Main Battle Tanks and Armour Technology

Discussion in 'Land Forces' started by Rage, Feb 25, 2009.

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If Tanks have to evolve, which path they should follow?

  1. Light Vehicles-Best for mobility

    8 vote(s)
    5.9%
  2. Heavy Armour-Can take heavy punishment.

    29 vote(s)
    21.5%
  3. Modular Design-Allowing dynamic adaptions.

    78 vote(s)
    57.8%
  4. Universal Platform-Best for logistics.

    20 vote(s)
    14.8%
  1. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

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    By the year�s end, if all goes as per plan, the Indian Army will begin receiving its first T-90M main battle tank (MBT) in completely knocked-down condition from Russia�s Nizhny Tagil-based Uralvagonzavod JSC. It may be recalled that in February 2001, India bought its first batch of 310 T-90S MBTs worth US$795 million, of which 120 were delivered off-the-shelf, 90 in semi-knocked down kits (for licenced-assembly by the Ministry of Defence-owned Heavy Vehicles Factory, or HVF, in Avadi), and 100 in completely-knocked down kits. This was followed by a follow-on contract, worth $800 million, being inked on October 26, 2006, for another 330 T-90M MBTs that were to be built with locally-sourced raw materials. The third contract, worth $1.23 billion, was inked in December 2007 for 347 upgraded T-90Ms, the bulk of which will be licence-assembled by HVF. The T-90M�s final round of user-trials were successfully concluded last year and it has now been cleared for series-production.

    The T-90M is a radically upgraded variant of the existing T-90S �Bhishma� MBT, and is 1.5 times more capable than the T-90S. The T-90M features the �Kaktus� embedded explosive reactive armour (ERA) package on its frontal hull and turret-top (the T-90S has �Kontakt-5� ERA), is fitted with an enhanced environmental control system supplied by Israel�s Kinetics Ltd for providing cooled air to the fighting compartment, has additional internal volume for housing the cryogenic cooling systems for new-generation thermal imagers like the THALES-built Catherine-FC thermal imager (operating in the 8-12 micron bandwidth and housed within the Peleng-built 1G-46 gunner�s sight) and the commander�s panoramic sight (which houses the Matis-STD thermal imager that operates in the 3-5 micron bandwidth and which has also been selected for the Arjun Mk1 MBT�s panoramic sight), is fitted with an automatic gearbox, has an electro-hydraulic turret-drive-cum stabilisation system, and most importantly, has a 52-cal 2A46M-5 Rapira smoothbore main gun barrel that also comes fitted with a muzzle reference system. The T-90M�s powerplant will be the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant-built 1,000hp V-92S2 diesel engine, while a 1kW AB-1-P28 auxiliary power unit will provide back-up electric power when the engine is idling. The gunner�s sight-cum-laser rangefinder will be the 1A43 system, which will also house the Peleng-built 1G46 day sight and the ESSA module containing the Catherine-FC thermal imager and the 9S517 missile guidance module for the Refleks anti-armour/anti-helicopter round. The digital hunter-killer fire-control system will use the 1V528-1 ballistics computer and the DVE-BS meteorological sensor. Bharat Electronics Ltd will supply the T-90M�s digitised battlespace management system and radio communications suite (licence-built models originally designed by Elbit Systems and Tadiran), while Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd will provide the fibre-optic gyro-based autonomous land navigation system.

    In future, the HVF is expected to retrofit all 987 T-90 MBTs with active protection systems (APS) for which Army HQ on April 24 last year issued requests for proposals to six companies (Israel Military Industries, RAFAEL, BAE Systems, Raytheon, Rosoboronexport, Saab, and Germany�s IBD Deisenroth Engineering) for procuring 1,657 active protection systems (APS) worth $270 million. Those taking part in the Indian bid were Russia�s Kolomna-based KBM Engineering Design Bureau with its Arena-E APS on offer, IMI of Israel with its Iron Fist suite on offer, RAFAEL�s Trophy APS, Raytheon�s Quick Kill APS, Saab�s LEDS-150 and Deisenroth Engineering�s AMAP-ADS. Eventually, the LEDS-150 was selected and its procurement contract was inked on January 27, 2009. The Land Electronic Defence System (LEDS) combines active signature management, soft-kill and hard-kill mechanisms to provide full spectrum active protection to armoured vehicles. Full hemispherical coverage is provided to detect incoming threats and alert the crew. When installed in full configuration, the LEDS-150 offers MBT-comparable protection to light and medium combat vehicles against engagement by weapons like RPG-7s, anti-tank guided-missiles, KE ammunition, mortars and artillery shells. The LEDS-150 is an active defence system and typically comprises laser warning sensors, ADC-150 active defence controller AD, a number of munition confirmation and tracking sensors, and high-speed directed launchers, which allow the combination of soft- and hard-kill countermeasure deployment capability to the platform, optional displays, and interconnecting harnesses. The hard kill feature of the LEDS-150 product is characterised by its capability to physically destroy the efficiency of the terminal ballistic capability of attacking munitions without residual penetration of the protected vehicle. The hard kill system detects and tracks a single or simultaneous threats and calculates if the attacking munition will hit the platform or not. The system determines the best inertial intercept position and provides the slew and firing commands to the launchers. The Mongoose-1 countermeasure missile is launched at a predetermined time to intercept and neutralise the detected munition off-board at a distance of between 5 metres and 15 metres from the vehicle to minimise the collateral damage to own forces.

    Interestingly, the hulls and welded steel turrets of the 330 T-90Ms, along with their Rapira gun barrels, will be fabricated by HVF with locally-sourced raw materials, while an improved version of the indigenous �Kanchan� modular ceramics-based composite laminate armour package will be used for substituting the Russian package, whose technology-transfer has been denied by Russia. The same also goes for the Kaktus ERA tiles and RPZ-86M anti-radar paint coating, which will be totally imported from Russia.

    Presently, as things stand, Indian Army HQ is adhering to a modified MBT force structure, whose original version, as proposed in 2006, had called for a fleet of 3,780 MBTs, comprising 1,302 T-90s 2,356 T-72s and 124 Arjun Mk1s. The modified structure now calls for 2,473 higher-end MBTs, including 1,409 T-90s, 248 Arjuns, and 692 T-72M1 Combat Improved Ajeyas. The Army�s gameplan is to have 21 regiments of T-90s and 34 regiments of upgraded T-72M1s and six regiments of Arjuns by 2020.

    --Prasun K. Sengupta


    http://trishulgroup.blogspot.com/2009/01/indias-born-again-t-90m-mbt.html
     
    Shantanu likes this.
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  3. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

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    Attached Images:

    1: T-90M MBT

    2: T-90M's ELBIT + Systems' + BMS

    3: T-90M's Kinetics + Air-conditioning system

    4: T-90M's Vectronics

    5: T-90M's OFB + 125 mm APFSDS rounds


    ....All Images courtesy of Prasun K. Sengupta
     
  4. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

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    India to outfit T-90 tanks with active protection


    In future, the HVF is expected to retrofit all 987 T-90 MBTs with active protection systems (APS) for which Army HQ on April 24 last year issued requests for proposals to six companies (Israel Military Industries, RAFAEL, BAE Systems, Raytheon, Rosoboronexport, Saab, and Germany’s IBD Deisenroth Engineering) for procuring 1,657 active protection systems (APS) worth $270 million. Those taking part in the Indian bid were Russia’s Kolomna-based KBM Engineering Design Bureau with its Arena-E APS on offer, IMI of Israel with its Iron Fist suite on offer, RAFAEL’s Trophy APS, Raytheon’s Quick Kill APS, Saab’s LEDS-150 and Deisenroth Engineering’s AMAP-ADS. Eventually, the LEDS-150 was selected and its procurement contract was inked on January 27, 2009.

    The Land Electronic Defence System (LEDS) combines active signature management, soft-kill and hard-kill mechanisms to provide full spectrum active protection to armoured vehicles. Full hemispherical coverage is provided to detect incoming threats and alert the crew. When installed in full configuration, the LEDS-150 offers MBT-comparable protection to light and medium combat vehicles against engagement by weapons like RPG-7s, anti-tank guided-missiles, KE ammunition, mortars and artillery shells.

    The LEDS-150 is an active defence system and typically comprises laser warning sensors, ADC-150 active defence controller AD, a number of munition confirmation and tracking sensors, and high-speed directed launchers, which allow the combination of soft- and hard-kill countermeasure deployment capability to the platform, optional displays, and interconnecting harnesses. The hard kill feature of the LEDS-150 product is characterised by its capability to physically destroy the efficiency of the terminal ballistic capability of attacking munitions without residual penetration of the protected vehicle.

    The hard kill system detects and tracks a single or simultaneous threats and calculates if the attacking munition will hit the platform or not. The system determines the best inertial intercept position and provides the slew and firing commands to the launchers. The Mongoose-1 countermeasure missile is launched at a predetermined time to intercept and neutralise the detected munition off-board at a distance of between 5 metres and 15 metres from the vehicle to minimise the collateral damage to own forces.


    http://trishulgroup.blogspot.com/2009/01/indias-born-again-t-90m-mbt.html
     
  5. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

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    The Land Electronic Defence System: courtesy of the SAAB group

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]


    LEDS - Land Electronic Defence System


    The Land Electronic Defence System (LEDS) combines active signature management, softkill and hardkill mechanisms to provide full spectrum active protection to land vehicles. Full hemispherical coverage is provided to detect incoming threats and alert the crew. When installed in full configuration, the System will offer main battle tank comparable protection to light and medium combat vehicles against engagement by weapons like the RPG-7, anti-tank missiles, KE ammunition, mortars and artillery shells.
    LEDS consists of a sensor suite, a central active defence controller, a high speed directed dispensing system (HSDL) and countermeasure options, ranging from fast multi-spectral smoke, through active signature management devices and decoys, to hardkill options that destroy the approaching ammunition before it hits the vehicle.

    [​IMG]

    The LEDS system makes provision for various interfaces that allow for comprehensive integration with on-board combat vehicle systems. The system also incorporates a mission data support facility.

    The sensor suite provides hemi-spherical coverage. Sensor options include, laser warning, missile approach warning and a future active threat acquisition and tracking system. The HSDL provides hemispherical countermeasure deployment, in the appropriate sequence, onto the detected threat direction. Dispensing can be controlled manually or fully automatically.

    [​IMG]

    LEDS uses the Mongoose 1 hard kill counter-munition against RPG-7 type weapons and ATGM when launched at the vehicle from > 20 m. The Mongoose has extremely low collateral damage effect.


    http://www.saabgroup.com/en/Product...egoryId=272&ProductGroupId=373&ProductId=1448
     
  6. pyromaniac

    pyromaniac Founding Member

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    excellent post Rage; does anyone know how this compares with western tanks and in particular Pakistani and Chinese tanks?
     
  7. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    T-90 is comprable to an M1Abrams and our Arjun is based on the German leopard tank
     
  8. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

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    The following is a comparison between the T-90S/ Bhishma MBT and the Pakistani Al Khalid. The T-90M, which the Indian Army will be receiving by the year's end is an improved version of the T-90 series with welded turret, V-92S2 engine and ESSA thermal viewer as opposed to the T-90S, which was a simplified export version with cast turret, R-173 radio, 1V528 computer and V-84-1 engine.

    Crew

    AL-Khalid = 3
    T-90S = 3

    Combat Weight

    Al-Khalid = 48,000 kg
    T-90S = 46,500 kg

    Engine

    Al-Khalid = 1200 horsepower
    T-90S = 840 horsepower

    Maximum Speed

    Al-Khalid = 72 km/hr
    T-90S = 65 km/hr

    Maximum Range

    Al-Khalid = 450 kms
    T-90S = 500

    Vertical Obstacle

    Al-Khalid = 0.85 m
    T-90S = 0.85

    Fording

    Al-Khalid = without preparation 1.4 metres
    T-90S = without preparation 1.2 metres

    Trench

    Al-Khalid = 2.7 m
    T-90S = 2.8 m


    Armament

    Al-Khalid

    (main): 1 x 125 mm gun 125mm Smooth Bore, Chrome Plated, Auto fret aged
    Circular Carousel Type: (Cassette Type) 22 Rounds / Minute 6-8

    FCS/GCS : Type: Image Stabilized (3rd generation director type stabilization), Optics: LASER protected (coaxial): 1 x 7.62 mm MG
    (anti-aircraft): 1 x 12.7 mm MG
    Smoke grenade dischargers: 2 x 6, can also lay smoke screen by injecting diesel into the exhaust outlets at the rear

    GUNNER SIGHT : Type Integrated, Bi-axis Stabilized Day/Night, Tl, LRF
    Magnification Dual, 3x & 1 Ox
    Field of View 20° & 6°

    COMMANDER SIGHT:
    Type Panoramic,
    Bi-Axis stabilized,

    LRF, 2nd Generation IIT
    Hunter-Killer Capability
    Magnification 7.5x
    Field of View 7 . 5
    LRF : Type ND YAG
    Range200 ~ 5000m
    AUTO TRACKER: Tracking Error < 0.1 mils Interfaced with Gunner Day Sight & Tl


    T-90S [T-90S information courtesy of Bharat Rakshak]

    1 x 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun with 43 rounds.
    ...............1 x 12.7mm NSVT anti-aircraft gun with 300 rounds. [1]
    ...............1 x 7.62mm PKT co-axial machine gun with 2000 rounds.
    ...............1 x 5.45mm AKS-74 rifle, carried on storage rack, with 300 rounds.[2]

    [1] The 12.7mm NSVT, mounted on the commander's contra-rotating copula which can be aimed and fired under complete armour protection, uses the PZU-7 machine gun sight and the 1ETs29 (with vertical stabilization) machine gun FCS (Fire Control System).

    [2] The locally-produced 5.56mm INSAS Assault Rifle will likely be used instead.


    Smoke Grenade Launchers: Mounted either side of the turret is a bank of six electrically operated 81mm smoke grenade launchers which are in a new low-angle configuration compared to those fitted to earlier Russian MBTs. The quick forming aerosol screening system comprises the four laser radiation sensors (two coarse and two fine receiving heads), the Type 902A Aerosol Forming Grenade Launch System dispensing 81mm 3D17 aerosol grenades and associated controls. The aerosol screening system detects laser illumination, determines its direction and type (laser range-finder or designator), generates warning signals, both audio and visual, and lays in automatic or semi-automatic modes, quick forming aerosol screens within three seconds at a distance of 50 to 80 metres from the tank. In addition, the tank can also lay its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust outlet located on the left side of the hull.

    The 2A46M smoothbore gun is stabilised (Zhasmin 2E42-4 system) in two axes and is fitted with a thermal sleeve. The gun tube can be replaced without a need for dismantling inside the turret. The gun can fire various ammunition including APFSDS-T (Armour Piercing Fin Stabilised Discarding Sabot - Tracer), HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank), HE-FRAG (High Explosive Fragmentation) as well as shrapnel projectiles with time fuzes. In addition it can also fire a special HE-FRAG projectile that can be detonated over the target using the tank's fire-control system. Maximum rate of fire is at 7 rounds per minute. The gun can also fire the 9M119 Refleks-M (NATO: AT-11 Sniper-B) anti-tank guided missile system. The range of the missile is 75 to 5000 metres and takes 14.2 seconds to reach maximum range. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5 km. Hit probability is over 80%. The missile system fires either the 9M119 (3UBK14 weapon system) or the 9M119M (3UBK20 weapon system) missiles which have semi-automatic laser beam riding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile weight is 23.4 kg. The gun's automatic loader will feed both ordnance and missiles.

    Self-Protection

    The hull and turret are protected by both conventional armour-plating and the latest generation Kontakt-5 ERA which provides protection against APFSDS (Armour Piercing Fin Stabilised Discarding Sabot) and HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) type projectiles. In addition to being fitted to the hull and turret, ERA panels are also fitted either side of the hull front to provide lateral protection to each side of the driver's compartment. The tank also has NBC (nuclear, biological and chemical) protection equipment. The TShU1-7 Shtora-1 countermeasures system is not fitted.

    Fire Control & Observation

    The T-90S has the 1A45T IFCS (Integrated Fire Control System) which is automatic, but has a manual override for the commander. The IFCS comprises the gunner's day/night fire-control system, gunner's IR sight or thermal imaging sight, and commander's day/night sight-observation system. The fire control system comprises day sight-rangefinder with missile guidance channel, armament stabilizer and ballistic computer. The system is used by the commander for gun and machine gun fire control.

    Propulsion

    The T-90S will be powered by a 1,000 hp V-92S2 four-stroke V-12 diesel engine. This new engine, fitted with a turbo-supercharger, offers impressive specific power and specific fuel consumption characteristics. The tank can carry up to 1600 litres of fuel in the main, armour plated fuel tanks and fuel drums. The tank is provided with a snorkel for deep fording (up to 5 metres of water) with equipment which can be deployed in 20 minutes. The mechanical transmission includes primary reduction gear, two planetary final gearboxes and two planetary final drives. The running gear features torsion bar suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers at 1, 2 and 6 road wheel stations and tracks with rubber-metallic pin hinges.

    Miscellaneous Information

    A new track has been developed and tested for the T-90S that not only has a longer life but also has replaceable rubber pads that can be quickly removed. Standard equipment includes NBC protection, fire detection & suppression system, nose-mounted dozer blade and a deep fording kit. The tank is fitted with an air conditioning system for operations in high ambient temperatures.
     
  9. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

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    Integrated Defensive Aids Suite For Indian T-90 MBTs Selected

    Tuesday, March 10, 2009


    The contract for supplying the LEDS-150 APS suite for installation on board 987 T-90 MBTs has been won against stiff competition, and follows the Army HQ’s issuance of RFPs on April 24 last year. A total of six companies (Israel Military Industries, RAFAEL, BAE Systems, Raytheon, Rosoboronexport, Saab, and Germany’s IBD Deisenroth Engineering) were invited for submitting bids for supplying 1,657 APS suites worth $270 million. APS suites offered were Russia’s Kolomna-based KBM Engineering Design Bureau’s Arena-E, Israel Military Industries’ Iron Fist, RAFAEL Advanced Defence Systems’ Trophy, Raytheon’s Quick Kill, Saab’s LEDS-150 and Deisenroth Engineering’s AMAP-ADS.

    Eventually, the LEDS-150 was selected and its procurement contract was inked last month. The Land Electronic Defence System (LEDS) combines active signature management, soft-kill and hard-kill mechanisms to provide full spectrum active protection to armoured vehicles. Full hemispherical coverage is provided to detect incoming threats and alert the crew. When installed in full configuration, the LEDS-150 offers MBT-comparable protection to light and medium combat vehicles against engagement by weapons like RPG-7s, anti-tank guided-missiles, KE ammunition, mortars and field artillery shells. The LEDS-150 typically comprises laser warning sensors, ADC-150 active defence controller AD, a number of munition confirmation and tracking sensors, and high-speed directed launchers, which allow the combination of soft- and hard-kill countermeasure deployment capability to the platform, optional displays, and interconnecting harnesses.

    The hard kill feature of the LEDS-150 is characterised by its capability to physically destroy the efficiency of the terminal ballistic capability of attacking munitions without residual penetration of the protected vehicle. The hard kill system detects and tracks a single or simultaneous threats and calculates if the attacking munition will hit the platform or not. The system determines the best inertial intercept position and provides the slew and firing commands to the launchers. The Mongoose-1 countermeasure missile is launched at a predetermined time to intercept and neutralise the detected munition off-board at a distance of between 5 metres and 15 metres from the vehicle to minimise the collateral damage to own forces.--Prasun K. Sengupta

    Addendum:

    Sweden’s flagship company Saab Group, which also owns Gripen International and late last January opened its representative office in New Delhi, recently won two significant contract awards from the Ministry of Defence, one worth US$24 million for supplying the CIDAS (Compact Integrated all-digital defensive aids suite) for the 16 armed Dhruv ALH helicopters now being built by HAL for the Indian Air Force (IAF), and the other for supplying the LEDS-150 active protection system (APS) for the Indian Army’s T-90S+ and T-90M main battle tanks (MBT).

    Presently, the DRDO’s Bangalore-based Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) and SaabTech are co-developing the MILDS AN/AAR-60 missile approach warning system (MAWS), which forms only one component of the CIDAS defensive aids suite. The MAWS is of South African origin and was further co-developed by EADS ewation (Germany) and Grintek Ewation (South Africa) after decided to merge by 2001. This was followed by SaabTech taking a stake in Avitronics (part of Grintek). SaabTech now owns both the South African companies (Grintek and Avitronics) as well as the EADS-Grintek joint venture. Therefore, in conclusion, the prime contractor for supplying the CIDAS defensive aids suite is SaabTech.

    The CIDAS will also find its way on board the HAL-developed Light Combat Helicopter, whose first prototype will be rolled out this March. In addition, the CIDAS will also most likely be on board the to-be-upgraded Ka-28PL, Ka-31 and Sea King Mk42B helicopters of the Indian Navy, and also on the 60 armed Dhruv ALHs that the Indian Army will be procuring for its projected Combat Aviation Brigade, which will also be employed for vertical envelopment operations in support of expeditionary amphibious warfare campaigns. A version of CIDAS also exists for combat aircraft and will in all probability be selected for installation on board the Su-30MKI in the near future, since the Su-30MKIs lack on-board missile approach warning systems and laser warning systems. Another aircraft to be equipped with CIDAS will be the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) now being co-developed by HAL and Russia’s United Aircraft Corp.


    http://trishulgroup.blogspot.com/2009/03/idas-for-indian-t-90-mbts-selected.html
     
  10. Payeng

    Payeng Daku Mongol Singh

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    I don't think that they are comparable in the same weight category.
     
  11. K Factor

    K Factor A Concerned Indian Senior Member

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    T-90 has 30 tons less armor than M1A2 Abrams.

    Abrams uses DU in its hull armor :mad:
     
  12. zraver

    zraver Defence Professionals Defence Professionals

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    The Abrams is about 14 tons heavier than the T-90m. American tons are short tons, not metric this throws people off. Also most of the DU is under the turret front in the form of rods that being incredibly dense tend to deform penetrators, and/or induce sheer forces. The Abrams also has an internal but still modular ceramic armor package.
     
  13. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    Understanding Main Battle Tanks.

    in this thread we would like to discuss some details of technical aspects of the present day main battle tanks round the world.



    ROTEM K2 (Black Panther):- south korea export country :-turkey present day 25 prototypes.
    The K2 uses a German MTU 1500 hp Europowerpack engine and has a 120 mm Rheinmetall smoothbore gun with an autoloader provided a rate-of-fire of up to 15 rounds per minute. The rounds reportedly can penetrate the armor of the M1A2 Abrams American tank. Radar equipment and laser detection systems along with reactive armor are comparable to the French LeClerc and the US M1A2 Abrams main battle tanks. The K2 is fitted with a water snorkel (via kit) and can cross water obstacles of up to 4.2 meters (13.78 ft) deep. The water-tight system takes about 30 minutes to set up and the tank can fire its main gun as soon as it is on dry land. The K2 can accelerate from 0 kmh to 32 kmh in approximately 7 seconds. She can also climb a 60-degree slope and clear vertical obstacles of up to 1.3 meters.

    The K2 is equipped with a first-line fire control system that can track and engage other tanks but also includes non-conventional tank targets such as low flying helicopters, with an effective range of fire being up to 10 kilometers (6.2 miles). The fire control system can spot-track-fire on auto at vehicle-sized targets without the crew's input. The 120mm munitions mainstay is the KSTAM (Korean Smart Top Attack Munitions) round. The KSTAM is a smart fire-and-forget projectile that have their own guidance system using stabilizing fins during flight. These rounds can be fired from behind cover and have a maximum range of 8 kilometers (4.97 miles). The three man crew - composed of the commander, gunner and driver - have protection with an NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical) system and armor that is classified. A friendly force protection system that offers situational awareness is connected to the navigation system. The MTU MB-883 KA500 engine produces 1500 horsepower while the advanced suspension system is hydro pneumatic semi-automatic. The tank can tilt forward, back and to either side. Each wheel is connected in such a way to allow for multiple fire angles depending on the location of the target relative to the tank.
    Dimensions:
    Length: 32.81ft (10.00m)
    Width:10.17ft (3.10m)
    Height: 7.22ft (2.20m)
    Performance:
    Speed: 43mph (70km/h)
    Range: 280miles (450km)
    Structure:
    Accommodation: 3
    Weight: 60.6 US Short Tons (55,000kg)
    Systems:
    NBC Protection: Yes
    Nightvision: Yes
    Power:
    Engine(s): 1 x 4-cycle, 12-cylinder water-cooled diesel engine developing 1,500hp.


    Al Khalid (MBT 2000)
    Produced in conjunction with China's NORINCO (China North Industries Corporation). The main battle tank features an automatic loader, negating the need for another crewman in the turret. NBC system and explosive reactive armor provide battlefield survivability. It should be noted that the Al Khalid is the same weapon system that China produces as the Type 90-IIM series while the Pakistani system was once known as the "MBT 2000". The fire control system is completely computerized and features stabilized day and night sighting which is available to the gunner and commander. Amphibious travel is possible but limited to some extent, requiring the addition of a snorkel system.
    Dimensions:
    Length: 35.01ft (10.67m)
    Width:11.15ft (3.40m)
    Height: 7.55ft (2.30m)
    Performance:
    Speed: 43mph (70km/h)
    Range: 267miles (430km)
    Structure:
    Accommodation: 3
    Weight: 52.9 US Short Tons (48,000kg)
    Systems:
    NBC Protection: Yes
    Nightvision: Yes
    Power:
    Engine(s): 1 x 8-cylinder 4-stroke water-cooled turbocharged diesel engine generating 1,200 hp.

    Armament & Ammunition:
    1 x 125mm main gun
    1 x 7.62mm coaxial machine gun
    1 x 12.7anti-aircraft machine gun
    2 x 6 smoke dispensers

    Ammunition:
    39 x 125mm projectiles
    500 x 12.7mm ammunition
    2,000 x 7.62mm ammunition
    12 x smoke grenadesAccommodation: 3
    Weight: 52.9 US Short Tons (48,000kg)
    Systems:
    NBC Protection: Yes
    Nightvision: Yes
    Power:
    Engine(s): 1 x 8-cylinder 4-stroke water-cooled turbocharged diesel engine generating 1,200 hp.

    technical data copyright:- military factory
     
  14. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    T-90
    The T-90 is reported to be the best equipped of all of the Russian tanks currently in service and serves as a more modified MBT system of the T-72, appearing as a stop-gap in MBT design until a new system is designed and funding is in place to develop the next generation of Russian tank. It does, however, utilize a few of the defensive technologies incorporated into the stop-gap T-80 Main Battle Tank design as well.

    The T-90 features a substantially powerful 125mm main gun (by comparison other standard MBTs utilize a 120mm variant). The gun can also be fitted to fire laser-guided projectiles. Updated NBC protection systems and night vision round out the plethora of upgrades available. The low silhouette, always a trademark of Soviet tank design, is apparent in this design as well. Explosive reactive armor can be added for more crew protection. An autoloader handles the main gun ammunition loading, negating the need for a fourth crewman in the tank, and a third crewman in the turret.

    As noted above, two powerful diesel engines are available for the system as well.
    Dimensions:
    Length: 31.27ft (9.53m)
    Width:12.40ft (3.78m)
    Height: 22.51ft (6.86m)
    Performance:
    Speed: 40mph (65km/h)
    Range: 404miles (650km)
    Structure:
    Accommodation: 3
    Weight: 51.3 US Short Tons (46,500kg)
    Systems:
    NBC Protection: Yes
    Nightvision: Yes
    Power:
    Engine(s): 1 x V-84MS 12-cylinder diesel engine generating 840hp plus 1 kW AB-1-P28 auxiliary power system. Also available is a V-92S2 diesel engine generating 1,000hp.

    Armament & Ammunition:
    1 x 125mm main gun
    1 x 12.7mm machine gun
    1 x 7.62mm coaxial machine gun
    2 x 6 smoke grenade dischargers

    Ammunition:
    43 x 125mm projectiles
    300 x 12.7mm ammunition
    2,000 x 7.62mm ammunition
    12 x smoke grenades


    Duro Dakovic M95 Degman
    The Croatian Duro Dakovic M95 Degman Main Battle Tank is a locally-produced weapon system that shares many similarities with its Russian counterpart, the T-72 Main Battle Tank, although the M95 features a vast amount of improvements over the original system. The M95 is, itself, an upgraded and improved version of the Yugoslavian M84 Degman Main Battle Tank.

    The Turret and hull are all produced as welded armor. The system can also adapt to include explosive reactive armor. A crew of three make out the needed operators with the loader replaced by the traditional Soviet-style automatic loader system. Computer-assisted fire control systems allow the vehicle to target and fire in day or night and whether the target is moving or not.Dimensions:
    Length: 33.27ft (10.14m)
    Width:11.78ft (3.59m)
    Height: 7.19ft (2.19m)
    Performance:
    Speed: 43mph (70km/h)
    Range: 435miles (700km)
    Structure:
    Accommodation: 3
    Weight: 49.1 US Short Tons (44,500kg)
    Systems:
    NBC Protection: Yes
    Nightvision: Yes
    Power:
    Engine(s): 1 x 12-cylinder diesel generating 1,000hp. There is also an optional 1,200hp diesel engine
    1 x 125mm main gun
    1 x 7.62mm coaxial machine gun
    1 x 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun
    2 x 6 smoke dischargers

    Ammunition:
    42 x 125mm projectiles
    2,000 x 7.62mm ammunition
    360 x 12.7mm ammunition
    12 x smoke grenades
     
  15. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    Type 90: country :- japan
    The Japanese-produced Type 90 Main Battle Tank is in service with the Japanese Self-Defense Force and features the German-designed Rheinmetall 120mm smooth-bore main gun (produced in Japan by Japan Steel Works under license) and a computerized fire-control system by Mitsubishi Electric. Full-NBC protection is afforded to the crew with passive night vision equipment as well.

    Accommodations of three (driver, commander and gunner) make up the required crew, with projectile-loading duties handled by an automated loading system. The Type 90 has full hunter-killer appropriations that allow for the system to be moving or in place and still engage targets that might also be moving or remaining in place.

    Overall, the highly-expensive Type 90 weapon system is quite on par with other main battle tanks of this class, including a .50 caliber machine gun for anti-aircraft defense and the ability to fire the latest in standard projectile rounds. The chassis was designed and built with adaptability in mind (a requirement in today's modern military), thusly the system can incorporate a dozer blade, scissors-type bridge (AVLB variant) or winch (ARV variant) for battlefield engineering duties.
    Dimensions:
    Length: 31.99ft (9.75m)
    Width:11.25ft (3.43m)
    Height: 7.68ft (2.34m)
    Performance:
    Speed: 43mph (70km/h)
    Range: 249miles (400km)
    Structure:
    Accommodation: 3
    Weight: 55.1 US Short Tons (50,000kg)
    Systems:
    NBC Protection: Yes
    Nightvision: Yes - Passive
    Power:
    Engine(s): 1 x Mitsubishi 10ZG 10-cylinder water-cooled 2-stroke diesel engine generating 1,500hp @ 2,400rpm.

    1 x 120mm main gun
    1 x 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun
    1 x 7.62mm coaxial machine gun
    2 x 3 smoke dispensers

    Ammunition:
    35 x 120mm projectiles
    1,500 x 12.7mm ammunition
    2,000 x 7.62mm ammunition
    6 x smoke grenades



    Type 99 country :- china

    The Type 99 first appeared as the Type 98, which was itself an improved version of the Type 90 - and that itself as a further development of the Soviet/Russian T-72 series. The Type 98 evolved into the Type 98G and featured a 125mm main gun with autoloader, removing the fourth crewmember present in the base Type 98 system. Additionally, the Type 98G sported an advanced fire control system for accurate on-the-move engagement capability and an improved 1,200 horsepower diesel engine. With the introduction of a 1,500 horsepower engine, the system graduated to the production designation of Type 99.

    The Type 99 incorporates improved firing and crew survival features. Armor is expected to be on par with global counterparts (with frontal armor of particular thickness) and experiments with explosive reactive armor have been noted. One of the more distinct design installments of the Type 99 is the ability for the 125mm smoothbore main gun to fire the Russian AT-11 laser-guided missile - an addition that makes the Type 99 doubly-lethal on the modern battlefield. The Type 99 also sports an integrated active laser defense system that assists the crew in spotting any engaging enemy tanks at distance and debilitate the target's optics system effectively blinding the enemy crew.

    Some specifications of the Type 99 are still kept under wraps and are often estimated in sources.




    Arjun country :- india
    Externally, it shares many similarities with current generation models found elsewhere. The system is crewed by four personnel with the driver situated in the hull. The design retains a respectably low profile and fits 7 roads wheels to each track side with some upper armor skirting. External fuel tanks can be carried at rear for increase range. Overall, the Arjun is designed with sharp clean lines with very little in the way of sloped angles. Armament consists of the powerful 120mm main un with a co-axially mounted 7.62mm machine gun. Beyond that, a single 12.7mm (.50 caliber) anti-aircraft machine gun is fitted to the top of the turret. A total of 39 projectiles of 120mm ammunition are carried in specialized containers and is kept separate from the crew as an added level of crew survivability.

    Power is derived from the MTU 838 Ka 501 series turbocharged water-cooled diesel engine generating some 1,400 horsepower. A more powerful 1,500 horsepower engine is in the works. Extensive attention has also been placed on the fire-control system , this coupled with its complicated suspension system and gun stabilization components allow the Arjun a good first-hit capability on par with most any current generation MBT. Some amphibious capability has been demonstrated as well which only enhance the systems value.

    It was envisioned that the Arjun chassis - as with most other armies maintaining a capable MBT - would be used in a myriad of related but specialized vehicles. Among them is a developed (prototype) armored recovery vehicle though an armored reconnaissance, self-propelled gun and air defense vehicle were also planned. An interesting combination of the Arjun turret and a T-72 class chassis has also appeared in the form of the Tan EX.
    Dimensions:
    Length: 33.43ft (10.19m)
    Width:12.60ft (3.84m)
    Height: 7.61ft (2.32m)
    Performance:
    Speed: 42mph (67.6km/h)
    Range: 300miles (483km)
    Structure:
    Accommodation: 4
    Weight: 64.6 US Short Tons (58,600kg)
    Systems:
    NBC Protection: Yes
    Nightvision: Yes
    Power:
    Engine(s): 1 x MTU 838 Ka 501 12-cylinder liquid-cooled turbocharged diesel engine generating 1,400hp @ 2,500rpm.

    1 x 120mm rifled main gun
    1 x 12.7mm (.50 caliber) AA machine gun
    1 x 7.62mm (.30 caliber) coaxial machine gun
    12 x smoke grenade dischargers

    Ammunition:
    39 x 120mm projectiles
    3,000 x 7.62mm ammunition
    1,000 x 12.7mm (.50 caliber) ammunition
    12 x smoke grenades
     
  16. Known_Unknown

    Known_Unknown Devil's Advocate Stars and Ambassadors

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    On a russian forum some time back, I read someone say that the Shtora electronic protection suite is what differentiates the Russian T90 from the Indian T90s, and that this difference is significant. A T-90 with the Shtora, apparently, is miles ahead of a T-90 without it. Kinda like the difference between a Su-30 MKI, and the Chinese MKK. Can anyone shed some light on this?
     
    Shantanu likes this.
  17. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India's t-90's are fitted with Shtora

    T 90S - Main Battle Tank Developed by Nizhnyi Tagil - Army Technology



    The first of these was delivered in January 2004. The locally assembled tanks are christened 'Bhishma'. The tanks are fitted with the Shtora self-protection system and Catherine thermal imagers from Thales of France and Peleng of Belarus.
    "The T-90S Russian tank represents an increase in firepower, mobility and protection."

    In January 2005, it was announced that a further 91 T-90S tanks would be procured for the Russian Army, although this number was later reduced. Deliveries are underway.

    By November 2007, it has been estimated that the Russian Army has around 200 T-90 tanks. In August 2007, Thales was awarded a contract to supply 100 of these with the Catherine FC thermal imager. In March 2006, Algeria signed a contract for the supply of 180 T-90S tanks from Uralvagonzavod, to be delivered by 2011.

    In November 2006, India ordered a further 300 T-90 tanks, to be licence-built by heavy vehicle factory (HVF), Avadi. Production has been delayed due to technology transfer problems but is expected to begin by the end of 2008.

    Armament

    The T-90S armament includes one 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun, stabilised in two axes and fitted with a thermal sleeve. The gun tube can be replaced without dismantling inside the turret. The gun can fire a variety of ammunition including APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (high-explosive anti-tank), HE-FRAG (high-explosive fragmentation) as well as shrapnel projectiles with time fuses.

    The T-90S gun can also fire the 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system. The range of the missile is 100m to 4,000m and takes 11.7 sec to reach maximum range. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (explosive reactive armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles which have semi-automatic laser beamriding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile weight is 23.4kg. The guns automatic loader will feed both ordnance and missiles.

    Also fitted is a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun and a 12.7mm air defence machine gun. A 5.45mm AKS-74 assault rifle is carried on a storage rack.

    Self protection

    The T-90 tank is protected by both conventional armour-plating and explosive reactive armour.

    The T-90 is fitted with the Shtora-1 defensive aids suite which is produced by Electronintorg of Russia. This system includes infrared jammer, laser warning system with four laser warning receivers, grenade discharging system which produces an aerosol screen and a computerised control system.

    It is also fitted with NBC (nuclear, biological and chemical) protection equipment.

    Fire control and observation
    "The T-90S has the 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS) which is automatic but with manual override."

    The T-90S has the 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS) which is automatic but with manual override for the commander. The IFCS contains the gunner's 1A43 day fire control system, gunner's TO1-KO1 thermal imaging sight which has a target identification range of 1.2km to 1.5km and commander's PNK-S sight.

    The gunner's 1A43 day FCS comprises: 1G46 day sight / rangefinder with missile guidance channel, 2E42-4 armament stabiliser, 1V528 ballistic computer and DVE-BS wind gauge.

    The commander's PNK-4S sight includes a TKN-4S (Agat-S) day / night sight which has identification ranges of 800m (day) and 700m (night).

    The driver is equipped with a TVN-5 infrared night viewer.

    Propulsion

    The T-90S has a liquid-cooled V-84MS 618kW (840 hp) four-stroke V-12 piston engine. This engine can be fuelled by T-2 or TS-1 kerosene and A-72 benzine, in addition to diesel. The tank can carry up to 1,600 litres of fuel in the main fuel tanks and fuel drums. The fuel tanks are reinforced with armour plating.

    The tank is provided with a snorkel for deep fording and can ford 5m of water with equipment which can be deployed in 20 minutes.

    The mechanical transmission includes primary reduction gear, two planetary final gearboxes and two planetary final drives. The running gear features torsion bar suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers at one, two and six road wheel stations and tracks with rubber-metallic pin hinges.
    T-90S tank firing a round during demonstrations

    Expand Image Expand Image
    T-90S during demonstrations.
    T-90S tanks main armament is a 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun

    Expand Image Expand Image
    The T-90S main armament is a 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun.
    Two T-90S Russian battle tanks on a training exercise
     
  18. Known_Unknown

    Known_Unknown Devil's Advocate Stars and Ambassadors

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    Hmm....strange. I have read many sources claiming they aren't. Here's BR:

    T-90S Main Battle Tank

    [​IMG]

     
  19. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    maybe not all the t-90's but some of them like the Bhisma could be fitted or maybe it is intentionally ambigious??
     
  20. Known_Unknown

    Known_Unknown Devil's Advocate Stars and Ambassadors

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    LF,

    Check out the image below. I have circled the external component of the Shtora ECM system on a Russian tank. Can't find any similar images of Indian T-90S tanks.

    Here's more info about Shtora:

    Shtora-1 Active Protection System
     
  21. F-14

    F-14 Global Defence Moderator Senior Member

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    Known unknown the T-90S does not have the Shtora ECM system
     

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