Know Your India and its various states

Discussion in 'Politics & Society' started by ajtr, May 18, 2010.

  1. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    I got idea to start this thread in part from one of the the Mehwish complain in ‘Why should Manipur remain in India?’ thread, that indian are mostly ignorant about other states other than the one they live -in and partly from the thread with similar topic on BR

    DFI being the conglomeration of indians from various states it can be a nice platform to make members and others who read DFI make aware about the particular states' cultural,socio-economic and other related issues.


    So I request members to pour in the knowledge about their states displaying various aspects of its.here would like to quote part of shiv's post....

    some of the the graph and map of india showing literacy and pop density and indians states fertility rates.... courtesy anuj at BR...

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    General note to all posters......

    Plz Post following info about ur states.....

    1.general facts and figures like formation day,area,population,literacy rates,population density etc
    2.healthcare info like--child mortality,maternal mortality etc
    3. natural resources
    4.economic conditions
    5.major industries.
    6. places for tourists attraction.

    ** you can follow the rough MP example as i 've posted or better than that.
    Most important----from now various posters posts will get mixed up and will not be continuous flow of info about your state so plz mention your state name in each and every post of yours.
     
    Last edited: May 19, 2010
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  3. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Let me start here from my native state Madhya pradesh......
    Madhya Pradesh Map
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  4. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Madhya Pradesh Facts and Figures

    Date of Formation: 1 Nov, 1956
    Total Geographical Area: 3, 08,144 sq. km
    Forest Area: 95,221 km²
    Latitude (Bhopal): 23.17° N
    Longitude (Bhopal): 77.21° E
    Capital: Bhopal
    No. of Districts: 48
    No. of Lok Sabha seats: 29
    No. Rajya Sabha seats: 11
    No. of Vidhan Sabha seats: 230
    No. of villages: 55,393
    No. of towns: 394
    Population (2001): 60,348,023
    Male population: 31,443,652
    Female population: 28,904,371
    Population Density: 196 per sq. km
    Sex Ratio: 920 females per 1000 males
    Literacy rate: 63.70%
    Religions: Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism
    Official language (s): Hindi
    Road Length: 67,600 km
    National Highway Length 3700 km
     
    Last edited: May 19, 2010
  5. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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  6. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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  7. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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  8. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Last edited: May 18, 2010
  9. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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  10. Oracle

    Oracle New Member

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    A very good initiative mate. Cheers!!!
     
  11. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Economic Infrastructure in Madhya Pradesh

    Power

    Madhya Pradesh has the capability of generating 15000 MW of power in next 5-10 years. It is expected to be Power Surplus state by the year 2008-09.The potential areas is thermal, gas and alternative energy sources.

    Roads

    National Highways: 5070 kms
    State Highways: 9885 kms
    Major District Roads: 11114 Km
    Village Roads : 44233 Km
    Total : 68105 Km

    Railways

    Trunk Rail route connecting northern India passes through Madhya Pradesh. Main junctions in the state are Bhopal, Bina, Gwalior, Indore, Itarsi, Jabalpur, Katni, Ratlam, Ujjain & Khandwa.

    Aviation

    Major airports linking Delhi, Bombay, Varanasi & Nagpur are Bhopal, Indore, Khajuraho & Gwalior. Stations linked by Vayudoot are Bhopal, Khajuraho, Satna, Rewa, Guna, Indore & Jabalpur. Bhopal is also connected to Jaipur, Raipur & Nagpur by Vayudoot.

    The government has geared up to upgrade the airports at Bhopal and Indore, both for cargo as well as passengers to international standards.

    Water Resources

    Water is a critical resource for supporting life and sustaining overall development. Fortunately, water is available in the state of Madhya Pradesh in plenty. The average surface water availability is 81.50 lakh hectare-metre contributed by ten major river basins -Chambal, Betwa, Sindh, and Ken basins in the north, Sone and Tons river basins in the east, Benganga basin in south and Narmada, Mahi and Tapti basins in centre and west. In addition, 35-50 lakh hectare metre ground water is available.

    Social Infrastructure

    Education

    Madhya Pradesh is known for high quality educational institutions ranging from schools to higher centres of learning and research. The government has taken several initiatives for extending the elementary education and training for teachers. The state strives to become a fully literate state by 2010. Further, the state aims to become an educated state and not merely a literate state by developing a "learning society as opposed to a schooling society". To meet this end, the state is laying special stress on vocational and technical training. Under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, an annual plan for Rs. 1800 crore is envisaged.

    Major Industries

    The industrial sector contributes 8 per cent to employment of the state workforce and 25 per cent to state GDP. The rate of annual industrial growth in the recent past has varied from 4 per cent to 6 per cent. Indutry in Madhya Pradesh is largely resource driven leveraging the state's natural wealth in the form of limestone, coal, soya, cotton, bauxite, iron-ore, silica etc. Therefore, the state has a strong industrial base in sectors like textile, cement, steel, soya processing and optical fibre.

    Agriculture and Agro Processing

    Madhya Pradesh is the fourth largest producer of agri produce in India with lowest consumption of fertilizer per hectare. Agriculture contributes almost one-third of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) and is the main source of employment for over 70 per cent population and constitutes about 60 to 75 per cent rural income. The performance of the agriculture sector in the state has been impressive. From a growth rate of mere 1.5 to 2 per cent in the 1980s, the state has made rapid strides growing at the rate of 4 to 5 per cent, faster than the country's average of 3.1 per cent.

    Major Crops grown in the State are Paddy, Wheat, Maize and Jowar among Cereals, Gram, Tur, Urad and Moong among Pulses, while Soybean, Groundnut and Mustard among Oilseeds. Also commercial Crops like Cotton and Sugarcane are also grown in considerable area in few Districts. Horticulture Crops Potato, Onion, Garlic, along with fruits like Papaya, Banana, Oranges, Mango and Grapes are also grown in the State. Some area has also been brought under medicinal and narcotic crops.

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    New Interventions in Agriculture and Agro-processing

    Agro-climatic zone wise planning
    Increasing the production in 5 years by implementing following programmes:
    Convergence demonstration for doubling farm incomes in irrigated and rain fed areas, in each district.
    Bringing additional culturable fallow and ravine land under cultivation & horticulture.
    Intensive tank-bed cultivation in Rabi.
    Promotion of agro processing industries.
    Increasing the production
    Soil water management through institutional credit.
    Enhancing seed replacement rate.
    Balanced application of chemical & organic nutrients based in soil tests
    Revamping cooperative credit and restoring the health of cooperative institution.
    Introducing agriculture including horticulture and animal husbandry as a compulsory subject in middle schools.
    Promotion of organic farming.
    Enhancing per ha. use of fertiliser.
    Judicious use of available water.
    Intercropping of Horticulture crops.
    New nurseries in private sector.
    Medicinal crops & floriculture in each district.
    Massive seed production programme involving the Seed Grower Co-operative Societies.
    20% increase in distribution of machinery & implements
    Leasing out of large chunks of ravine land for horticulture use.
    Promotion to cultivation of Durum wheat.
    Increasing production of quality plants of horticulture especially through Private Nurseries.
    Increasing milk production through breed improvement & induction of high yielding milk cattle.
    Better enforcement of Insecticide Act, Seed Act & Fertiliser Control Order to ensure quality of inputs.
    Integrated approach for doubling food production and farm income by contact village concept -
    Out of 52,000 villages in state 15,000 villages are identified as contact village in 2004 -05.
    2 villages will be adopted by each village extension worker(VLW).
    Capacity building of key communicators in the village (Kisan Bandhu & Kisan Saheli)
    Involvement of 'Kisan Bandhu' & 'Kisan Saheli' in extention activity as well as in establishing agri clinic & agribusiness centres.
    Extension training through SatCom.
    Agri.- Export Zone: Three Agri Export Zones have been sanctioned:
    1. Potato/Onion/ Garlic
    2. Seed spices
    3. Wheat
    Agro processing industries
    M.P. Agro. nominated as nodal agency
    Agro processing is earmarked as thrust sector in new industrial policy.
    Possibility of more than 1000 Agro industries in the state, promoting entrepreneurs.

    Herbal Business

    Madhya Pradesh is known for a wide range of herbs. It caters to about 40 percent of Indian herbal industry's requirement across spread across the country. The main herbal centres are Shivpuri, Betul, Katni, Neemuch and Lalitpur. The natural occurrence of most of the herbs blended with mass scale cultivation of many has made the state the herbal hub of the country. Madhya Pradesh is the raw material bowl of the herbal industry and is all set to become the main processing centre for several herbal products. The following factors make the state conducive for investments in the herbal industry:

    Of the 16 agro-climatic zones of the country, 11 fall in Madhya Pradesh. As a result, it is a natural habitat for over 50 per cent of the herbs used in pharmaceutical industry.
    Abundant availability of raw herbs
    Abundant availability of land for cultivation of various herbs
    Large-scale cultivation of a number of species has already been started, which can further be increased to a large scale, as there is plenty of fertile land available.
    Cheap land available for industrial operations
    The state is well connected by rail, road and air.
    Single window clearance system for drug license
    Preference allotment of land in industrial areas
    Investment opportunities exist in this sector in the following industries:

    Aloe vare gel extraction and spray dried powder manufacturing units.
    Units to produce extracts of various herbs.
    Fractional distillation units for value addition in essential oils.
    Various ayurvedic drug formulation units.
    Promotion of food and vegetable colour dyes.
    Production of concentrates from flowers.
    Primary processing of raw herbs.
    Isabgol dehusking units.
    Herbal cosmetics
    Units to make perfumery compounds
    Production of bio-diesel.
    Cement

    The state is the third largest producer of Cement in the country catering to 13% of the National demand. Currently present several major groups are expanding their production capacities. Considering the present scenario and the availability of raw material, there is a scope of further investment of $2.5 billion in this sector.

    Madhya Pradesh's key strength in cement industry is the presence of large limestone reserves, estimated to be over 2 billion tonnes.

    Prominent cement companies present in the state include ACC, Grasim Industries, Jaiprakash Associates, Cement Corporation of India Ltd, Century Textiles and Mysore Cements.

    Textiles and Apparels

    The textiles of Madhya Pradesh are a part of the rich heritage of India. The bordering States of Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh have influenced the weaving, printing and colouring of textiles of Madhya Pradesh, but at the same time they have developed their own distinctive style and individuality.

    Madhya Pradesh encompasses a number if textile units (approx 51 units). The textile export from M.P. is around $250 Million approx. The state has a potential of attracting a total investment of $2.2 Billion approx in the textile sector in next 5 years, with integrated business models consisting of Composite mills & Garment units. There are vast opportunities for Spun Yarn, Fabric, Textile / Fashion Designing, Readymade Garments.

    Pharmaceuticals

    The Pharmaceutical sector in Madhya Pradesh envisages a potential of $ 1 Billion Investment in next 5 Years. There is tremendous scope for Bulk drugs / formulations, Herbal products, Contract research, Research centres / laboratories.

    Chemicals

    The Chemical sector in Madhya Pradesh envisages an Investment opportunity of over $75 billion, with a potential growth of 5 billion in the next 10 years.

    Auto and Auto components:

    This sector offers tremendous potential with reference to HCV/LCV/MCV/PC/2-3 Wheeler, Auto Components: Tyres, Engines, and Gears.

    Minerals / Stone

    The opportunities in this sector include Stone cutting & Polishing, Marble, Granite, Sandstone, Mineral / Gas exploration, Mineral excavation and Power generation plant.

    Tourism Industry

    With the view to speed-up development of Tourism in Madhya Pradesh, the State Government announced a New Tourism Policy in January 1995. The new tourism policy envisages creation of an environment conducive to attracting increased private investment in the tourism sector, and a more meaningful role for the Government.

    The opportunities in this sector include

    Hotels,
    Resorts,
    Charter Flights,
    Adventure Zones,
    Amusement Parks and
    Tourist trains.
    Incentives in tourism Industry

    A special package of incentives for the tourism industry has been prepared. These incentives will also be available for private entrepreneurs for any of the following activities:

    Hotels, Motels and Restaurants.
    Heritage Hotels, Health Farms, Recreation Centres, Ropeways, Golf Courses, Museums, Amusement Parks, Craft Villages, Convention Centres, and all other bonafide tourism related activities recognised by the government.
    A/c Luxury Coaches, A/c Mini Buses, and imported Limousines purchased by registered tour operators for tourist transport.
    Activities connected with adventure tourism, such as hang gliding, para sailing, river rafting, boating, trekking, rock climbing etc.
    Specific Incentives
    Land
    Government land will be offered with the approval of the Empowered Committee as equity participation on behalf of the Government at current market value for setting up Joint Ventures.
    The companies thus formed who are given any kind of Government land will be expected to complete the project within a period of three years from the date of transfer of land, failing which the land will revert to the Government. The company will not be allowed to transfer the land to anybody else, or use it for any purpose other than that for which it is allotted.
    For construction of approved category hotels, etc. in the urban areas, exemption under Section 20 of the Urban Land Ceiling Act will be made available on a case-to-case basis as decided by the Empowered Committee.

    Luxury Tax

    New projects shall be exempt from Luxury Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of commercial operations.

    Sales Tax

    New projects shall be exempt from Sales Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of commercial operations.

    Entertainment Tax

    Entertainment Centres will be exempt from Entertainment Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of commercial operations.

    IT/IT related services

    Investment opportunities exist in the area of business Process Outsourcing, and software / hardware segments. Madhya Pradesh is targeting 5-10% of the Indian share of Global IT/ITES market.

    Potential Investment Projects

    Industry:
    a. New Export Oriented Ventures in SEZ.
    b. Software Development BPO Units in Crystal IT Park Institute of life science and Technology-A Design & A Road Map.
    Project for Maximization Oilseed and Pulses production in Bundelkhand Region of M.P.
    Opportunities for setting up Food Processing Industries.
    Infrastructure for Textile Centres.
    Textile related projects.
    Down Stream project on Bina Refinery & Coal Bedded Methane at Shahdol.
    Industrial Cities.
    SEZ & IT/ BT/ Agro Parks.
    Agro Processing in Agri Export Zones.
    Building up of Auto & Auto parts units considering the opportunities provided by Auto Track & Auto Cluster at Indore.
    Manufacturing, Maintenance facility, Logistic & Cargo Hub for Airline Industry at Indore/ Bhopal.
    Institute of life Sciences & Biotechnology.
    Herbal Minor Forest Produce and Medical Plant Production & Processing.
    Education:
    a. New institutes for professional courses.
    b. Air Hostess Training & Hotel Vocation Multi purpose school
    Central Business District Project.
    Eco & Adventure Tourism Projects.
    Fisheries & Tourism Project at Indira Sagar Dam.
    Development of Buddhist Circuit in Madhya Pradesh.
    IT Park at Bhopal.
    Software Technology Park at Bhopal.
    Science City at Dewas.
    Policy Framework

    Industrial Promotion Policy 2004

    With a view to attain a double digit economic growth in Madhya Pradesh and for making the state prosperous, the state Cabinet has approved the new industrial policy (Industrial Promotion Policy 2004 and Action Plan). The Industrial Promotion Policy would be effective for five years from 1st April 2004.The new policy envisages on creating an industry-friendly administration, maximizing employment opportunities, tackling industrial sickness, to rationalizing rates of commercial taxes and bolstering private sector participation.
    Objectives of the Policy

    To make state administration industry friendly by simplifying rules and procedures.
    To accelerate the pace of industrialization and make Madhya Pradesh industrially a leading state.
    To maximize employment prospects.
    To attract NRI and foreign investment by developing world-class infrastructure.
    To create congenial environment for the development of small, medium and large industries.
    To ensure balanced regional development by generating employment in the non-farm sector.
    To chalk out special packages for removing industrial sickness.
    To integrate the different employment oriented schemes in order to provide employment opportunities on a sustainable basis
    To rationalize commercial tax rates to make the state's industries competitive vis-à-vis industries in other states
    To provide direction to industrialization, keeping in view the available local resources and the existing industrial base.
    To ensure private sector participation in the state's industrialization process.
    To financially strengthen the undertakings of Department of Industries, enabling them to play a pivotal role in the promotion of industries.
    Strategy of the Industrial Policy

    Providing incentives and facilities in the state to achieve objectives of Industrial Promotion Policy and ensuring effective implementation of planned strategy.
    An Employment Board has been set up for employment generation under which policy for employment and self-employment schemes will be framed and monitored.
    Madhya Pradesh Trade and Investment Facilitation Corporation (TRIFAC) will be set up.
    In the process of industrialization, maximum participation of private sector will be ensured.
    In order to promote investment, the rules of the business of the State Government would be amended and single window system would be strengthened and made effective and dynamic by enacting 'Industrial Facilitation Act'.
    Technological up-gradation, modernization and development of industrial units would be encouraged.
    Clusters of the industries would be identified and necessary steps will be taken to remove their deficiencies related to infrastructure, finance, and marketing and technology.
    Financial concessions will be provided to promote small, medium and large industries.
    Appropriate step for the development of the sectors of information technology, biotechnology, automobile, pharmaceutical, food processing, herbal industries will be taken by considering them as thrust sector Industries.
    Rules for the rehabilitation of sick and closed industries will be simplified and special package will be given for their promotion.
    Full text of the policy (.pdf)

    Information Technology Policy 2006

    Madhya Pradesh strives to use Information Technology to achieve the following objectives:

    Improve the life of the common man leveraging the strengths of e-Governance.
    Attract investment in the sector so that the educated youth is able to contribute to the development of the State.
    Create a pool of highly skilled professionals who are at par with the best in the country.
    Transforming Resource Based Economy to Knowledge Based Economy.
    Full text of the policy (.pdf)

    Biotech Policy (2003)

    The broad objectives of the policy shall, inter-alia, include promotion of biotechnology applications for:

    Conservation of the state's biodiversity and the sustainable use of its biotic resources.
    Production of high-yielding, draught and pest - resistant seeds for agriculture and horticulture crops suited to different agro-climatic zones.
    Improvement of the quality of livestock and poultry, especially the breeds indigenous to the state.
    Enhancement of the productive potential of the aquatic eco-system.
    Promotion and cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants, and the processing and value addition of their produce.
    Production of cost effective drugs that help counter diseases common in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country.
    Promote environmentally safe technologies for pollution abatement, especially treatment of urban waste and industrial effluents.
    Afforestation and especially in the quick revival of species which have shown a tendency to decline.
    Generation and use of different types of bio-energy.
    Strategy of the Policy

    To help achieve the above laid objectives, the state government through its different organs endeavor for the following:

    Expansion of opportunities for biotechnology education for research, industry, farmers and community level extension services.
    Promotion of community based biotechnology applications in agriculture, horticulture, livestock & poultry, fisheries, forestry and health sectors.
    Promotion of studies in the legal and regulatory aspects of intellectual property rights involving different stakeholders including farmers, tribal and rural communities, and the practitioners of traditional and herbal medicine.
    Establishment of biotechnology industry in the state.
    Establishment of a biodiversity and biotechnology network of institutions and agencies.

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    A.V. likes this.
  12. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Tourism in Madhya pradesh....

    Map Showing Places of interst in MP for tourists:
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    Distance Chart between various Tourist attaractions places in MP:

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    Madhya Pradesh

    Myths, Legends and History


    Madhya Pradesh occupies perhaps the oldest part of the subcontinent - called the Gondwana - the home of the Gonds. Close to Bhopal at Bhimbetka are the prehistoric caves that preserve some fascinating paintings dating back to paleolithic times. Experts have concluded that these are at least as old as the specimen at Pyrnees. This was perhaps one of the earliest dwellings of human beings. In fact, the excavations here have revealed a cultural sequence right from the late stone age to the early historical period. Madhya Pradesh is the richest state in the country in respect of painted rock-shelters, the majority of which have been found in the districts of Sehore, Bhopal, Raisen, Hoshangabad and Sagar.

    During the ascendency of the Guptas, the whole region came under the domain of the imperial Guptas and subsequently formed a part of of Harshavardhan's empire. With the decline in imperial power, the province was broken up into small principalities contending forever to establish their supremacy over one another. Chandelas were one such dynasty claiming descent from the moon, who carved out a strong prosperous kingdom for themselves after the decline of the great empire. There was a short spell of inspired construction activity under the Chandela in the 10th to 11th centuries. They are the ones who have left behind the cluster of matchless temples at Khajuraho, now a World Heritage Site.

    Chandelas were followed by Pratihara and Gaharwar Rajput dynasties claiming mythical origins relating their scions to the gods or heroes in the epics.

    They lived and died by a difficult code of chivalry, wasted away scarce resources in an expensive feudal life style and could not ultimately keep at bay the expanding Muslim Power. Rulers of Malwa fought a running battle with the subedars of Gujarat or the commanders of the Sultan of Delhi throughout the sultanate period.

    The grand Moghul Akbar succeeded in subdoing most of them and his sterner grandson Aurangazeb broke through the last pockets of resistance in this region.

    Many of the smaller kingdoms trace their origins to the lands granted by the emperor at Delhi to those who had served him well.

    Bir Singh Deo of Orchha was for instance installed on his throne by Jehangir who felt obliged to the Bundela chieftain for having removed a painful thorn Abdul Fazal, from his side. Abdul Fazal one of the nine Jewels of Akbar's court was murdered at his behest near Gwalior.

    Some other principalities came into being with branching of families, internecine quarrels and the munificence of the Marathas who were indominable with the decline of the Moghuls. Rulers of Ratlam and Sitamau claim close relationship with the ruling house of Jodhpur in Rajasthan.

    In course of time, the Marathas were replaced by the British who entered into treaty relationships with these princely states and established paramountey over them. This was the Raj period when the Central Provinces were left for the large part outside developments in British India. The Maharajas were free to indulge in their expensive whims much to the chagrin of their poor populace. This is the world evoked by Kipling in his Jungle Book and chronicled by F.M. Forster in the Hill of Devi. Jhabua, Nagod, Alirajpur, Sarguja Dewas Senior and Junior were quaint names of exotic places where eccentric Englishmen could strive to carve out a career or amass a fortune or simply drop de.

    These were the destinations where the Prince of Wales or the Viceroy could be taken out for the treat of his life a tiger shoot, or to savour the extravagant life style of the Maharajas. Most of these blue-blooded gentry were content to be renowned for their prowess with a heavy gun or patronage of arts and crafts.

    The stirrings of the national movement were slow in this region as most of the area was not directly ruled by the British. Undaunted freedom fighters carried Mahatma Gandhi's message to the masses and exhorted them to take up the battle against colonialism.

    Independence of India in 1947 was followed by the merger of hundreds of princely states into the union and the Indian Republic was born on 26th January 1950. Soon afterwards the boundaries were rationalized with re - organization of the States with Madhya Pradesh becoming the largest one, covering a total area of 4,43,406 sq. kms. until 1st November 2000 when the new State of Chhattisgarh with a total area of 71,35,224 sq. km. was carved out of it.
     
  13. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    [​IMG]

    Madhya Pradesh is a veritable haven for wildlife. In its lush forests, the tiger prowls and the spotted deer, the blue-bull and the gaur roam free. The barasingha has been saved from extinction and its numbers have multiplied in Kanha National Park.

    The sal and bamboo forests of Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Panna, Pench, Satpura and many other National Parks and Sanctuaries are teeming with all kinds of wildlife and many hundred species of birds. In Madhya Pradesh, the old thrill of the jungle lives on!


    HTML:
    	*Source: Office of the Chief Wildlife Warden, Madhya Pradesh.
    
    
    Name	Area (Sq. Km.)	Fauna
    Kanha	939.94	Tiger, Leopard, Gaur, Chital, Sambar, Nilgai, Chinkara, Barking Deer, Barasingha, Wild Boar.
    Bandhavgarh	448.00	Tiger, Leopard, Gaur, Chital, Sambar, Nilgai, Chinkara, Barking Deer, Wild Boar.
    Madhav	337.00	Leopard, Chital, Sambar, Nilgai, Chinkara, Black Buck, Chausingha, Wild Boar.
    Sanjay	1938.01	Tiger, Leopard, Chital, Sambar, Nilgai.
    Van Vihar	4.45	Zoological Park.
    Panna	542.66	Leopard, Wild Boar, Chital, Tiger, Deer, Sambar
    Satpura	524.37	Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Chital, Nilgai, Gaur, Bear.
    Fossil	0.27	Plant-Fossils.
    Pench	293.00	Tiger, Leopard, Chital, Gaur, Sambar, Wild Boar, Muntjac, Nilgai. 

    HTML:
    *Source: Office of the Chief Wildlife Warden, Madhya Pradesh.
    
    
    Name	Area (Sq. Km.)	Fauna
    Kheoni	122.70	Leopard, Bear, Chital, Sambar, Nilgai.
    Narsinghgarh	57.19	Leopard, Chital, Sambar, Wild Boar, Peacock, Grey Horn Bill.
    Gandhisagar	368.62	Leopard, Chital, Chinkara, Barking Deer, Nilgai, Water Birds.
    Bori	518.00	Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Chital, Gaur, Bear, Wild Boar.
    Pachmarhi	461.85	Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Chital, Gaur, Chinkara, Bear, Nilgai.
    Dubri (Sanjay)	364.69	Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Chital, Gaur, Chinkara, Nilgai, Muntjac.
    Ratapani	688.79	Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Chital, Nilgai, Chinkara.
    Singhori	287.91	Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Chital, Nilgai, Black Buck.
    Noradehi	1034.52	Tiger, Leopard, Chital, Sambar, Nilgai, Wild Dog, Black Buck, Chinkara.
    Pench	449.39	Tiger, Leopard, Chital, Gaur, Sambar, Nilgai, Jungle Fowl.
    National Chambal	320.00	Gharial, Crocodile, Turtle, Dolphin, Otter, Migratory Birds.
    Ken Gharial	45.00	Gharial, Crocodile.
    Sone Gharial	41.80	Gharial, Crocodile, Turtle, Migratory Birds.
    Kuno-Palpur	345.00	Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Chital, Nilgai, Chinkara, Black Buck.
    Karera	202.21	Black Buck, Sambar, Chital, Chinkara, Great Indian Bustard.
    Ghategaon	512.00	Chinkara, Nilgai, Sambar, Great Indian Bustard.
    Bagdara	478.90	Leopard, Chital, Black Buck, Sambar, Chinkara, Nilgai.
    Fensatallite	110.74	Tiger, Leopard, Chital, Sambar, Muntjac.
    Panpatha	245.84	Tiger, Leopard, Chital, Sambar, Muntjac, Nilgai, Chousingha, Bear.
    Sardarpur Florican	348.12	Kharmor.
    Sailana Florican12.96	12.96	Kharmor.
     
     
    Last edited: May 19, 2010
  14. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Khajuraho (MP)

    [​IMG]
    The creators of Khajuraho claimed descent from the moon. The legend that describes the origin of this great dynasty is a fascinating one: Hemavati, the beautiful young daughter of a Brahmin priest was seduced by the moon god while bathing in the Rati one evening. The child born of this union between a mortal and a god was a son, Chandravarman. Harassed by society, the unwed mother sought refuge in the dense forest of Central India where she was both mother and guru to her young son. The boy grew up to found the great Chandela dynasty. When he was established as a ruler, he had a dream-visitation from his mother, who implored him to build temples that would reveal human passions, and in doing so bring about a realization of the emptiness of human desire. Chandravarman began the construction of the first of the temples, successive rulers added to the fast growing complex.

    Must See
    THE TEMPLES
    The architectural style of the Khajuraho temples is very different from the temple prototype of that period. Each stands, instead of within the customary enclosure, on a high masonry platform. Combined with the upward direction of the structure, which is further accentuated by vertical projections, the total effect is one of grace and lightness, reminiscent of the Himalayan peaks. Each of the chief compartments has its own roof, grouped in such a way that the highest is in the centre, the lowest over the portico, a triumph of skill and imagination in recreating the rising peaks of a range.

    The temples of Khajuraho are divided into three geographical groups: Western, Eastern and Southern.

    The Western group is certainly the best known, because it is to this group that the largest and most typical Khajuraho temple belongs: The Kandariya Mahadev. Perfectly symmetrical, it soars 31 km high. Though the four temples that stand at the corners of the main shrine are now in ruins, the main shrine has an exquisitely carved entrance arch with a multitude of themes. Celestial beings, lovers serenading musicians... movements captured in stone, frozen in time, yet retaining a quality of warm, pulsating life. The very stone seems to have taken on the living, breathing quality of the carved figures.

    Beyond the archway of the Kandariya Mahadev, lie the six interior compartments; the portico, main hall, transept, vestibule, sanctum and ambulatory. The ceilings are particularly noteworthy and the pillars supporting them have intricately carved capitals. The transept's outer walls have three horizontal panels showing deities of the Hindu pantheon, and groups of lovers, a pageant of sensuousness, vibrantly alive.

    Also in the western group is the Chaunsat Yogini, the only granite temple in the Khajuraho group. Dedicated to Kali, it is also unique in being quadrangular in plan. Only 35 of the original 65 cells remain and no image of Kali has survived: not surprisingly, since this is the
    earliest surviving shrine of the group dated to 900 AD.

    Another Kali Temple (originally dedicated to Vishnu) is the Devi Jagadambe Temple.





    North of it facing eastward to the rising sun, is the Chitragupta temple, dedicated to the sun-god, Surya. The image of this powerful deity in the inner sanctum is particularly imposing: 5ft high, and driving a seven-horsed chariot. The group scenes depicted are equally spectacular: royal processions, elephant-fights, hunting scenes, group dances. The lavish lifestyle of the Chandela kings and their court is here in all its pomp and glory.

    Similar in plan to the Kandariya Mahadev is the Vishwanath Temple. Lions flank the northern steps and elephants the southern, leading up to the temple. Within, there is an impressive three headed image of Brahma. The exteriors are profusely carved.

    Facing the shrine is a Nandi Temple with a massive, 6 ft high Nandi bull.



    Since the first few Chandela rulers were devotees of Vishnu, there are some important Vaishnavite temples in the Khajuraho group, the finest of which is the Lakshmana Temple. The lintel over the entrance shows the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, with Lakshmi, Vishnu's consort. The sanctum is richly carved and has a three-headed idol of Vishnu's incarnations, Narsimha and Varaha.



    The boar incarnation also appears in another Vaishnavite shrine, the Varaha Temple. The statue here is a mammoth 9 ft high one, its surface covered with figures from the Hindu Pantheon.

    The Khajuraho temples are no longer living places of worship, with a few exceptions. The Matangeswara Temple for example is still a place of worship. Dedicated to Shiva it has an 8 ft high lingam. South of this temple is the open air Archaeological Museum, which has a beautiful displayed collection of statues and friezes collected from the area: the remains of long vanished temples.

    Hindu and Jain temples make up the Eastern Group, which lies close to the Khajuraho village. The largest Jain temple, Parswanath, is in this group. Exquisite in detail, the sculptures on the northern outer wall make this temple perhaps the finest in the group. The themes of these carvings are the timeless ones of every day, mortal activity. A woman sits bent pensively on a letter, a lovely young girl removes a thorn from her foot, the master craftsmen of Khajuraho display here their deep understanding of the trifles that make up a human life. Within, the sanctum has a throne, which faces a bull : emblem of the first tirthankara, Adinath. The actual image of Parswanath from which the temple derives its name was installed as recently as 1860.

    The other Jain temple in this group is the Ghantai Temple. Though almost in ruins now, it still bears evidence of its original splendour. Particularly, arresting is the frieze which depicts, in graphic detail, the 16 dreams of Mahavira's mother and a multi-armed Jain goddess riding on a winged Garuda. North of Parswanatha is the more modestly sized Adinatha Temple.

    The three Hindu temples in the Eastern Group are the Brahma, Vamana and Javari Temples. A double row of apsaras, celestial nymphs, adorn the outer walls of the Vamana temple. A variety of sensuous attitudes: languid, provocative, mischievously inviting, give credibility to the theory that Khajuraho's erotica were meant to test the devotees who came to worship their gods at the temples.



    5 km from the Khajuraho village, lies the Southern Group of temples. The fine Chaturbhuj Temple in this group has a massive intricately carved image of Vishnu in the sanctum. Duladeo Temple, another of the southern group, is a little away from the road to the Jain group of temples.

    Though remains of temples belonging to the Khajuraho group have been discovered at Jatkari, 3 km away and even at Maribag in Rewa, it is at the 3 main groups that the imperishable glory of Khajuraho, the sensuous celebration of life, the aspiration towards the infinite, remains.

    Excursions
    Dhubela Museum
    57 km. Located on the bank of a lake, the museum houses a wide variety of Shakti Cult sculptures. There are different sections on garments, weapons and paintings.

    Rajgarh Palace
    25 km. A picturesque 150 year old palace. Now being converted into a heritage hotel.

    Ranguan Lake
    25 km. Ideal angling and picnic spot.

    Benisagar Dam
    7 km. Picnic spot.

    Raneh Falls
    20 km. A beautiful picnic spot on the river Ken.

    Pandav Falls
    34 km. On Panna road. A scenic spot.

    Travel Tips

    [​IMG] Khajuraho is connected to Delhi & Agra with regular flights.

    [​IMG] The nearest railheads are Mahoba (64 km) and Harpalpur (94 km). Jhansi (175 km) and Satna (117 km) are convenient railheads for visitors from Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Agra & Varanasi.

    [​IMG] Khajuraho is connected by regular bus services with Mahoba, Harpalpur, Satna, Jhansi, Gwalior, Agra, Jabalpur & Bhopal.

    [​IMG] September to March.

    Madhya Pradesh tourism videos....

    Khajuraho Videos, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Located in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh, Khajuraho has emerged as a renowned tourist destination from a tiny unknown village. A World UNESCO Heritage Site, Khajuraho is better known as the Temple Town. Famed for its magnificent Jain and Hindu temples and intricate stone sculptures, Khajuraho remains the epitome of the temple architectural style and aesthetic sensibility.





     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  15. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Lets see my native town gwalior (MP):)

    7 Wonders of India: Gwalior Fort
    Gwalior Fort is located in Madhya Pradesh. Its width ranges from nearly 1 km, to less than 200 m. The walls, which encircle the fort, are solid and nearly 10 m high. Situated on a sandstone precipice, which is 2.8 km long and 200-850 m wide and 91 m above the surrounding plain, the fort has been a witness to many historical battles and events - one of the most important among them being the1857 revolt, as well as the valiant death of Rani of Jhansi.







     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  16. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Gwalior's Tourist Attractions(MP)

    [​IMG]
    Gwalior's history is traced back to a fascinating legend: in 8AD, a chieftain called Suraj Sen was stricken by a deadly disease. He was cured by a hermit saint, Gwalipa, and in gratitude, founded a city which he named after the saint who had given him the gift of a new life. The new city of Gwalior became, over the centuries, the cradle of great dynasties and with each, the city gained new dimensions from the warrior-kings, poets, musicians and saints who contributed to making it a capital renowned throughout the country.

    Gwalior Fort
    Gwalior fort is one of the beautiful and famous forts of India. Writer Taj-Ul-Maseer writes about this fort. "Fast Wind cannot touch its climax and fast clouds cannot cast their shadow in its PARKOTAS. On its Vakshsthal there are written stories of life/death, Sanyog-Viyog, bravery and cowardice. This is situated 110 Km. south of Agra. This stony hillock where this stands is made of peculiar strong stone. This fort is more than 300 ft. high. This is 3 K. M. long from North to South and, 600 to 3000 ft broad from east to west.

    On the eastern side of the historic fort Raja Man Singh got constructed a beautiful palace. Outside the palace there are 6 beautiful high gates. Almost all have praised its architect 6 places have been built on this fort and Gujri Mahal is one of the spots worth seeing. There are two routes to climb up this fort. First Gwalior gate is in the east and second in the west is Urvai gate. Apart from them there were 3 more gates which led inside of them Thotha por and Radha Gargaj gates and third is in the south which have been closed now.

    5 gates have to be crossed to reach the fort from the eastern side. First gate is ALAMGIR DARWAZA which is now commonly known as Gwalior Gate. Second is BADALGARH or HINDOLA gate, Third is Ganesh Dwar, fourth is LAXMAN Dwar and 5th is Hathiapore. Alamgir Darwaza was got constructed in 1660 by Motimid Khan Governor of this fort in the regime of Aurangzeb. Badalgarh gate is a beautiful example of stone craft which was constructed in 15th Century which is known in the name of Badal Singh brother of Raja Kalyan Mal Tomar.

    Buildings At The Fort
    About half a dozen palaces exist on this historic fort of them some were constructed by Raja Man Singh and some by Muslim rulers. Manmandir which exhibits good craftmanship was got constructed by Raja Mansingh in 1516. The eastern front portion is 300feet long and 80 feet wide. Over this building are six big tombs. This is an example of great craftsman ship of stone carving. Southern portion of Man Mandir is 150feet long and 50-60 feet high; over this 3 BURJIYAN though over 500 years old still shine. Idols of Animals-Birds, Trees and Human beings are made in the alls of the building which add to its beauty.

    Gujri Mahal
    The second palace is Gujri Mahal. Raja Mansingh got it constructed for his wife MRIGNAYANI whom he loved very much. This palace too was constructed when Man Mandir was constructed i. e. around 1515-17. On all the four sides rooms are constructed in Gujri Mahal. There is no such room which does not exhibit example of high art. In this palace water was brought by earthen pipe for Rani "MRIGNAYANI". Other 2 palaces are Karan Mahal and second Vikram Mahal. On seeing them common man is led to appreciate SANSKRAT VABHAV of this area. There are two more palaces Jahangir Mahal and Shah Jahan Mahal. There were many a mandir. Of them a few are still safe and are examples of beautiful craftmanship. Of them SAS BAHU KA MANDIR, TELE KA MANDIR, JAIN IDOLS and Chaturbhuj Mandir are worth seeing. In this great fort there are many a tank which have been carved from the stones. Of them Johar Talab, Apart from this in this historic big fort of Gwalior there are many a BETHAK and building of European style where there is Scindia School now a days.

    Jain Idols
    Jain Idols have been carved in the stone walls of the fort. Of them some idols from their carving reveal that they came into being from the year 1440 to 1472. Of them many are religious idols some are in standing and some are in sitting posture. GHOS SAHIB's TOMB On the east of the town at Hajira, there is the tomb of GOS SAHIB. This is an example of infancy art of Mughal art. It is square in construction and on all the four sides there are Burj; on their ends are small Gumbad. On all the four sides there are thick and fine JALEES and on the top of the building there is a big Gumbad which was once decorates with Shining blue stones. Badayun in his book MUNTKHABUL-TAWAREEKH has written about Gos Sahib that he was a great sant and also Guru of Mughal Emperor Akbar and Tansen.

    Tomb Of Tansen
    Near the Tomb of Mohd. Gos there is the tomb of famous singer TANSEN. On the roof of the building there is encarved Gumbad which has carving in it. Every year "Tansen Samaroh" is held here. This tomb is very simple but there is handicraft work of beautiful jalis.

    Samadhi Of Rani Laxmi Bai
    In the first Independence movement Virangana Laxmi Bai who shaked the British Empire, her Samadhi is in the campus of Phool Bagh. eight metalled / tall statue of Rani Laxmi Bai is situated here which is a source of inspiration to our youth. This SAMADHI reminds us of the martyors of freedom. In the honor and memory of the Rani every year a Fair is held here on 18th of June.

    Phool Bagh
    At a short distance from Railway Station there exists Garden in Phool Bagh. In the Phool Bagh campus there exist Residential palace, Museum, and other buildings. This Garden was constructed by late Madho Rao Scindia. In 1922 Princess of Wales inaugurated it on his arrival at Gwalior. The only zoo of Gwalior city is situated in this campus. One temple, one Mosque, one Gurudwara, Theosophical Lodge and prayer place of Both religion exist here. Constructions were done by the then government as an example of religious equality.

    Jaivilas Palace
    JAIVILAS PALACE was constructed for the residence of Maharaja Scindia at the cost of about Rs. 19 lac during 1861 to 1874. This is made in a big garden decorated by shady trees and beautiful roads. On all the four sides there are lakes and lawns and flower beds which make the sight very attractive. The area of the Palace is 12, 04, 771 square feet. Michael Filoz was its designer and constructor who intelligently prepared its design on the basis of PILAZEZ of Italy.

    Moti Mahal
    Moti Mahal is one of the worth seeing palaces which was once Secretariat of Madhya Bharat Govt. At present there are many offices of the present Govt. colored glass work has been done very beautifully in some of its rooms and there are many wall paintings which exhibit Hindu Purans, RAG RAGNYON, Maharaja's sittings as Darbar and various rally etc. of Maharaja Jiwaji Rao.

    Museum
    Of the main museums of this place are Municipal Corporation Museum, Maharaja Jiwaji Rao Scindia Museum, and Gujri Mahal Museum situated on the ground floor of the fort are the chief ones. Museum of Nagar Nigam was got constructed by EX Maharaj Madhorao Scindia in 1902. This Museum contains Pashan Pratimayen, china clay, glass ivory, instruments of warfare, old coins, animals, birds, artistic pictures, samples of prastar shilp handicraft and apart from the there are AVSHESH of India's first Independence Movement. PURVA SAMACHAR KAKHSH VATHIKA, and PRASTAR KOSHAL VITHIKA, etc. are assembled in this museum. The Maharaja Jiwaji Rao musium was established in 1964 in one of the wing of Jaivilas Palace. PASHAN PRATIMAYAI, Metal Idols, coins, LAGHO CHITRAS, art of ivory, cut glass work are displayed in this Museum. The Most talked things are big FANOOS JHAAD, Napoleon table, SILVER TRAIN and Persian carpets.

    N.C.C. Women Training School
    NCC Women officer training school is one training sansthan of its kind in India which exists in Gwalior as a place of martyrdom of Rani Jhansi. Women from various states of India and islands come here for training of N. C. C. Its establishment is a pride of India. Its establishment took place in 1964 in historic building Ex Grand HOTEL. Till now Ten Thousand trainees have passed out in different various courses. There has been important contribution of State Government. In its establishment in Gwalior. The commanding Officer of this establishment is a Brigadier and there are LT. COL., Major and four other Women Officers.

    Laxmibai Physical Education Deemed University
    The fame of this establishment in Gwalior is as far and wide as that of sports establishment of Patiala. This establishment imparts physical training to men and women not only of India but also to the foreingners. For continuous training facilities this establishment is progressing continuously. Apart form the routine training National or International sports in this university accord a special status. Such institution impart importance to Gwalior.

    Sas-bahu Ka Mandir
    This temple is 32 meters long and 22 meters wide. There is Vishal Vedi caltar in the centre of this temple. In the 3 directions there are Mandaps and Devalayai is in 4th direction. There is hardly a place where the work of carving does not exist. At the gate of the temple idols of Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, etc. have been displayed in the stones. Mandir of SAS-BAHU is small in size and is beautiful are example of Mid India VASTUKALA. There is Vishnu Mandir. The front portion of stone is protruded in the front from where the sight seeing of three sides is possible.

    Gurudwara Data Bandi Chod
    In the memory of Sixth Guru of Sikhs Sant Har Govind Singh ji Bhavya Gurdwara has been constructed at Gwalior fort. When Jahangir was throned at Delhi in 1605, Shahzada Khusro had revolted against Jahangir. In Taran Taran Khusro sought blessings from the 5th Guru of Sikhs Guru Arjun Dev Ji. Data Bandi chod Gurdwara has been fully constructed of marble. This is a grand and huge Gurdwara. colored Glasses decorate the main building. The kalashs at the gumbads are made of gold. There are also 2 tanks in it. Recital of Guru Granth Sahub makes the surroundings atmosphere peaceful and sacred. Peace is here. On Amavasya there are 4 special prayers, religious songs and keertan; in which many a follower participate. This occasion is transformed into afair. Food is always distributed here in form of Langer. Baba Uttam singh and Baba Amar Singh started its construction in 1970 with great zeal and enthusiasm. Tourists visiting Gwalior visit this Gurdwara positively.

    On 30th July 1993 Sant Bawa Amar singh Ji passed away for heavenly abode while serving the humanity. Such Sants have rarely been observed by me on this planet. Bawa Amar singh ji had served the humanity in the past 2 decades and was popular in all classes of Society.

    The Scindia School Fort
    Scindia School was established at the historic fort. Indias famous public School was established by Late Madho Rao Scindia in 1879 in the name of "SARDAR SCHOOL" in the nature's lap. This is now known as SCINDIA SCHOOL in place of SARDAR-SCHOOL. At present students from various states and foreigners are being educated. The school is Continuously progressing and now this is one of the special schools of India.

    Tele Ka Mandir
    This temple was constructed by pratihar Rajas. This is known as Teli Ka Mandir. Of the various old historic worth seeing temples of Gwalior, Teli ka Mandir ranks highest. This is said to have been constructed in 9th century. This temple is constructed in southern Indian style and is the combination of Dravian and Aryan style. The real name of this temple has been Telang Mandir. Its height is about 100 feet. The main gate of Teli Ka Mandir was brought in 1881 from else where and fixed here.

    Mata Mandir
    In the east of Suraj Kund there is Mata Devi Ka Mandir at the Gwalior Fort. From the point of view of construction, it seems to be of 12th Century. This Satapathya art is alike Sas Bahu ka Mandir which is very attractive. Here many people come to see it.

    Surajkund
    A square Kund constructed at the fort is known as Suraj Kund. It was constructed in 6th Century. It is said that Ashram of Galib Rishi was here. The Founder of Gwalior Durg (fort) Suraj Sen got this temple constructed.

    Urvai Ghati
    In 1527 when Babar came to Gwalior Durg he was very keen to see the beauty of Urvai Ghati, he was full of joy. In his Baburnama he has mentioned "This unique Ghati which is situate in the west of Durg. There are two big tanks in between this. On all the four sides of these tanks which are within ADVA, here 20-25 wells have been dug made from where water for irrigation is taken. They have planted quite a few trees and plants of flowers. This is a beautiful place. "

    Dargah Khwaja Kanoon Sahib
    Khwaja kanoon Sahib Nagauri was resident of Marwad. He came to Gwalior in 1481. Later he started living here. His full name as carved on his tomb was Saiyed Saiyeeduddin Kanoon Rehmat Ullah Aleh chishtiya. But he was popular here with name as Khwaja kanoon. Hazrat Khwaja kanoon Sahib left for heavenly abode in 940 Hijri i. e. in between 121 -25. One of the carvings on the inner parts of the tombs reveals"Have belief that in 940 Hijri Khwaja kanoon Sahib attained aternar sprit. Visiters with full faith and avichal Shradha & firm confidence visit for 40 days and you will fulfil your aim/desire. " The then historians have written much about khwaja Sahib. He was a sufi Sant of the highest order. Even today people of various religious faiths daily often their prayers & AKIDAT.

    Veer Sawarkar Sarovar
    Near Achleshwar Mahadev and Maharani Laxmi Bai Arts and Commerce college there is a sarowar which is previously known as Katora Tal, which is now a days known as veer Sawarkar Sarovar. There stands an idol of veer Sawarkar of human size which is surrounded by water and shady trees. This Sarovar is a visiting place for tourists.

    Maharani Laxmi Bai College
    Rulers of Gwalior State took great interest in education of this place. As a result 100 years ago a beautiful building named as Victoria School was constructed which is now known as MALBA MAHAVIDYALAI. This college is the biggest college of Jiwaji University of M. P. from where well known personalities received their education. Well known writer Dr. Vrindavan Lal Verma, famous poet Jaanisar Akhtar, EX. Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Bajpai etc. have been its students.

    Sanatan Dharam Mandir
    One of famous temples of Gwalior Sanatan Dharam Mandir is on the top. This occupies huge complex. Lord Shri Krishan and beautiful idols of other gods are there in it. This is situated in front of Chamber of Commerce.

    Krishan Mandir In Chhatri
    Chhatri Mandir is situated opposite to Jaivilas Palace and nearby Savarkar Sarovar. This temple is managed by the scindia trust. In its garden there exist Chhataris of Late Jiwaji Rao Scindia and his Mother Gajra Raja Scindia made of marble which are the source of attraction for tourists.

    Jiyaji Chowk (bada)
    The busiest place of Gwalior city is Maharaj Bada. In its center there is a garden. In its center there is a huge statue of Jiyaji Rao Scindia made of marble. This idol is fixed in a high Marble Plateform. On all the four sides shopping centres are situated. General post office, 2 huge Buildings of State Bank of India. Town Hall and Victoria Markets etc. in Baada Campus are worth seeing special feature examples of beautiful establishments. Special feature of this market is that there are 7 entries to it.

    Chhatris Of Scindia Dynasty
    There is a big Collection of Chatris of Scindia Dynasty in Chatri Bazar. These Chatris are very imporant from the point of view of art. House Constructed on all the four sides of these chatris has minimised their beauty. Chatris have been constructed with pink and white stones. Chatris of Jiwaji Rao Scindia, Daulat Rao Scindia and Janko ji Rao Scindia are worth seeing these chatris. Here carved Elephant , Horses and Tigers construction are beautiful. For want of their proper care, these chatris are being damaged. Responsible civilians and Government must pay attention in this direction.

    Sun Temple
    From the time immemorial worshiping god sun has special place in Gwalior. Mono/of Scindia dynasty rulers has been the Surya and Sheshnaag. From this it is established that its dynasty is Naag-Kul Bhushan. Birla on 23rd January 1988 gifted Surya Mandir(the sun temple)to the people of Gwalior Pink stone has been used in its constructions. In the center on a chabutra is the very beautiful idol of SURYA Bhagwan. In the center (GARBHGREH) a special device has been adopted for reaching the sun -rays on idol of Surya Bhagwan.

    Dev Kho
    This place is situated about 16KMs away from Gwalior on Lashkar Tigra road. The natural beauty of this place is undescribeable. Because of thick forest various beautiful birds and wild animals can be seen here. DEVKHO is surrounded with natural atmosphere which is amiable. On hillock there is beautiful temple of Lord Shiva. Late MadhoRao Scindia used to visit this place and think over important problems of the state. The lovely note of Jharna is very much pleasant which on hearing a person starts singing. In the whole area full of natural beauty leke Deo Kho is rarely found. Dev Kho is quite near to Gwalior city where Govt. have constructed good approach roads which have been laid after cutting the hillocks with KIRINAS. ON both the sides beautiful trees and plants have been planted.

    Tighra Dam
    Tighra Dam is situated 18 Kms away south-west of Lashkar. This a beautiful place. Hilly stones slopes have sufficient strength to hold water in it. Gwalior gets its drinking water from Tigra water works. This has becomea beautiful picnic spot during rainy season.

    Padmavati (pawaya)
    Of many tourist spots Name of PAWAYA is illustrious. Sometimes back there must have been a beautiful Royal city here. On the basis of arachaeolgical evidence available so far this is the old city of PADMAVATI. There is mention of padmavati in Vishnupuran where in it is mentioned that this was the Capital of Nagas which is 30 KM away from Dabra & 80 KM far from Gwalior.

    Peetambra Peeth (datia)
    On the way to Jhansi, Datia town is 75 KM away from Gwalior. Datia is an important historic place. The immage of palaces etc. Have been mitigated. Datia has become prominent town because of peetambarapeeth. This is a place of Buglamukhi Devi. Peace has always been in this state. The courtyard of this temple is made of marble. Darshans of Devi in her various forms can be had here. The temple of Bhagvati is also here.

    Baba Kapoor Sahib
    In continuation of Madaria important Sufi Sant Shah Abdul Gafoor who is popularly known as Baba Kapur in Masses, amongst Sufis of mid Gwalior has a special status amongst sufis. Baba Kapur was sant of the down poor, laboures and professionals. Even today Dhobis (washerman) Labourers, bullocks -carters, cultivators when they start their daily work they call "OH BABA KAPUR". His tomb is living combination of National unity.

    Saturn Temple At Sanichara
    The Saturn temple is situated at Sanichara, a railway station in Gwalior -Bhind Narrou gauge railway line. It is about 27 miles away from Gwalior. The history of this place is traced long back in the Ramayana and puran period. It is said that Hanuman after burning the lanka saw the Saturn standing before him with foded hands. He asked him what he wanted. On request of Saturn Hanuman provided him a place at Sanichara where he could be worshipped. Now people from all over country come to this place to worship and satisfy the Saturn to pacify the evil effects of the planet. as well as to seek his kindness to be healthy, wealthy and powerfull. On Every Somvati Amavasya a fair is held here. The present Saturn temple at sanichra was built by daulat Rao Scindia in 1825.

    Other Tourist Spots
    Nearby Gwalior in Morena District of Chambal Division there are many tourist spots of them Rani Kunti's birth place KUNTALPURI Shiv temple of 10th Century, Kakanmath, from these Scindia Chatris, National park of Shivpuri, temples of Chanderi, tombs of Sultans, Shahi Masjid, Hava Mahal, Fort, Seven storeyed palace of Datia, Jahangir Mahal of Orcha nerar Jhansi, Ram Raja temple, Laxman temple, etc. are other tourist spots which are bound to influence you.

    Art Tradition
    Gwalior has its own cultural tradition. Music, idolcarving, and picture painting have a special status. Raja Jiyaji Rao Scindia of Scindia dynasty under "NAGPURWALA"picture painter got many beautiful paintings painted in Motimahal, Gorkhi Mandir and other palaces. In this work help of many picture painters was taken who were residing in Chitera oli Lashkar, who were from Bundelkhand and had come from Jhansi and settled here. The credit of starting picture painting in Gwalior goes to Shabihkar Daud Mian and Mukand Sakharam Bhaand. In Tiger caves of Gujri Mahal by seeing the wall paintings the live leness of art of chitrakala is revealed. Late shri L. S. Rajput, Rudrahnji, Umeshkumar and Shubakrishanrao have also been important. Pictur painting was contributed by them a great role in Gwalior. Shri Devlalikar the first Principal of Govt. Lalil Kakla University played an important role in evoking the art of Gwalior.

    Late Shri L. S. Rajput was a good Picture painter and a teacher of arts; his paintings in exhibitions gained popularity in the whole country. In the same manner the name of Rudarhanji hardly needs any introduction. He too was a well known picture painter and idolmaker. In Padmavidyalaya of Gwalior his idols are worth seeing.

    Shri Vimal Kumar, who was incharge of Kalavathika situated at padav for quite a long period did a great deal in the field of art. He by going ahead from traditional painting, established a special status. Similarly Madan Bhatnagar and Vishvaitra Vasvani established a special status in the field of art. Pictures of vasvani Hi gained popularity in the whole of country, Late D. P. Sharma also contributed a lot of to Gwalior. Fountains made by him can be seen at Akash Vani Tiraha, and Baradari crossing at Morar . In the field of latest picture painting and idol carving Gwalior youth has been infused by VIMALKUMAR. With the efforts of Vimal Kumar first National idol art camp organised in 1974 inspired the young idol makers and picture makers of Gwalior / prevailed like Dhumketu who in the field of national and international art in the whole of India. Of them the drawing of Shri. Usaf were rewarded in National and inter - national exhibitions. Anil Kumar is a signatory as a young picture painter. He is the youngest artist who made known by awards in the national exhibitions. Chandarsen Jadhav has been awarded a National award in the field of idol making. Vijay Shindhe is one of the identity in National and international exhibitions by his work of art. Shri Robin David, Sambhaji Rao Shindhe, AnwarKhan, Madhu Sudan Sharma, Santosh Jadiya, On prakash Jadiya, etc. are the product of art of Gwalior.

    Shilp Koushal Of Gwalior
    Shilp Koushal of Gwalior is famous for its beauty, historic development adorance and its liveliness. Big Jain idols, Sas Bahu Ka Mandir, Man Mandir, at the fort and other important idols and buidings are peculiar examples of Shilp koushal. Jalis of tomb of Ghos Sahib are fascinating. Availability of stone for the development of Shilp Koushal of Gwalior is of great significance. Different type of stones are available in different querries situated from the point of view of vastushilp. Banmor, Kuleth, Niravali, Shankarpur, Lanka, and Gangamalanpur querries situated in the north of Lashkar have been providing useful stone from shilp kala point of view from the time immerorial. In the field of art, cultural relations and in their development of Govt. and administration play a vital role. It has been an attribute to Gwalior that most rulers had been lovers and supporter of art. Under their supervision the art gained prominence. Artists were accorded desired results the Shilpis for attaining the highest aims presented desired results of Shilp Koushal in the form of Huge buildings parasads, and pashaan idols.

    With their soft hands metalled cheni and hammer could carve the desired imaginations of the breast of hard stone. "Didaru Mistri""Shambhu"etc. well known Stone carvers and mistris of Gwalior gained sufficient fame. Motimahal and Jaivilas Palace have been constructed by these mistris. Stone obtained from Ganga Malanpur was carved by "Aladhin Mistri" into Paanch Batti Jhaad with Handi and four fanoos with rose flowers coming out which were presented by Gwalior to Late Rular Edward of Britain who expressed his happiness for their beauty. This fanoos tree is there even today in the archeological museum of London . Similerly gate constructed at Dafran Sarai Padav is also examplary. Shilpis of Gwalior not only in Gwalior they have presented beautiful examples of their are in great cities of India. The famous "Gateway of India"in Bombay and High Court Buildings in Lahore are the living examples.

    A Few Known Stone Carvers Of Gwalior
    1. Didaru Mistri Jaivilas Parasad
    2. Saluru Mistri MotiMahal
    3. Shambhu Mistri Victoria College
    4. Gafoor Mistri Jal Vihar
    5. Aladin Mistri Panch Patti Stone trees and Fanoos

    Fairs Of Gwalior
    There have been fairs in Gwalior which have promoted our Cultural Unity. On occasion of Raksha Bandhan there is a fair of Chakri in front of tomb of Ghos Sahib. In the end of monsoons in Sharad season there is festival of NAVRATRI which is celebrated with great pomp and show in various temples of Goddess Durga.

    Gwalior Exhibition which starts in December is famous in the whole of country. This fair starts on 20th December for a period of one month. This is the biggest Exhibition of northern India. In the campus of fair there are about one thousand paccashops which are decorated in artistic manner by commercial sector and Govt. departments. Almost all states participate in this comercial fair in establishing their stalls. Businessmen from Jammu Kashmir to Madras - Kerala sell their goods. In this exhibition there are Kavi Sammelans and Mushayaras of India level. There are also wrestling and fire work features.

    There is an elaborate fair at fort in Databandi Chod Gurdwara. In similar manner there is a fair of people of Jain Dharam religion at the fort. There is 3days Urs Shariff of Hazrat Mohd. Ghos Sahib in the month of Ramzan on 12, 13and 14. Similar Urs take place on the Tombs of Khwaja kanoon Sahib and Baba kapur Sahib. Urs of Mansoot Shah Sahib at tomb Situated at Bada and at tomb of Mir Badshah also are celebrated with great pomp and show. Jhule Lal fair of Sindhi society for one week is also very attractive. Similarly there is a three day Tansen Samaroh at tomb of Tansen. There are Nav-Ratri fairs at Mandre ki mata and Karoli wali Mata . At Achleshwar and Gupteshwar temples fairs are celebrated on Shivratri.

    Excursions
    Datia - Accommodation Details
    69 km from Gwalior, on the Delhi-Chennai main line, Datia is a town whose antiquity can be traced back to the Mahabharata. A town of great historic significance, Datia's seven-storeyed palace built entirely of stone and brick by Raja Bir Singh Deo in 1614, is considered to be one of the finest examples of Bundela architecture in the country. Within the palace are some fine wall paintings of the Bundela school. An interesting blending of cultures can be seen in the frescoes in a temple; Datia's other attraction is its imposing Gopeshwar Temple.

    Sonagiri
    This sacred Jain hill lies 3 km to the North West of Datia and is 5 km from the railway station. There are 77 Jain temples, built in rows on the hill and its slopes, and date back to the 17th century. Of these the temple dedicated to Chandranatha, the 8th of the 24 Tirthankaras, is quite a large one and the most beautiful. A large annual fair is held here in the month of Chaitra (April).

    Pawaya
    Known as Padmavati in ancient times is a fascinating complex of ruins, 68 km away, on the Gwalior-Jhansi road. Pawaya's ruins still bear testimony to the days when it was the capital of the Nag Kings, in 3 AD. Particularly noteworthy is the lifesize statue of Chaksha Manibhadra of 1 AD. The ruins of the medieval fort built by the Parmars and the nearby Dhoomeshwar Mahadeo temple are Pawaya's other attractions.

    Kuno-Palpur Sanctuary, Chambal Ghariyal Sanctuary and Ghatigaon Sanctuary - more info available in Wildlife Guide section.

    Tigra Dam
    23 km. A pictureque setting for recreation.

    Chambal
    An Untamed Wilderness
    A wild river. Broken hills. Deep ravines. And to top it all the violent legends of man and beast. Welcome to the Chambal. A rugged, raw, untamed wilderness right in the heart of India.

    Flowing through a total length of 435 kms. National Chambal Sanctuary is in three states of M.P, U.P and Rajasthan. The River Chambal is one of the country's most beautiful and least polluted river systems.

    The National Chambal sanctuary was formed to protect this pristine river ecosystem, complete with its varied flora, aquatic life and avifauna. With its headquarters at Morena, M.P.

    An aquatic life paradise
    The Chambal River which is the mainstay for the entire wildlife of the sanctuary harbours a variety of aquatic life like the elusive Ganges River Dolphin, Crocodile (muggar), Gharial (Gavelia Gangeticus), Freshwater Turtles, River Otters and a various species of fishes. All of which can quite easily be seen by tourists within the sanctuary area, specially in the middle reaches in the downside of Rajghat Bridge on National Highway No. 3.

    The Crocodile centre at Deori Moreno nearby is the only one - of - its - kind in the entire state of Madhya Pradesh and has recently been opened to the public. The centre helps breed and rehabilitate Crocodiles and Gharials in the Chambal. Thanks to which the river now boasts of a population of over 1600 Gharials and 200 Crocodiles. Active efforts are now on to protect the Ganges River Dolphins.

    A Cruise for Dolphins
    The rare Ganges River Dolphin (platanista Gangetica), the sole member of the cetaceans group is one of the main attraction of the sanctuary. So called the Queen of Chambal, the Dolphins inspite of being blind can be seen pursuing their playful antics in the water while coming out to breathe for air. The Chambal Sanctuary is one of their safest breeding areas. And one has to be really lucky to sight one while cruising in the Chambal. Flights of Fancy.

    The surrounding environs of the river are a true bird watchers delight. During the season (November - March) one can see thousands of migratory and resident birds flock at the shores of the river. A least 150 species of birds have been identified. Species of birds in abundance are the Bar-headed Geese, Brahmini Duck, Common Tea, Pelicans, Flamingoes and Cormorants. One can have an easy sighting of the Indian Skimmer - the highest population of which in the world is found in Chambal.

    Live & Let Live
    Tourists to the sanctuary can enjoy its many sights by motor boats specially provided by the Forest Department of Madhya Pradesh. Complete safety within the peripheries of the sanctuary is ensured by the local authorities. And one can freely enjoy the natural wonders of the sanctuary which during the 50's & 60's was largely hidden due to the presence of dacoits.

    Stringent measures to protect the fragile ecosystems of the sanctuary are followed by the authorities. The visitors are also advised not to disturb, spoil the serenity of the surrounding environs or help in poaching activities directly / indirectly.

    How to get there?
    The National Chambal sanctuary can be easily reached by road, rail and air.

    By Road
    65 kms. South of Agra,
    55 kms North of Gwalior on National Highway No. 3.

    By Rail
    270 Kms . South of Delhi.

    By Air
    The nearest airport is Maharajpur at Gwalior (50 kms away).

    Accommodation

    Deori - Eco Centre, Morena.
    Gwalior - Various non-star hotels & Star Hotels.
    Agra - Various 5 star and 3 star hotels.



    Travel Tips


    [​IMG] Gwalior is connected with regular flights from Delhi & Bhopal.

    [​IMG] Gwalior is on the Central Railway's main Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Chennai lines. Among other major trains, the Shatabdi and the Taj Express connect Gwalior with Delhi and Agra daily.

    [​IMG] Gwalior is connected by regular bus service with Agra, Mathura, Jaipur, Delhi, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Bhopal, Chanderi, Indore, Jhansi, Khajuraho, Rewa, Jabalpur, Ujjain and Shivpuri.

    [​IMG] July to March.
     
    Last edited: May 19, 2010
  17. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    some more videos of gwalior(MP)....



     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
    IBRIS likes this.
  18. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Amarkantak (MP)

    Situated at an altitude of 1065 mt. at the meeting point of the Vindhya and the Satpura mountain ranges amongst sylvan surroundings, Amarkantak is a great pilgrim centre for the Hindus, and is the source of the rivers Narmada and Sone. While the Narmada flows Westwards from Amarkantak, the Sone flows towards the East. Amarkantak is indeed blessed by Nature. Holy ponds, lofty hills, forested surroundings, breathtakingly beautiful waterfalls and an ever-pervading air of serenity make Amarkantak a much sought-after destination for the religious-minded as well as for the nature-lover.

    [​IMG]
    Among all the sacred rivers of India, the Narmada occupies a unique place. Legend has it that Lord Shiva blessed Narmada with unique purifying powers. Whereas to purify himself, a devotee requires to take one dip in the Holy Ganga, seven days' prayers on the banks of Yamuna and three days prayers on the banks of Saraswati, the mere sight of Narmada is enough. A charming folk tale describes the superiority of Narmada over Ganga. Once every year, after she herself is polluted beyond tolerance, Ganga visits Narmada dressed like a dark woman and takes a cleansing purifying dip in its waters!
    There are other rivers too, popular, romantic andlife sustaining, each glamourized in the folk lore and history but none can match the mystique of Narmada.

    Must See
    Narmada Udgam
    A temple built at the source of the Narmada - the holiest spot in Amarkantak.

    Sonmuda
    Source of the river Sone.

    Brighu Kamandal
    Here we can see an ancient Kamandal or water pitcher which is always full of water.

    Dhuni Pani
    A hot spring in a thick forest.

    Dugdhdhara
    The water falls from a height of about 50 ft. in a milk-white cascade.

    Kapildhara
    A beautiful picnic spot and a waterfall.

    Mai Ki Bagiya
    A lovely garden with a temple.

    Travel Tips

    [​IMG] Nearest airports are Jabalpur (228 km.) and Raipur (230 km.).

    [​IMG] The nearest rail head is Pendra Road (42 km.) on the Katni - Bilaspur section of the South-Eastern Railway.

    [​IMG] Amarkantak is connected by regular bus service with Shahdol, Umaria, Jabalpur, Rewa, Bilaspur, Anuppur and Pendra Road.

    [​IMG] Throughout the year.






     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  19. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Bandhavgarh National Park (MP)


    This is a small National Park; compact, yet full of game. The density of the Tiger population at Bandhavgarh is the highest known in India.

    This is also White Tiger country. These have been found in the old state of Rewa for many years. The last known was captured by Maharajah Martand Singh in 1951. This White Tiger, Mohan, is now stuffed and on display in the palace of the Maharajahs of Rewa.

    [​IMG]

    Prior to becoming a National park, the forest around Bandhavgarh had long been maintained as a Shikargah, or game preserve, of the Maharajahs of Rewa. Hunting was carried out by the Maharajahs and their guests - otherwise the wildlife was relatively well-protected.
    It was considered a good omen for a Maharajah of Rewa to shoot 109 Tigers. His highness Maharajah Venkat Raman Singh shot 111 Tigers by 1914.

    Must See
    Covering 448 sq. km., Bandhavgarh is situated in Shahdol district among the outlying hills of the Vindhya range. At the centre of the park is Bandhavgarh hill, rising 811 mt above MSL. Surrounding it are a large number of smaller hills separated by gently sloping valleys. These valleys end in small, swampy meadows, locally known as 'Bohera'. The lowest point in the park is at Tala (440 mt above MSL). The vegetation is chiefly of Sal forest in the valleys and on the lower slopes, gradually changing to mixed deciduous forest on the hills and in the hotter, drier areas of the park in the south and west. Bamboo is found throughout.


    The Fort
    No records remain to show when Bandhavgarh Fort was constructed. It is thought, however, to be some 2,000 years old, and there are references to it in the ancient books, the Narad-Panch Ratra and the Siva Purana. Various dynasties have ruled this fort: for example, the Maghas from the 1st century AD, the Vakatakas from the 3rd century; the Sengars from the 5th century and the Kalchuris from the 10th century. In the 13th century AD, the Baghels took over, ruling from Bandhavgarh until 1617, when Maharajah Vikramaditya Singh moved his capital to Rewa. The last inhabitants deserted the fort in 1935.

    The Flora & Fauna
    The forest of Bandhavgarh can be classified as moist deciduous, and the National Park holds all those animal species which are typical of this habitat in Central India. Certain areas of the park (particularly the south and the west) are drier in character, and hold such species as the Nilgai and the Chinkara.

    Sal forest occurs throughout the valleys, giving way to mixed forest which occurs where the soil is of relatively poor quality on the upper hill slopes, on rocky outcrops and in the South and West. Grassy meadow patches occur in the valley and along the nalas.

    Wildlife
    Bandhavgarh is densely populated with tiger and other wildlife species. The great Gaur, or Indian Bison, can be seen with ease, as they come onto the meadows to graze at dusk; Sambar and Barking Deer are a common sight, and Nilgai are to be seen in the more open areas of the park.
    There are more than 22 species of mammals and 250 species of birds. Common Langurs and Rhesus Macaque represent the primate group. Carnivores include the Asiatic Jackal, Bengal Fox, Sloth Bear, Ratel, Gray Mongoose, Striped Hyena, Jungle Cat, Leopard and Tiger. The artiodactyls frequently sighted are Wild Pigs, Spotted Deer, Sambar, Chausingha, Nilgai, Chinkara and Gaur. Mammals such as Dhole, the small Indian Civet, Palm Squirrel and Lesser Bandicoot Rat are seen occasionally. Among the herbivores, Gaur is the only coarse feeder.

    The vegetation along streams and marshes is rich in bird life. The common ones are Little Grebe, Egret, lesser Adjutant, Sarus Crane, Black Ibis, Lesser Whistling Teal, White-eyed Buzzard, Black Kite, Crested Serpent Eagle, Black Vulture, Egyptian Vulture, Common Peafowl, Red Jungle Fowl, Dove, Parakeets, Kingfishers and Indian Rollers. Reptilian Fauna include Cobra, Krait, Viper, Rat-snake, Python, Turtle and a number of lizard varieties, including Varanus.

    Wildlife Viewing
    There are two main ways of getting about in the park- in a motor vehicle or on elephant back. Many of the animals are now accustomed to both; even so, it is best to talk quietly and not make rapid movements.

    Jeep safaris are best undertaken from dawn until about 10am and from about 4pm until dusk, as the animals are most active during these periods. A Forest Department guide must always accompany you. This guide will be able to direct you and point out wildlife.

    Elephants are used every morning by the Forest Department for Tiger- tracking. If a Tiger is found, then the elephant will take you directly to the Tiger either from the lodge or from a nearby point reached by jeep/car.


    Travel Tips



    [​IMG] Nearest airport is at Jabalpur (164 km). The most convenient route to Bandhavgarh is to fly from Delhi to Khajuraho from where it is a five and a half hour drive (237 km). Though long, the drive is interesting. The road rosses the Ken river, some stretches of which have been declared a crocodile sanctuary famous for Ghariyal, a rare fish eating crocodile. It then goes past Panna town, famous for its diamond mines, to Satna, the midway point from where it branches off on a subsidiary road across ridges of the Vindhyachal to Bandhavgarh.

    [​IMG] The nearest railway stations are Jabalpur (164 km), Katni (102 km), and Satna 120 km) on the Central Railway and Umaria (35 km) on the South-Eastern Railway.

    [​IMG] State / private transport buses ply between Katni and Umaria and from Satna and Rewa to Tala (Bandhavgarh). Taxis are available at Satna, Jabalpur,Katni, Umaria, Bilaspur ( 300 km) and Khajuraho.

    [​IMG] February to June, although the cool season is much more comfortable and still very good for wildlife. The park is closed from July 1 to October 15 because of the monsoon. For those planning a visit, a stay of at least three nights is recommended in order to have a good chance of seeing the more elusive animals - although, of course, a brief visit will also be very interesting.

    [​IMG] Cottons, but bring woollens as well, as early mornings and evenings can be chilly, especially in a moving jeep and in the cool season. Try not to wear loud colours.

    [​IMG]
    The huge gaur, largest of the wild cattle, is to be seen with ease at Bandhavgarh, as they come out into the meadows in the early morning and late afternoon, retreating back into the dense hill forest in the heat of the day.

    The magnificent bulls are black with white 'stockings' on the legs - they have large dewlaps and a huge dorsal ride along the spine. Females are smaller without the dewlap, with the black replaced by dark brown. Young calves are light brown, without the 'stockings'.

    Generally the gaur lives in mixed herds of an average 5-15 animals, whilst the old bulls tend to become solitary except during mating. Within the herds the rank order of the bulls seems to be determined chiefly by size.

    Height:
    Large bull up to 195 cm. at shoulder.
    Average 180 cm., cows somewhat smaller.

    Spread of horns:
    Average 83 cm.; 100 cm., having been recorded.

    Weight:
    Old bulls may weigh 900 kg.


    At Bandhavgarh, tiger achieves the highest known density in India. They are widespread, and are seen throughout the Park.

    Tigers are basically solitary animals, coming together only briefly at the kill or when mating. Studies at nearby Kanha have shown that in areas of high tiger density male tigers hold well-defined territories which they defend against other animals, but within which several females may hold loosely defined territories. The breeding rate in these areas is high. In areas of lower tiger-density, females become less common and breeding is rare, whilst most of the tigers are old males who hold at most loosely-defined territories.

    Hunting is usually carried out at night, normally alone (though a mother may kill with cubs helping or looking on). The kill is usually made by first pulling down the hindquarters of the
    prey and then killing with a bite to the head or neck. The prey is usually eaten completely - the tiger staying nearby, chasing off scavengers (mainly white backed vultures and jungle crows) and often hiding the carrion or covering it with branches.

    The tiger is rarely heard - the most common vocalization is the 'pook', a loud clear call similar to the alarm call of the Sambar.

    Food
    Most commonly chital, also sambar, barking deer, wild pig, gaur, langur - to a lesser extent porcupines and other small mammals. Birds, eggs, frogs, are eaten when very young.

    Breeding
    Mating generally after the rains, most young born February-May. Litter usually 2-4, up to 6. Cubs accompany mother for about 6 months, leaving her after about 2 years.

    Local name: BAGH or SHER

    Male
    Size: Average 270-290 cm.
    Weight: Average 180-230 kg.

    Female
    Size: Average 260 cm.
    Weight: Average 135-180 kg.

    Food
    Grasses.

    Breeding
    Peak of rut December / January. 1 calf born.





     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  20. tarunraju

    tarunraju Moderator Moderator

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    My state is in a state of political chaos. I'll be in a good position to reply to this thread on the 2nd of January, 2011. =heheh
     
  21. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    I ll try to post on Tamil Nadu
     

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