototype
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    The US Department of Defense (DoD) joint Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP) is the developer of individual protection ensemble (IPE) Mannequin System testing facilities and the PETMAN.
    Contracts to develop the integrated mannequin system and testing facilities were awarded in November 2008. The detailed design took 13 years for completion.
    An additional 17 months were spent to build, install and validate the functions of the first prototype.
    Robotic functions, capabilities and behaviours of PETMAN are still being developed. Most of the details, however, have been kept confidential.
    Contractors with a role in the CBDP

    In April 2009, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) awarded a $26.3m contract to the Midwest Research Institute (MRI) towards the development of IPE and the PETMAN.
    MRI, being the lead contractor, is responsible for systems engineering, chemical expertise, programme management and the entire systems integration.
    Measurement Technology Northwest was sub-contracted to develop the special mannequin physiology and thermal control systems. Containment chamber for the robot was designed by Smith Carter CUH2A.The exposure chamber (testing facility) was built and installed by HHI Corporation.
    Other partners include Oak Ridge National Lab. Design and fabrication of the PETMAN has been completed by Boston Dynamics. The human simulation software, tools and systems provider had earlier developed the quadruped BigDog robot in 2005. Other products of Boston Dynamics include LittleDog, RiSE, Legged Squad Support System and Cheetah.
    PETMAN humanoid robot design

    The PETMAN is similar to a Hybrid III standard crash test dummy.

    The system consists of a control room, ingress / egress support, exposure chamber and an integrated IPE mannequin. The robot will test the suits in a chemically exposed chamber and control room. The exposure chamber will support the functionality of the robot through data acquisition, agent dissemination and environmental control.
    The bipedal robot weighs about 80kg (180lb) and is nearly six feet tall (1.75m). PETMAN demonstrated a top walking speed of about 4.4mph (7.08km/h), making it the fastest bipedal robot in the world (Honda's Asimo robot has a top walking speed of 7km/h).
    The robot uses hydraulic actuation and articulated legs with shock absorbers for operations. The unveiled prototype has an onboard computer, several sensors and other internal monitoring systems. Its functions are currently operated through controls on tether. Human actions were deployed on the robot using studies conducted on motion-capture systems.
    Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin features and capabilities

    The PETMAN is designed to have human-like capabilities. It is based on the similar mechanical design and walking algorithm used for the four-legged robot, BigDog, which can carry heavy payloads in rough terrains.
    The PETMAN can self balance on its two feet and move freely, walk, crawl and perform suit-stressing calisthenics as well as squat thrusts to test chemical exposure. It can also balance when shoved.
    The robot provides realistic test conditions by exhibiting human physiological characteristics during physical exertion such as temperature control, sweating and humidity, inside the protective clothing.
    The PETMAN can be used to perform various other tasks dynamically in emergency situations, such as search and rescue operations in fire, nuclear and other hazardous conditions, without human exposure.



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  3. EXPERT

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    Raytheon XOS 2 Exoskeleton, Second-Generation Robotics Suit, United States of America


    "The second generation XOS 2 robotic suit uses lighter material and is about 50% more energy efficient than the XOS 1."


    "The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated development of the exoskeletons in 2001 under the Exoskeletons for Human Performance Augmentation programme."



    XOS 2 is a second-generation robotics suit being developed by Raytheon for the US Army. The company publicly demonstrated the capabilities of the exoskeleton for the first time at its research facility in Salt Lake City in Utah, in September 2010.
    The wearable robotic suit increases the human strength, agility and endurance capabilities of the soldier inside it. The XOS 2 uses high-pressure hydraulics to allow the wearer to lift heavy objects at a ratio of 17:1 (actual weight to perceived weight). This allows repeated lifting of the load without exhaustion or injury.
    Development as part of DARPA's exoskeleton programme
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    The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated development of the exoskeletons in 2001 under the Exoskeletons for Human Performance Augmentation programme. The agency funded $50m to various participants under the five-year programme. However, only two of them have been active in developing the exoskeleton prototypes for the US military.
    The XOS system was originally developed as the Wearable Energetically Autonomous Robot (WEAR) by Sarcos Research of Salt Lake City, Utah. Development of the biomechanical robot was started in 2000. The company, established in 1983, was acquired by the defence contractor Raytheon in November 2007.
    Sarcos is expected to have received about $15m in funds for the research and development of the WEAR, the initial proof-of-concept for the Raytheon's first exoskeleton prototype, XOS 1. It was unveiled in 2008. A fully operating tethered XOS version is expected to enter into military service by 2015. The untethered version is not expected to be operational until 2020.
    The other exoskeleton is Lockheed Martin's Human Universal Load Carrier (HULC), initially developed as the Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (BLEEX) by the University of California, Berkeley.
    Features of Raytheon Sarcos's XOS 2 robotic suit

    The second generation XOS 2 robotic suit uses lighter material and is about 50% more energy efficient than the XOS 1. The exoskeleton is expected to weigh about 95kg. It utilises a combination of controllers, sensors, high-strength aluminium and steel which allow structures and actuators to perform the tasks.


    Flexible hoses ease the fluid movement and allow smooth and efficient operations. The exoskeleton suit offers improved manoeuvrability and agility over the XOS 1 version. It is also more resistive to environmental challenges.
    The Raytheon Sarcos robotic system can take on the weight of the payload on one foot through the powered limbs. The wearer can lift about 200lb of weight for long periods of time without feeling the strain.
    The soldier wearing the suit can walk, run and can readjust to keep the load off the wearer, even upon stumbling. The exoskeleton is robust and allows punching through three inches of wood. It is also highly agile and does not bog down the wearer while climbing stairs, ramps, using a punching bag or kicking a football.
    The company is currently focussing on the logistics support variant. Continuous lifting of heavier objects by the military soldiers can lead to orthopaedic and other injuries. On average, the logistic and support military personnel are estimated to lift about 16,000lb of load a day. The robotic suit will ease the logistics problems faced both in the theatre and off the field.
    The soldier wearing the XOS 2 exoskeleton can perform the work done by up to three soldiers. It will, therefore, ease the challenges and reduce the costs and manpower requirements. The suit is also expected to be used for more strategic missions. Raytheon Sarcos also plans to develop several variations, based on the customer requirements and mission possibilities.
    Operational capabilities of the second-generation exoskeleton

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    The XOS 2 system is powered by an internal combustion hydraulics engine with electrical systems. The prototype is tethered to the hydraulics power source by a wire. The engine drives the hydraulic actuations. The various sensors equipped throughout the system specify the position and the force required.
    Computer processors are situated at every joint of the suit. Sensors send signals to the processors through ethernet. This further prompts the actuators to deliver about 200kg of force per square centimetre using pressurised hydraulics. It enables the soldier to lift 50lb with each arm.
    Raytheon Sarcos is planning to develop a fuel-carrying backpack with custom hydraulic servos for providing endurance of about eight hours. It will allow mobility and gait of the robot in combat environments. Use of hydraulics as the power source, instead of lithium ion batteries, eliminates the risks of breach and explosion.
     
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    Human Universal Load Carrier (HULC)

    "The hydraulically-powered HULC enables soldiers to carry heavy loads with minimal strain on their body."


    "The system is expected to reduce musculoskeletal injuries that occur in soldiers due to lifting of loads.


    The Human Universal Load Carrier (HULC) is an exoskeleton being developed by Lockheed Martin for dismounted soldiers. The hydraulically-powered HULC enables soldiers to carry heavy loads with minimal strain on their body.
    The system is expected to reduce musculoskeletal injuries that occur in soldiers due to lifting of loads.
    The HULC enables soldiers to carry loads up to 200lb (91kg). The weight of the load gets transferred to the ground through the shoes of the exoskeleton.
    This ensures the weight doesn't shift to the soldier's body, hampering his movement. The exoskeleton is suitable for use on any terrain.
    The HULC was originally developed by Berkeley Bionics (now Ekso Bionics) in 2008. Lockheed Martin acquired the design licence from Berkeley in 2009.
    Exoskeleton development
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    Lockheed Martin unveiled the HULC system at the Association of the United States' Army Winter Symposium held in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in February 2009.
    In July 2010, the company signed a $1.1m contract with the US Army Natick Soldier Center for testing and evaluating the ruggedised HULC design.
    Under the contract, the Natick Soldier Center tested the HULC for its effect on the soldier's performance, the energy that a soldier spends while using it and the adaptability of the system while carrying various loads and moving at various speeds. The contract has also provided provision for field trials of the system.
    The HULC underwent laboratory testing in October 2010, after Lockheed Martin upgraded the ruggedised system for flexibility and suitability to a variety of users. The system was put through biomechanical, dynamic load and environmental testing.
    Treadmill testing measured the decrease in metabolic cost of the user. The system's sustainability in various environmental conditions was evaluated through sand, wind, rain, temperature and humidity testing. The HULC's tests at the Natick Soldier Center began in June 2011.
    HULC design and flexibility
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    The HULC has an anthropomorphic design and a titanium body.

    It is un-tethered and flexible enough to allow for squatting, crawling and upper-body lifting of the user. The system weighs 53lb (24kg) without batteries. The design is adjustable to suit users with a height of 5'4" to 6'2".
    The exoskeleton doesn't require any external control mechanism as it is controlled by a micro-computer installed within the system. The computer enables the HULC to sense the user's requirement and adapt to the situation accordingly.
    The HULC system can be removed and packed-up in 30 seconds. The modular components of the system can be swapped when the warfighter is in danger and needs greater mobility to escape from the enemy.
    Features of the Human Universal Load Carrier

    The HULC has a range of 20km when the warfighter moves on level terrain at 4km/hour. It supports front and back payloads. The user can move at maximum speed of 11kmph long duration and at 16kmph burst speed.
    The system has various mission-specific attachments and can carry integrated systems such as armour, heating or cooling systems, plus sensors.
    Power supply

    The HULC exoskeleton operates on lithium polymer batteries. The power-saving feature enables the system to support maximum load even when the battery power is low.
    In January 2010, Lockheed Martin contracted Protonex Technology to develop fuel cell power supply system for the HULC to support extended missions of 72 hours. The HULC with rechargeable power supply enables the soldiers to carry fewer batteries during extended missions.
    Electronics and hydraulics of Lockheed Martin's HULC

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    Lockheed Martin's exoskeleton is supported on single-board micro electronics fixed within a sealed enclosure. The electronics system is flexible and expandable.
    The heat produced from the micro-computer and the other electronics is absorbed by actuators, thus, eliminating the need for fans.
    The high pressure hydraulics system uses standard hydraulic fluid
     
  5. EXPERT

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    LIMAWS(R) Lightweight Mobile Artillery Weapon System - Rocket


    "The LIMAWS's ease of portability means it can access difficult forward areas very quickly."


    "The LIMAWS(R) will provide the Royal Artillery's fire support to the British Army's light and rapid reaction forces."

    The LIMAWS(R) (lightweight mobile artillery weapon system – rocket) was being developed to provide the Royal Artillery's fire support to the British Army's light and rapid reaction forces. Fire support to heavy forces is provided by heavier systems such as the 25t multiple-launch rocket system (MLRS).
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    A date for MoD main gate approval had not been announced but was expected in 2008. However in May 2008, the UK Ministry of Defence announced the cancellation of the LIMAWS(R) programme. Instead an additional 12 MLRS M70A1 launchers are to be upgraded to the B1 standard.
    LIMAWS(R) lightweight mobile artillery weapon system

    "The LIMAWS's ease of portability means it can access difficult forward areas very quickly."
    At approximately 9t the LIMAWS(R) is light enough for two systems to be carried by a C-130J Hercules transport aircraft or one system carried underslung from a CH-47 Chinook helicopter. It has the power to launch precision GPS-guided rockets to a range of more than 60km.
    LIMAWS(R) can be driven over a range of 500km. The system's portability means it can access difficult forward areas very quickly to provide high-volume precision fire support to ground forces.
    LIMAWS(R) consists of a six-wheeled four-wheel drive Supacat vehicle and a Lockheed Martin self-loading launcher.
    LIMAWS(G) gun and LIMAWS(R) rocket artillery systems

    The LIMAWS programme was launched for two separate indirect fire systems, the LIMAWS gun (LIMAWS-G) and the LIMAWS rocket (LIMAWS(R)). The LIMAWS-G programme to provide close and deep-fire support for light and medium forces was cancelled in September 2007.
    In 2000, the MoD procurement agency issued invitations to tender (ITTs) for the risk-reduction phase of LIMAWS(R) to Lockheed Martin (USA), LFK (Germany) and to four UK companies – Alenia Marconi Systems; BAE Systems, Hunting Engineering and Matra BAe Dynamics.
    In 2001, contracts for two separate 11-month risk-reduction and simulation contracts for a conceptual study of lightweight rocket launchers were awarded to BAE Systems and Hunting Engineering. Hunting Engineering became INSYS Ltd in 2001 and part of the Lockheed Martin UK group in 2005. The studies included mobility, portability and stability in action.
    Assessment and trials

    In 2002 the UK MoD selected INSYS for the assessment phase contract for the LIMAWS(R) which was completed in 2005. The assessment phase included the design, build and trial of a systems demonstrator and a series of technology demonstration trials including testing with the Royal Marines Amphibious trials unit.
    The trials included live firing trials, mobility across country, fording and air transportability and compatibility with the Chinook and Hercules. The firing trials were carried out at the QinetiQ Royal Artillery (Hebrides) missile range.

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    LIMAWS(R) vehicle

    The chassis selected for the LIMAWS(R) is a 6x4 Supacat chassis. Supacat builds 6x6 and 4x4 vehicles under license from HMT Vehicles Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin.
    The LIMAWS(R) 6x4 chassis design is a modified and lightened version of the 6x6 chassis and levers technology from the HMT designs. The four-wheel drive is on the first two axles. The 6x4 chassis provides significant weight saving compared to a 6x6 chassis but reduced cross country mobility.
    The vehicle is designed and built with four lifting points so it can be carried underslung by a Chinook CH-47 helicopter. The total vehicle weight, including a 2.3t rocket pod, is approximately 9t.
    The cab is air conditioned, fitted with a CAFU (chemical air filtration unit) system and accommodates three crew and their battlefield kit. The cab is fitted with armoured glazing and internal flash blinds, which are lowered before firing. The vehicle has fixing mounts for appliqué armour.
    The vehicle is fitted with a four-cylinder diesel engine supplied by Cummins and has automatic transmission.
    Weapon system

    LIMAWS(R) is fitted with a computerised fire control system supplied by Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control Systems and which is of proven design and is also installed on HIMARS vehicles and on the tracked version of MLRS.
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    LIMAWS(R) is fitted with a new lightweight launcher. The launcher is pivoted at the rear of the vehicle chassis. The elevation system is hydraulically powered. There is no traverse turntable as in MLRS but the boom reloading system is of similar design. In a typical firing mission, the target data is transmitted to LIMAWS(R) from a battlefield command post.
    Munitions

    The LIMAWS(R) vehicles will each carry six rockets. These can be fitted with different warheads depending on the target.
    The weapon will fire Lockheed Martin GPS-guided GMLRS rounds which are already in service on the MLRS systems deployed by the Royal Artillery. The GPS-guided GMLRS rounds are manufactured by Lockheed Martin, MBDA (UK), Diehl (Germany) and FiatAvio (Italy). The GMLRS rocket is equipped with an inertial guidance and global positioning system and is fitted with small canards on the rocket nose.
    LIMAWS (R) is also capable of firing the long-range guided missile army tactical missile system (ATACMS) which has not been purchased by the UK. The ATACMS family of missiles includes the block 1, block 1A and block 1A Unitary missiles
     
  6. EXPERT

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    BOMBS

    CBU-105 – The Sensor-Fuzed Weapon – CBU-97 Cluster Bomb

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    The CBU-97 sensor-fuzed weapon is an extremely potent anti-armor cluster bomb. It combines so many different technologies of lethality and has so many moving parts for a bomb that initial observes questioned whether it would even work. Basically, the CBU-97 is dropped over a column of enemy armor, the bomb “clusters” and releases it’s sub-munitions, which are like smaller little bombs themselves. Each sub-munition is slowed by a parachute, and then each sub-munition fires 4 hockey puck sized “skeets” over the target area. The skeets contain an infrared targeting system and a copper EFP (explosively formed penetrator, a type of shape charge). Once the skeet locks unto a vehicle it fires the EFP at the target, which essentially is a slug of molten copper that can deeply penetrate armor. One CBU-97 has the potential to destroy up to 40 armored vehicles. Please note that the CBU-97 is also referred to as the CBU-105.




    Excalibur – Smart Artillery Round – Fire and Forget XM982 – 155MM


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    The Excalibur is the newest development in Military artillery technology and precision guided munitions. Also known as the M982 ER DPICM (Extended Range Dual Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions) Projectile, the Excallibur is a smart artillery round that has an integrated GPS tracking system along with fins and rockets that give it accuracy and range that has never been attainable with other artillery shells. The artillery round can travel over 25 miles and still hit a target 10 meters wide! The Excalibur artillery shell can deliver a wide variety of munitions depending on its objective. The secret of developing this weapon technology lied in integrating the GPS in a way that it could withstand incredible G-forces without compromising the tracking device in the artillery shell.

    The extremely accurate smart Excalibur artillery shell reduces collateral damage while being extremely versatile.



    X-51 Hypersonic Cruise Missile – Fastest Cruise Missile


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    Imagine having the ability to strike anywhere in the world within one hour. The X-51 is an amazing hypersonic cruise missile that travels 600 miles in just ten minutes (approximately 3600 MPH or Mach 5)

    Compared with the Tomahawk Missile which travels at a mere 550 MPH, the X51 gives the US the ability to strike enemies quickly before they can evade. As U.S. Strategic Command’s deputy commander Lt. Gen. C. Robert Kehler puts it, the goal of the X51 is “to strike virtually anywhere on the face of the Earth within 60 minutes.”

    The power of this weapon once it reaches its unfortunate target is amazing.

    Traveling as fast as 13,000 mph, the warheads are filled with scored tungsten rods with twice the strength of steel. Just above the target, the warheads detonate, showering the area with thousands of rods-each one up to 12 times as destructive as a .50-caliber bullet. Anything within 3000 sq. ft. of this whirling, metallic storm is obliterated.

    The X-51 Will be the most advanced cruise / long distance missile in the world when it is completed, although there have been protests that the X-51 could trigger a nuclear war. A test run of this weapon in 2008 could appear to be heading toward another nuclear power during portions of its flight pattern which could be provoking. More about this concept can be read at Popular Mechanics
     
  7. EXPERT

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    Hunter UAV Airstrike – Viper Air Attack on Vehicle


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    The Viper is a standoff munition guided by GPS and laser-guidance. The Viper is primarily used in missions that require a flexible angle of attack, either steep or shallow. The weapon is produced by Northrop Grumann’s Land Combat Systems Facility in Alabama. This particular Viper Standoff munition requires a man to lase the target either from the UAV itself where the missile is fired from, or from the ground. The Viper is similar to the Hellfire missile used in the Predator UAV by the US air-force. The Vipers warhead is smaller than the Hellfires and the Vipers platform is the Hunter RQ-5A UAV. The Hunter is similar to the predator although its functionality is more limited.
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    The Viper Munition is being tested with a variety of different platforms including AC-130 Gunships and even the notorious Predator. The video below shows the incredible power of the Viper in Combination with the Hunter UAV.


    Thermobaric Weapon – Explosive Fuel-Air Bombs


    There are many different types of Thermobaric weapons, it is the destructive concept that renders Thermobarics different than conventional high explosives. Rather than a simple bomb with high explosives in the warhead, thermobaric weapons, or fuel-air bombs, are predominantly filled with either an aerosol or powder of a high explosive mixture. The bomb has 2 charges, the first to blow away the casing and release the aerosol cloud, and the second to detonate the cloud. This 2 stage method renders the size of the blast to be drastically larger in diameter than conventional high explosives, which dramatically increases the shockwave and heat created by the explosion. These weapons are the most powerful bombs besides nuclear weapons, common examples are the MOAB and “Daisy Cutter” bomb, the latter is popularly displayed twice in the awesome movie Outbreak starring Dustin Hoffman and Morgan Freeman (in the opening scene and ending scenes). Also known as vacuum bombs, they are also used on building and caves because of their ability to collapse structures. The shockwave and subsequent dramatic overpressure created by the intense heat of the explosion draws in oxygen so fast that it literally sucks in anything in its radius, be it cave walls or walls of a structure. Thermobarics have seen widespread use in the caves of Afghanistan, and smaller versions are also becoming more widespread with applications from hand grenades to rocket launchers.


    Father of All Bombs


    If you are a regular here at Future Firepower then I am sure you have heard of the MOAB or Massive Ordnance Air Blast Bomb, coined the Mother of All Bombs. The MOAB is an eight ton non-nuclear weapon with a 450 foot blast radius. What you might not have heard is that Russia has recently unveiled the “Father of All Bombs” which is said to have a 900 foot blast radius, double what the MOAB boasts. Until the Russian military unveiled the FOAB the MOAB was the largest non-nuclear bomb in the world. The center of the explosion created by the Father of All Bombs is reported to be twice as hot as MOAB as well. The Russian military apparently created a weapon roughly the same size as the MOAB with twice the power! So it looks like the Russians have one-upped the American military’s largest non-nuclear weapon… or have they?
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    There are a lot of skeptics that believe the Father of All Bombs may just be a big hoax. The Russian military claimed the bomb was dropped from a Tupolev 160 bomber although the bomb and the aircraft where never seen in the same video. Recall that the MOAB is usually dropped out of a much larger C-130 or equivalent.
     

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