India's contributions to the World (unsung ones)

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by brain_dead, Jan 2, 2011.

  1. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

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    ARYABHATT - MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN
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    Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur ( Bihar ), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam." He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.


    VARAHAMIHIR - EMINENT ASTROLOGER AND ASTRONOMER

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    Renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir's book "panchsiddhant" holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jatak," he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.

    NAGARJUNA (100 CE) WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE
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    He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like "Ras Ratnakar," "Rashrudaya" and "Rasendramangal" are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like "Arogyamanjari" and "Yogasar," he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda . Nagarjuna's milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.
     
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  3. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

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    ACHARYA SUSHRUT (600 BCE) FATHER OF PLASTIC SURGERY
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    A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sushrut details the first ever surgery procedures in "Sushrut Samhita," a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe, Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.

    ACHARYA KAPILA - FATHER OF COSMOLOGY
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    Celebrated as the founder of the Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapila is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardama and Devahuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers - incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology.

    ACHARYA BHARADWAJ - PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY
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    Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ardent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him:
    1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force.
    2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force.
    3.) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane.
    4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening inside another plane.
    Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.
     
  4. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

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    ACHARYA KANAD - FOUNDER OF ATOMIC THEORY
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    As the founder of "Vaisheshik Darshan"- one of six principal philosophies of India - Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwaraka in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, "Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton. Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook, has said, "Compared to the scientists of Europe, Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field."

    BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE) GENIUS IN ALGEBRA
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    Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise "Siddhanta Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the "Surya Siddhanta" he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India. His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.

    ACHARYA CHARAK (600 BCE) FATHER OF MEDICINE
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    Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the "Charak Samhita," is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagnoses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the "Charak Samhita" he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurveda. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
     
  5. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

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    ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE)
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    FATHER OF YOGA
    The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of Bharat to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali , the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh . He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali 's 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Bharatiya philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.


    Amazing Facts about Bharat and Bharatiyas!

    1. Bharat is the world's largest, oldest, continuous civilization.

    2. Bharat never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history.

    3. Bharat is the world's largest democracy.

    4. Varanasi, also known as Benares, was called "the ancient city" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C.E, and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.

    5. Bharat invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta.

    6. The World's first university was established in Takshashila in 700BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient Bharat in the field of education.

    7. Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages. Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software - a report in Forbes magazine, July 1987.

    8. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. Today Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place in our civilization.

    9. Although modern images of Bharat often show poverty and lack of development, Bharat was the richest country on earth until the time of British invasion in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus was attracted by Bharat's wealth.

    10. The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindhu 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit 'Nou'.

    11. Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days.

    12. The value of pi was first calculated by Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century long before the European mathematicians.

    13. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from Bharat. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10**53(10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 BCE during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera 10**12(10 to the power of 12).

    14. IEEE has proved what has been a century old suspicion in the world scientific community that the pioneer of wireless communication was Prof. Jagdish Bose and not Marconi.

    15. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.

    16. According to Saka King Rudradaman I of 150 CE a beautiful lake called Sudarshana was constructed on the hills of Raivataka during Chandragupta Maurya's time.

    17. Chess (Shataranja or AshtaPada) was invented in Bharat.

    18. Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient Bharat. Over 125 surgical equipment were used. Deep knowledge of anatomy, physiology, etiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many texts.

    19. When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Bharatiya established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization).

    20. The four religions born in Bharat, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population.

    21. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in Bharat in 100 BC.

    22. Bharat is one of the few countries in the World, which gained independence without violence.

    23. Bharat has the second largest pool of Scientists and Engineers in the World.
     
  6. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

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    yes i know all those :)
    but no matter what people from other countries wont accept that what they found today we found out thousands of years ago
     
  7. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

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    Achievements of the Ancients
    (From Books of Dr. P.V. Vartak, Pune, INDIA)

    Medical Sciences
    Knowledge--------------------------------------Ancient Reference -------------------------------------- Modern Reference

    Plastic Surgery
    (Repair of nose ---------------------------------------Sushruta ------------------------------------------ A German Surgeon
    by the skin flap on forehead)--------------------(4000 - 2000 B.C.)--------------------------------------(1968 A.D.)

    Artificial Limb----------------------------------------Rigved (1-116-15)---------------------------------------20th Century

    Chromosomes-------------------------------------Gunavidhi (Mahabharat)----------------------------------1860-1910 A.D.
    -------------------------------------------------------------(5500 BCE)

    Number of Chromosomes (23)--------------------Mahabharat-5500 BCE------------------------------------1890A.D.

    Combination of Male and Female -------------------Shrimad Bhagwat ------------------------------------- 20th Century
    chromosomes in zygote-----------------------------------(4000 B.C.)

    Analysis of Ears---------------------------------------------Rigved------------------------------------------Labyrinth-McNally
    ---------------------------------------------------------- Eitereya Upanishad------------------------------------------- 1925
    ------------------------------------------------------------ (6000 BCE)

    Beginning of the Foetal Heart-------------------------- Eitereya Up.-----------------------------------------Robinson, 1972
    in the second month of pregnancy------------------Shrimad Bhagwat

    Parthenogenesis------------------------------------------ Mahabharat-------------------------------------------20th Century

    Test Tube Babies
    a) from the ovum only ----------------------------------Mahabharat--------------------------------------- Not possible yet

    b) from the sperm only -------------------------------- Mahabharat ---------------------------------- Not possible yet
    c) from both ovum and sperm------------------------ Mahabharat----------------------------------------- Steptoe, 1979

    Elongation of Life in --------------------------------- Shrimad Bhagwat----- ------------------------------------ Not yet
    confirmed
    Space Travel

    Cell Division (in 3 layers)------------------------------Shrimad Bhagwat--------------------------------------20th Century

    Embryology ---------------------------------------------Eitereya Upanishad ----------------------------------19th Century
    ---------------------------------------------------------------(6000 BCE)

    Micro-organisms------------------------------------------ Mahabharat-------------------------------------- 18th Century

    A material producing a disease -------------------------- S-Bhagwat (1-5-33)------------------------- Haneman,18thCent.
    can prevent or cure the disease
    in minute quantity

    Developing Embryo in Vitro. ----------------------------- Mahabharat --------------------------------- 20th Century

    Life in trees and plants ------------------------------- Mahabharat -------------------------- Bose,19thcent.

    16 Functions of the Brain ------------------------- Eitereya Upanishad ------------------------------ 19-20th Cent.

    Definition of Sleep ------------------------------ Prashna-Upanishad ----------------------------- 20th Century
    ----------------------------------------Patanjali Yogsootra



    to be continued....
     
    Last edited: Jan 2, 2011
  8. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

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    Physical Sciences

    Knowledge ------------------------------------Ancient Reference------------------------------------------Modern Reference

    Velocity of Light ---------------------------------Rigved ------------------------------------------------------ 19th Century
    ---------------------------------------------------Sayan Bhashya ------------------------------------------------------(1400 A.D)

    Trans-Saturnean Planets ------------------------- Mahabharat (5500 B.C) ----------------------------- 17-19th Century

    Space Travel to another --------------------------- Shrimad Bhagwat ------------------------------------- Under Trials
    solar system ------------------------------------- (4000 B.C)

    Gravitational Force ----------------------------------- Prashnopanishad ------------------------------ 17th Century
    ----------------------------------------------- (6000 B.C)
    ------------------------------------------- Shankaracharya
    ----------------------------------------------- (500 B.C)

    Ultraviolet Band --------------------------------------- Sudhumravarna --------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------- (Mundakopanishad - M.U)

    Infra-red Band ------------------------------------------ Sulohita (M.U) --------------------------------- ---

    Tachyons faster than light ------------------------------------- Manojava (M.U) ------------------- Sudarshan, 1968

    Nuclear Energy ---------------------------------------- Spullingini (M.U) ---------------------------- 20th Cent.

    Black Holes ------------------------------------------- Vishvaruchi (M.U) -------------------------- 20th Century

    Monsoon at Summer Solstice ---------------------------------- Rigved (23720 B.C) ----------------------------- ---

    Entry in South America by ------------------------------------Valmiki Ramayan ------------------------------------ ---
    Aero planes -------------------------------------------- (7300 B.C)

    Phosphorescent Trident at -------------------------------------- V.Ramayan ------------------------- 1960 A.D.
    the Bay of Pisco, Peru,
    S.America

    Aero planes ------------------------------------------------- Rigved ------------------------------- ---
    ------------------------------------------------------ Ramayan
    ------------------------------------------Samarangan Sutradhara
    --------------------------------------------------- (1050 A.D.)

    Robot -------------------------------- Samarangan Sootradhara ----------------------------------------- ---

    Atom (Divisible) ------------------------------------ Shrimad Bhagwat --------------------------------- Dalton
    (Indivisible)
    -------------------------------------------- (4000 B.C.) ---------------------------------- 1800 A.D.

    Subatomic Particles (Electron, ------------------------------ Shrimad Bhagwat(4000 BC) ------------------------- Thomas,
    Rutherford
    Proton, Neutron and other) ----------------------------------- (Param-Mahan) ----------- Chadwick (20th Cent.)


    Genesis of Universe ------------------------------------- Rigved (>10000 B.C.) ------------------- Gamaow, et.al
    (1950)
    ---------------------------------------------------(Nasadeeya Sootra)

    Atom Bomb ---------------------------- Mahabharat (5500 B.C) ------------------------------- 1945 A.D.
    ---------------------------------------(Brahm-Astra)

    Sound Energy used to powder ------------------ Mahabharat (Vajrastra) -----------------------------Gavreau, 1964
    materials

    Mercury as energy source for ----------------------- Samrangan Sutradhara ------------------------- Indian Express,
    aero planes ------------------------------------------------------------------ 20-10-1979 A.D

    North Pole ----------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan ----------------------------- Piery, 1909 A.D
    ---
    Antarctica ------------------------------ Valmiki Ramayan ---------------------------- Piery, 1950 A.D
    Premordial matter from ------------------------- Rigved (>10000 B.C.) --------------------------- 20th Century
    which the universe emanated -------------------------- (Ambha)

    Formations of premordial -------------------------- Rigved (>10000 B.C) ----------------------- Gammow, 1950
    matter ----------------------------------- (Ambha-Nasadeeya)

    Natural Cycle of Water ------------------------------ Rigved (>10000 B.C) ----------------- -------19th Cent.
    -------------------------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan

    Electricity (DC) ------------------------- Mitra/Varuna-Teja/Agasti-------------------------------- 18th Cent.

    Water Analysis by ------------------------- Agasti (Prana+Udana) -------------------------- 19th Cent.
    electricity (H2 + O)

    Electroplating ------------------------------------- Agasti ---------------------------- 19th Cent.

    Vega becoming Pole Star --------------------------- Mahabharat (Vanaparva) -------------------------- ---

    Seven Colors in sunrays ----------------------------- Rigved (8-72-16) ------------------------------ ---

    Black Spots on the Sun ----------------------------Valmiki Ramayan ------------------------------------- ---

    Temporary Bridge on Sea -------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan ----------------------------------- ---

    Equinox's and Solstice's -------------------------------- Rigved (10-18-1) -------------------------------------- ---

    Meteors ---------------------------------- "Ulka" AtharvaVed (19-9) ------------------------------------ ---

    Pythagoras Theorem ---------------------------- Sulbha Sootra (800 BC) --------------------- Pythagoras, 500
    BC

    Comet (at Mula) ----------------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan -------------------------------- ---

    Mars in Aldebaren ---------------------------------------- V.Ramayan --------------- not occurred in
    last
    "Breathing" of a Star ------------------------------------Rigved (Nasadeeya) ---------------Gamov, 1950


    Gravity and Heat Production ------------------------------- Rigved (Nasadeeya) ----------------- Gamov, 1950
    in a Star

    Order of origin of space, ---------------------------------- Rigved, Upanishads ------------------------------ ---
    gases, heat, water and earth

    Life on Earth --------------------------------------- Mahabharat, Puranas ---------------------- Salem, Jogesh
    1980
    ------------------------------------------------- 1.7 X 10^10 years ------------------- Pati-10^10 years

    Layers of Atmosphere accor- ------------------------------V.Ramayan (Kish.8) ----------------------------- ---
    ding to specific gravity

    Microscope ------------------------------------------- Mahabharat (5500 BC) --------------------- 16th Century
     
    Last edited: Jan 2, 2011
  9. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

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    The diversity of appearances is an illusion.
    There is on earth no diversity.
    He gets death after death
    Who perceives here seeming diversity.
    As a unity only is It to be looked upon -
    this indemonstrable, enduring Being.
    [Brihadaranyaka 4.4.19-20]

    This whole world the illusion maker projects out of this [Brahman].
    And in it by illusion the other is confined.
    Now, one should know that Nature is illusion,
    And that the Mighty Lord is the illusion maker.
    [Svetasvatara 4.9-10]

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    concept of simulation of reality..
    whole world we see and feel is actually an illusion.
     
  10. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

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    Sage Agasti's Electric Cell. and electroplating
    Below is a Sanskrit description given by Sage Agasti in his book Agniyan on subject avionics.

    Sansthapye Mrunmaye patre "Tamrapatram" Susankritam
    Chadayet Shighigrivenadrarbhihi kasthapansubhihi
    Dastaloshtho nidhatavyaha paradachhaditstataha
    Sanyogat jayate tejo mitravarun sandyitam
    anen jalbhagosti pranodaneshu vayushu
    evan shatana kumbhana sanyogaha karyakrutsmrutaha

    The transcription given below is done at Quillpad.com and is not exact...however anyone who understands Devnagari Script can read this.

    संस्था प्ये मृन्मये पत्रे "तम्रपात्र्न" सुसांकरतम
    च्छाड्येत शिखी ग्रिवेनड्रारभिही कस्थापन्सुभिही
    दस्तलोष्तो निधताव्याहा पारडच्छादितस्ताटाहा
    संयोगात जयते तेजो मित्रावरून संद्यिटम
    अणेन जलभगोस्ती प्रणोदनेशू वायूषू
    एवं शतना कुंभना संयोगहा कार्यक्ृटसमृताहा

    संस्था प्ये (Take ) मृन्मये (soil) पत्रे ( patra= container) "तम्रपात्र्न" ( cleaned copper plate) सुसांकरतम
    च्छाड्येत (covere with ) शिखी ( Morchud = Copper sulphate) ग्रिवेनड्रारभिही कस्थापन्सुभिही ( saw dust , kasthapansu..).
    दस्तलोष्तो ( Zink plate covered with ) निधताव्याहा पारडच्छादितस्ताटाहा (Mercury)
    संयोगात (this combination generate) जयते तेजो मित्रावरून (electricity) द्यिटम
    अणेन जलभगोस्ती प्रणोदनेशू वायूषू ( it can break water, Jalbhanga, into pran (oxygen ) and udan (hydrogen ) vayu (gas)
    एवं शतना कुंभना संयोगहा कार्यक्ृटसमृताहा ( one needs 100, Shata , such containers ) to do this work.

    Isn't above a proof of Sage Agasti's Knowledge about generating electricity from chemical reaction and using it for breaking water molecule in to hydrogen and oxygen.

    Sage agasti has also written that using this "Mitravarun Tej" i.e. electricity, one can put a layer of Gold or Silver ( by taking it's "Yavkshar" (Nitrate) ) on Copper.

    The above information is from book Swayambhu of Dr. P. V. Vartak
     
  11. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

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    In a statement on rigveda given by Sayanacharya at (Vijayanagara empire, 14 th Century AD), he says

    tatha ca smaryate yojananam sahasre dve dve sate dve ca yojane ekena nimisardhena kramamana
    तथा च स्मर्यते-योजनाना सहस्ट्रे द्वे-द्वे शते द्वे च योजने | एकेनं निमशारधेन क्रम मान नामोस्तुटे

    Means...

    Thus it is remembered: [O Sun] you who traverse 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesa.

    Here yojana is about 9 miles as in the Arthasaastra (and Mahabharat Adiparva). The
    measures of time are thus defined in the Puranas:

    1 Day-Night = 30 Muhurta = 24 Hours
    1 Muhurta = 30 Kala = 24/30 Hours
    1 Kala = 30 Kastha = 24/900 hours = 1.6 minute
    1 Kastha = 15 Nimesha = (1.6/15) min = 3.2 seconds
    1 Nimesh = 3.2/15 = 0.21333... second

    A Nimesh is therefore equal to 16/75 seconds. (0.21333)
    If you calculate the value is,

    (2202*9 miles)/((16/75)/2 sec) = 185793.75 miles/sec

    Which is nothing but speed of light (Scientific value is 187372 miles)

    At that time the only known source of light was sun. So the credit was given to SUN.

    This information is highlighted by Prof. Subhash Kak, Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor of Asian Studies and Cognitive Science at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. and is also in book Vastav Ramayan by Dr. P. V. Vartak.
     
  12. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Regular Member

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    Well very good answers but I want to add more

    • Sun is a Star
    Indian astronomers has made the important discovery that the stars visible at night are similar to the Sun visible during day time.
    There is an old Sanskrit shloka (couplet) which states "Sarva Dishanaam, Suryaha, Suryaha, Suryaha" which means that there are suns in all directions. This couplet which describes the night sky as full of suns. In other words, it was recognized that the sun is also a star.
    • Measure of time
      India has given the idea of the smallest and the largest measure of time.

      Krati Krati = 34,000th of a second
      1 Truti = 300th of a second
      2 Truti = 1 Luv
      2 Luv = 1 Kshana
    • Motions of the Solar System
      Aryabhata [476 AD] had discovered earth rotates about its axis. He has clearly calculated the movement of planets and their positions relative to uniformly moving points.
    • Small Pox Vaccination
      Indians had mastered a vaccination technique for small pox way before the Europeans did.A method of inducing immunity known as inoculation, insufflation or "variolation" was practiced before the development of a modern vaccine. This method may have been practiced in India as early as 1000 BC.
    Smallpox vaccine
    • Electric battery
      The ancient text of Agastya Samhita describes the method of making electric battery, and that water can be split into oxygen and hydrogen.
      "Sansthapya Mrinmaya Patre
      Tamrapatram Susanskritam
      Chhadyechhikhigriven Chardrarbhih
      Kashthpamsubhih.
      Dastaloshto Nidhatavyah
      Pardachhaditastah
      Sanyogajjayte Tejo
      Mitravarunsangyitam"
    • Nonviolence: More a civilisational contribution than a 'discovery', the active promotion of kindness and strict nonviolence as a rudiment of life spans the entirety of India's known history, from the ancient concepts of 'Ahimsa', to Mahatma Gandhi's policy of 'Satyagraha' (insistence on truth). It forms a core of the Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh traditions
    "India will teach us the tolerance and gentleness of mature mind, understanding spirit and a unifying, pacifying love for all human beings." Will Durant, American Historian.

    • Carburised Steel: Ancient Indians were known pioneers in metallurgy, and had mastered the production of high quality steel more than two thousand years before the process was finally demystified (including through the scientific investigations of Michael Faraday) in Britain and Europe. The legendary Indian Wootz Steel was a source of astonishment to other great civilisations.
    • Complex Hydraulic Engineering: Since the time of the Indus Valley civilisation over 5,000 years ago, and until the onset of the European colonial era in the recent past, India had created and sustained a vast and highly advanced network of canals, along with intricate irrigation, water management and sewage systems. These sewage systems were so advanced that they were designed to automatically self-clear systems blockages, as well as account for smell and odour. The world's first flush toilets were also in use in India over 3,000 years ago, and were a feature of most homes in the Indus Valley Civilisation - the largest ancient civilisation in the world.
    • Calculus
      George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester claims to have uncovered evidence that Indian scholars described the infinite series, a cornerstone of calculus, 250 years before Newton and Leibniz. There is also evidence that this discovery may have been transmitted to Europeans at the time by traveling Jesuit scholars.
    • University
      The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world is believed to have studies there.
    • Yoga
      Representing a complete system of social, physical, mental and spiritual development; the origins of yoga date to some 5,000 years ago in the Indus-Sarasvati civilization of northern India. The first references to the history of yoga can be found in the Rig Veda.
    • Fiber Optics
      [​IMG]
    Dr. Narinder Singh Kapany, is widely recognized as the ‘Father of Fiber Optics’ for his pioneering work in Fiber Optics technology eloquently on his entrepreneurial journey.

    • Ink
    [​IMG]
    Many ancient cultures and civilizations independently discovered and prepared ink for writing purposes. The source of carbon pigment used in Indian Ink (called musi) used in ancient India, was India. Since 4th century BC, the practice of writing with ink with a sharp pointed needle was common in South India.
    • Binary Code
      [​IMG]

      Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BC). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.
    • Fibonacci Numbers
      [​IMG]
      The Fibonacci numbers were first described by Virahanka, Gopala and Hemachandra as an outgrowth of earlier writings by Pingala.
      • Decimal System, Quadratic formula and Zero!
    • [​IMG]
      It was in 7th century CE when Brahmagupta found the first general formula for solving quadratic equations. The decimal system (or the Hindu number system), which was a precursor of the Arabic numeric system, was developed in India between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.
    • Ruler
      [​IMG]
      Rulers were first used by the Indus Valley Civilization prior to 1500 BCE. Made of ivory, the rulers found during excavation, reveal the amazing accuracy of decimal subdivisions on it.

    Refrences

    20 Clever Inventions You Probably Didn't Know Were Made By Indians
    Great Inventions and Discoveries by Indians
    Fifteen Indian Inventions and Discoveries That Shaped the Modern World | Philosophy Blog on Speakingtree.in
    16.2k Views ·
     
  13. Bornubus

    Bornubus Dogra Rule 1846-1949 Senior Member

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    Many Arab scholar from so called Islamic "Golden Age" came to India for learning.


    Abu Mashar al Balkhi the greatest astrologer of Abbasid court lived in India (Banaras) for 10 years learning Astronomy.
     
  14. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Regular Member

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    INDIAN INVETOR OF EMAIL
    Sourve all from Quora

    After tech pioneer Ray Tomlinson's death on March 6, a can of worms
    regarding who truly was the inventor of email was reopened on Twitter



    Yesterday, the internet was abuzz with the death of a certain Raymond ‘Ray’ Tomlinson, who major papers such as The Guardian, The New York Times and Fortune cited as the founder/inventor of email.


    Gmail, google’s electronic mail software, paid tribute on Twitter
    acknowledging him “for inventing email and putting the @ sign on the
    map.”



    What is ironic though is if you were to Google (at the time of writing
    this story) ‘Who invented email’ or ‘who is the inventor of email’, you
    would get one of these results:

    [​IMG]


    [​IMG]

    So what gives? Who really invented the electronic mail? Ray or Shiva?


    The facts as we know it are as follows:


    1) Ray Tomlinson has been peer-credited with writing a program in 1971 —
    for ARPANET, the precursor of the Internet — so people sitting on
    different computer terminals could send each other simple text messages.


    2) What Ayyadurai claims is that he, as a 14-year-old in 1978 (a full
    seven years AFTER Tomlinson’s creation), wrote a program that replicated
    the features of the paper mail system and came with a user-friendly
    interface that we are most familiar with today (‘Inbox’, ‘Outbox’,
    ‘Drafts’, ‘Subject’, ‘Cc:’, ‘Bcc:’ etc). And it is precisely this,
    according to him, that distinguishes his invention from earlier
    primitive methods of electronic communication.
     
  15. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Regular Member

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    These people also claimed to invent 0 however Europeans debunked it
     
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  16. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Regular Member

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    And there gold age didn't lasted long remember the Mongols:biggrin2::biggrin2::biggrin2::biggrin2::biggrin2::biggrin2::biggrin2::biggrin2:
     
  17. Bornubus

    Bornubus Dogra Rule 1846-1949 Senior Member

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    Yes. Khalifa was trampled under the Mongol horses. Brutal death.
     
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  18. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Regular Member

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    Source :-https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-of-the-greatest-discoveries-inventions-made-by-Indians

    10. Suits Game


    The popular game of cards originated from India & was known as Krida-patram (which literally means “painted rags for playing”).

    11. Cataract Surgery

    image source

    Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE) had the knowledge of performing cataract surgery. It spread to China from India. Greek scientists would visit India to get operations done and also to learn the nitty-gritties.

    12. Diamond Mining

    Worldwide, India was the only source of diamonds until the discovery of mines in Brazil in the 18th century. Almost 5000 years ago, diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India.

    13. Water on Moon

    image source

    ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 made the startling discovery that our moon is not a dry ball of rocks. The discovery of lunar water is attributed to the Chandrayaan mission.

    14. Radio/Wireless communication

    image source

    We all know that Marconi received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for contribution to the development of wireless telegraphy. But the first public demonstration of radio waves for communication was made by Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose in 1895, two years prior to Marconi’s similar demonstration in England.

    Sir Bose was posthumously credited (more than a century later) for his achievement. The fact remains that this discovery truly shaped the face of modern wireless communication.

    15. Flush Toilets

    Flush toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization. These existed in most homes and were connected to a sophisticated sewage mechanism. The civilization was prominent in hydraulic engineering.

    16. Binary Code

    image source

    Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BC). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.
     
  19. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Regular Member

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    You need to see and respect this guy
    Source :-quora again
    What are some of the greatest discoveries/inventions made by Indians?

    answers based on inventions done in Ancient India are repeated so Please add the inventions which is done in last 200 years

    Answer
    Request
    Follow1.2k





    [​IMG]
    Roman Saini
    , Co-founder at Unacademy. A small cog in nation building.
    Updated Sep 26 · Upvoted by Shankar Iyer, Ph.D. in Condensed Matter Physics from Caltech.
    Yellapragada Subbarao
    Does the name ring any bell?
    Nope.

    No problem.
    Lets have a look at this pic then.

    [​IMG]
    Still nothing? Nada?

    I am 100% confident that none of you have ever heard this name. Yet he was one of the most important biochemist and scientists of not only India but of entire world in the 20th century. He lead one of the most important medical researches in America during World War Two.

    1. He discovered the role of phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source in the cell. This lead to the foundation of biochemistry and all the further discoveries in this field are directly or indirectly influenced by this.
    2. He developed methotrexate for the treatment of cancer. This, without a doubt, is the single most important drug for the treatment of innumerable cancers. He has saved literally millions of life through this drug.
    3. He discovered Diethylcarbamazine. This drug is the only good treatment available for filariasis or elephant foot, which if not treated, makes the life of the patient a living hell.
    4. Working under Subbarao's guidance, Duggar made his discovery of the world's first tetracyclineantibiotic, Aureomycin, in 1945. Do you have any idea what does word Aureo signifies. It is a latin word for Gold, meaning that it ushered the Golden era of antibiotics where millions of death will be prevented.
    Despite all these superhuman achievements:

    • Except few people who are working in this field, no one knows him, especially in India.
    • He was denied fellowship in Harvard.
    • He lived without a green card throughout his life.
    • He was wronged by many of his fellow colleagues, who took all the fame, glory and patents on his work.
    • He was awarded a lesser LMS certificate not a full MBBS degree despite being one of the best student in the class. This is because he wore Khadi surgical dresses on Gandhi's boycott call, which displeased Dr. Bradfield, his surgical professor.
    Please spread this message as much as you can about Dr. Subbarao. He is one of the best minds India has ever produced and I always cry when people display their ignorance by saying that why don't India have good scientists in medical field.
    He was, and still is, my inspiration to pursue excellence in all the endeavors of human life. No matter how constrained and tied you are in terms of resources, if you have talent and single-minded ruthless focus, like Dr. Subbarao, you can literally achieve whatever you want.

    Don't behave like dumb wits, worshiping celebrities, reality shows and stupid TV series and movies, which lowers the IQ of entire human race.
    Lets celebrate our true heroes, which make indelible impact on real life.
     
  20. Hemu Vikram Aditya

    Hemu Vikram Aditya Regular Member

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    The most recent inventions

    A Microscope worth less than a dollar & a computer that runs on Water!!!

    Foldscopeis an optical microscope that comes as a single sheet of thick paper: you snap out the components, fold them origami-style, and thread them together. Ten minutes later, you have a device that weighs 9 grams, fits in a pocket, holds regular microscope slides, and can magnify their contents more than 2,000 times using a small built-in lens. That’s good enough to visualize everything from a ladybug’s claws to a colony of bacteria. It was developed by Manu Prakash and designed to cost less than US$1 to build. It is part of the "frugal science" movement which aims to make cheap and easy tools available for scientific use in the developing world.

    [​IMG]
    His TED Talk on Foldscope invention has got more than 3 Lacs views on YouTube. Prakash was born in Meerut, India and showed excellence in studies from early stage. Prakash graduated from IIT Kanpur from Computer Science Dept. in 2002 and went on to complete his PhD in Applied Physics from MIT in 2008. He is currently an Assistant Professor in Bio-engineering at Stanford University.

    The idea for creating a low-cost microscope came to Manu Prakash in 2011 while he was at a field station in Thailand. He remarked that the station had a very expensive microscope but that everyone was afraid to use it because it was fragile and worth more than most people's salaries. He wanted to create a microscope that anyone could afford and that would be versatile and sturdy enough to work in field conditions. He developed the first prototype in 2014. Following the first generation of simple Foldscopes, twelve medical diagnostic Foldscope variants are being developed, each designed to aid the identification of a particular disease-causing organism. Each unit costs less than one US dollar to build, with estimates varying from 50 cents to 97 cents.

    In October 2015, India's Department of Biotechnology announced a program to make Foldscopes available across India at 80 approved colleges and programs. It will be used as a teaching tool for students in biology, chemistry and physics. After the pilot program, the Department hopes to work with Prakash to develop more low-cost science tools. Foldscope sets will also be produced and tested in Kenya and Uganda.

    But Prakash is most excited about amateurs just using the Foldscope to look at the world around them. “The biggest thing we’re trying to do is to make people curious,” he says. “Our ambition is that every kid should be able to carry a microscope in their pocket.” To make that happen, Prakash is now courting larger organizations that can take over the manufacturing and distribution. And he is convinced that once the scopes get in the hands of users, the rest will be easy.

    His Prakash lab is focused on innovative and easy to access products for all. He does not stop there and recently he developed a computer that runs on water. He along with his students have developed a synchronous computer that operates using the unique physics of moving water droplets. The computer is nearly a decade in the making, incubated from an idea that struck Prakash when he was a graduate student. The work combines his expertise in manipulating droplet fluid dynamics with a fundamental element of computer science – an operating clock. He is looking forward for further more ambitious ideas and applications from his recent insights.

    Here is a picture of he and his lab members

    [​IMG]
    Source:


    Stanford scientist Manu Prakash makes water based computer - Times of India

    Manu Prakash: A 50-cent microscope that folds like origami

    Stanford scientist Manu Prakash makes water based computer - Times of India

    Stanford engineers build a water-droplet based computer that runs like clockwork
     
  21. vinuzap

    vinuzap Regular Member

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    ramanujan : in british india took the torch of mathematics

    shakuntla devi was genious in post colonial india and deserves a mention

    homi jahangir bhabha deserves a strong recommendation with talks of him being killed by CIA when in 60's only he was taking indian nuclear programme to different level and was genious


     
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