http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/article959147.ece Japan on Friday expressed new â€œconcernâ€ over the â€œmilitary modernisation by Chinaâ€ and unveiled plans to â€œbuild a dynamic defence forceâ€ to face this â€œsecurity environmentâ€. In a coded language that unmistakably portrayed China as Japan's new threat, the Cabinet approved â€œnational defence programme guidelinesâ€ for 10 years from 2011. A new â€œpriorityâ€ would be the â€œenhancement of force disposition in southwest Japanâ€ close to China. The guidelines acquired unusual importance in the context of recent tensions between Japan and China over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands. A summary of the guidelines, released by the Defence Ministry in Tokyo, projected the planned transformation of Japan's self-defence forces as a totally indigenous effort at â€œincreasing the credibility of deterrent capability.â€ Japan would also seek to â€œfurther enhance and develop [its] indispensable alliance with the United Statesâ€. To address â€œthe threat of nuclear weapons â€¦ Japan will continue to maintain and improve the credibility of U.S.' extended deterrence, with nuclear deterrent as a vital element.â€ Outlining a third dimension of military preparedness, the guidelines spelt out â€œenhanced security cooperation with countries such as the Republic of Korea, Australia, Asean countries, and Indiaâ€. Such a plan was described as â€œmulti-layered security cooperationâ€. Portraying the proposed China-focussed defence posture as the centrepiece of a shift from Japan â€œCold War-styleâ€ policies, the guidelines emphasised that Beijing's â€œinsufficient transparencyâ€ on military matters was of â€œconcern to the regional and global communityâ€ and not just Tokyo. The rise of China and other emerging powers, compounded by a â€œrelative change in the U.S. influence,â€ had now brought about a worldwide shift in the balance of forces. In this ambience, â€œNorth Korea's nuclear and missile issues are an immediate and grave destabilising factor.â€ And, Russia's military activities in Japan's vicinity â€œare also increasingly robust,â€ Tokyo emphasised in defence of the new guidelines.