Pakistan's Intelligence Agency, the ISI, So originally Cawthorne was there to ensure that ISI focussed its energies on India rather than fritter it's efforts elsewhere. The idea was to ensure perpetuation of western interests through their man on the ground. "Opted for Pakistan after transfer of power" .. how clever & impartial it sounds. Cawthorne is an old India hand. The point to understand is till Cawthorne organized the ISI on MI5/MI6 lines the old IB which got bifurcated was just a CID outfit run by police wallas. There was never a military intelligence organization in the British India. So it was a qaulitative escalation by colonials. So the fight was between an Mi5/MI6 sortof military organization and first IB and then RAW which at best was based on CIA inputs but both were civilan outfits. By any chance was Cawthorne part of SIS/Force 136 in British India?