Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mileage

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by Lions Of Punjab, Feb 9, 2015.

  1. Lions Of Punjab

    Lions Of Punjab Regular Member

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    [​IMG]


    Kochi: In a joint experiment, scientist and engineers from SCMS Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology Research and Development and SCMS School of Engineering have successfully transformed coconut oil into an effective biofuel which can be used to drive vehicles.

    The group of scientists in their experiment on a four stroke diesel engine of TATA ACE mini truck has found that the biofuel gives a mileage of 22.5 kilometer per liter(kmpl) whereas it provided 16 kmpl when it ran on diesel

    Scientists who have been running the four-stroke diesel engine of a light pick-up truck on coconut oil for the past one year have approached the union government to commercialize the biofuel.

    “We purchased this brand new vehicle a year back. By now, it has done 20,000 km and has proved beyond doubt that coconut oil can replace diesel,” said C. Mohankumar, who heads the team of six scientists.

    He further said that they have already applied for US patent and have also approached the Central government for making commercial use of this biofuel a reality. The emission of harmful gases from this biofuel is much lower compared to diesel. Explaining the process, Mohankumar said760 litres of biofuel can be produced from the oil of 10,000 coconuts.

    "There are also five other by-products. This includes 5,000 kg of husk, 2,500 kg of coconut shells, 1,250 litres of coconut water, around 1,200 kg of cake (that can be used as cattle feed) and 70 litres of glycerol,” said Kumar. "Each of these products has a market value and that's how we are able to commercially supply this biodfuel at Rs.40 a litre," added Kumar.

    "We have conducted numerous tests on this coconut biofuel that are for anyone to see. It shows that all the parameters are much lower than other biodiesel products," he further added. The study was published in the December 2014 issue of the journal 'Fuel'.

    Indian scientists running vehicles with coconut oil, impressive mileage of 22.5km
     
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  3. W.G.Ewald

    W.G.Ewald Defence Professionals/ DFI member of 2 Defence Professionals

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    [​IMG]
     
  4. sorcerer

    sorcerer Senior Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    US will come knocking on the door for Coconuts now!!!


    Coconut oil make an excellent diesel substitute with some criteria
    It solidifies at approx 25°C
    It runs best on stationary plant with constant fixed load of around 75% capacity
    It runs best with indirect injection systems
    It operates better at approx 70°C as the viscosity is lower
    Clean the injector every 150 hours for the first year to determine the level of carbonizing and set up a suitable future regime.
    A duel tank system works well starting and running the first 15min on petroleum diesel then switching over to coconut oil and end the days work in the reverse manner shutting down fore the last 15mins on petroleum diesel.
    Preheat the CNO fuel using a heat exchanger running off the cooling system
    It is NOT successful with Lucas/CAV rotary injector pumps and the more modern engines but older style engines coming out of China and India are much more suited as is gravity feed fuel tanks.
    Coconut oil has less emissions and toxic fumes than petroleum diesel fuel
    Coconut oil runs smoother and reduces engine knock
    Coconut oil is available to the producer in remote areas to run machinery and generate electricity when the roads are cut off in the wet or prices are too high
    Coconut Oil is a sustainable resource
     
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  5. sorcerer

    sorcerer Senior Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Sourced from Engineers without borders!!
    Coconut Oil as Biofuel


    Coconut oil is a widely used liquid biofuel that is clean, relatively cheap, easy to extract, non-toxic and aromatic. It can also be used for cooking, in spreads, in health food products and cosmetics, and as a medication vector. The leftover coconut meal can be used to make flour, biscuits, chicken pellets and fish food while the husks and shells with their high heating value are an efficient dry fuel, making the common coconut one of the most useful nuts around.



    As engine fuel, coconut oil can be used in three ways:

    As a direct substitute for petroleum diesel.
    As an additive to petroleum diesel or bio-diesel.
    As the base ingredient of bio-diesel.


    Oil Extraction Process

    Raw coconut oil is extracted simply by removing the husks and shells, then grating, drying and pressing the remaining coconut meat (copra). Copra can be pressed using traditional methods or the more efficient Direct Micro Expelling (DME) method invented by Kokonut Pacific. Irrespective of the method, the best quality oil is obtained from mature coconuts between 12 and 15 months old that have been processed within a few hours after opening. The yield depends on the age and species of coconut but is around 50ml per nut. An experienced group of four people with reliable equipment and a continuous supply of coconuts can comfortably produce 50-60 litres of oil per day. The extracted oil can be used in raw form or converted into biodiesel.


    Raw Oil as Diesel Engine Fuel

    Diesel engines are known as the beasts of burden of the engine world because of their high torque, robust construction and the fact that they consume almost any kind of oil. Most simple triglycerides, such as coconut oil, will burn quite readily. However, since most diesel engines are designed around the lower acid content and specific viscosities/combustion properties of refined fuels they will eventually sustain damage if raw oil is used for extended periods.

    The two main causes of damage are coking and clogging. Coking is the deposition of solid carbon inside the engine due to incomplete fuel combustion, which may eventually cause the engine to seize up even with regular cleaning. Clogging occurs when the oil starts to solidify or gel inside the engine, which occurs at 22-25°C for 100% coconut oil. This is less of a problem in warmer climates. A pre-injection fuel heater can be installed to prevent the oil from gelling, although it is more common simply to use a blended fuel as this addresses most engine problems without the need for engine modifications.

    NB. Manufacturer warranties are sometimes void if raw oils or other non-approved fuels are used.


    Coconut Oil/Biodiesel Fuel Blends

    Blended fuels are commonly used if coconut oil is to be used over long periods. A widely-used blend is 49% coconut oil, 49% biodiesel and 2% kerosene, with variations to suit local cost, availability and climate. Fuel performance will vary according to fuel/oil ratio. For single injection engines, an increase in oil concentration leads to an increase in fuel consumption and reduced engine power. This is usually measured by brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), which reduces by ~20% when 100% coconut oil is used, and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), which increases by ~20% in the same scenario. The relationships between these variables are complex but can be approximated to linear for all practical purposes, which means these percentages can be used to extrapolate estimates of fuel performance characteristics for other fuel/oil ratios.


    Emissions from Fuel Blends

    Engine emissions are also related to the fuel/oil ratio. Smoke, NOx and CO2 emissions decrease as the percentage of coconut oil in the fuel mixture increases, reducing by ~75% for smoke, ~40% for NOx and ~15% for CO2 when 100% coconut oil is used. These relationships are linear so emissions estimates for other fuel blends can also be extrapolated from these values.



    Data source: Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with coconut oil/diesel fuel blend
    Herchel T.C. Machacon, Seiichi Shiga, Takao Karasawa, Hisao Nakamura, Biomass and Bioenergy 20 (2001) pp63-69



    Making Coco-Biodiesel

    The cleanest way to use coconut oil in diesel engines is to convert it to biodiesel by transesterification. While best results are obtained in a refinery or a chemistry lab, this is a fairly simple process that can still yield good quality fuel in a garage or garden shed with simple household equipment. Refined biodiesel has less than 0.05% water/sediment content and less than 0.25% w/v total glycerol content but it only needs to be as clear and non-viscous as is needed by the engine for it to function. As long as the fuel lines remain unclogged the fuel filter will capture any unfiltered particulates. The fuel filter will therefore need to be replaced more often. The test of a reasonable quality DIY fuel is if it is miscible, gels at around 10°C and a glass of it is not too cloudy to see through. The tighter the transesterification and filtering technique, the better the fuel quality, the lower the noxious emissions and the better the engine performance.

    Basic transesterification method:

    1. Prepare methoxide by mixing methanol and hydroxide in 1L:17.5g ratio.

    2. Transesterify pure coconut oil by mixing with methoxide in 5:1 ratio at 55°C heat.

    3. Release biodiesel by washing mixture with water, thereby dissolving glycerine by-product.

    4. Decant biodiesel carefully after mixture settles and cools, leaving glycerol solution.

    5. Distill methanol at 65°C heat from remaining glycerol for re-use, or boil it off, leaving glycerine solution.

    6. Evaporate water from glycerine solution and fashion leftover solids into cakes of Best Kwality Kokonut Soap.

    7. Compost any remains away from water sources.




    NB. Sodium Methoxide is a corrosive and dangerous chemical so appropriate safety precautions should be taken whenever it is used. There may also be local regulations and excises relating to the commercial manufacture and/or sale of biodiesel and the disposal of glycerol.



    Microeconomics

    The microeconomic outlook is good for small-scale coconut oil production at the source. If manual extraction methods are used, four people can comfortably produce about 50 litres of coconut oil per day. If the Kokonut Pacific small business model is used, start-up costs for a 50L/day operation are less than A$25k for a fully installed village-style plant. Whether the oil is more profitable as fuel oil, biodiesel or cooking oil depends on the local market price of these products at the time of commerce. If coconuts are plentiful and other fuels are not under-priced, typical payback time on a $25k investment is 2-4 years.

    The outlook is also promising for domestic electricity generation, although this will largely depend on the local price and availability of methanol, hydroxide and, of course, coconuts. A village house that uses 10kWh/day using a diesel generator that consumes 0.3 litres of biodiesel per kWh, will need four adults, two days labour and about 800 coconuts to produce enough biodiesel to meet their monthly requirements. Electricity from coconut oil typically costs 2-6 times that of urban grid-supplied electricity, so its economic feasibility is dependent on the comparitive cost of the grid connection and the labour cost of harvesting and processing the coconuts plus the purchase cost of a diesel generator.
    - See more at: Coconut Oil as Biofuel - Engineers Without Borders Australia
     
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  6. pkroyal

    pkroyal Regular Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    We have just begun !!

    Agey agey dekhiye hota hai kya

    The next non bio fuel engine to be invented by an Indian ?
     
  7. Bangalorean

    Bangalorean Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Beautiful. I have always been a proponent of Biofuels and Ethanol as a solution to the oil crisis. Electric technology is not mature yet, and will not mature in our lifetimes.

    Unfortunately, with the crash in oil prices, renewables have taken a back seat. India should take this opportunity to build huge stockpiles and reserves of oil, and simultaneously give a massive push to Ethanol blending. Already, 10% Ethanol blending is mandatory in most states of India. Increase the %age to 20, provide incentives to Ethanol producers, etc. Sooner or later, oil prices will skyrocket again, and then we'll be well prepared. Our deficit will be manageable and we will never see inflation.
     
  8. anoop_mig25

    anoop_mig25 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Why is that all such Indian news do not have market success .....

    I mean there was an indian who converted plastic into petrol so that we can reduce pertol import but i am yet to here that his technology is goin to be used on large scale by indian psu or private company .....


    there was news that bhu professor has used hydrogen as fuel for his experimental vechile ... again it can reduce petroleum import .....

    plastic waste can be used to construct roads again no such large scale experiments ...


    in last days NDA1 gov pertols where to be diluted with ethanol so as to reduce pollution and imports bill .. Come UPA1 and news gets buried . Even now NG jas follted news that he will asked petroleum psu to mix petrol with ethanol but the there is twist that is comapnies sell ethnol and he wants to make profit out it and should not be done...


    And now this news of "coconut oil into an effective biofuel" ....

    Would such experiment would see large scale implementation or just remains concept in university experiments ?????

    and they are appoarching GoI ... I mean why ther are appoarching GoI ??? for what ?????? Just go on sell it to higher bidder in market /country
     
  9. ezsasa

    ezsasa Senior Member Senior Member

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    I have been thinking in this line of thinking for some time, only reasoning I could think of is as follows:

    Since we are not entrepreneur driven economy and our economy is pretty much in the hands of those few business families especially the ones that control oil refineries. For such alternative fuel economy to grow we will need a national policy on alternate fuels. Any ruling party may not announce this because they are dependant on funding from these business houses.

    However we will have to trust the concept of free market economy. Which is basically let the best man win, in this case the solution which is economically viable at large scale win. Common man is bothered about "Kitna deti hai?" And "petrol bunk ghar ke aas paas hai kya?" . We have not reached a stage where environment is part of our top concerns.
     
  10. Ancient Indian

    Ancient Indian Unplugged Version Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Here I am dreaming about electric cars run by thorium based mini arc reactor invented by our scientists.
    You people are so mean.
     
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  11. anoop_mig25

    anoop_mig25 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Why not just tie up with some companies to introduce such modified vehicles for eg tata and then implement it in one state and then in other state .Start with kerala
     
  12. Mad Indian

    Mad Indian Proud Bigot Veteran Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Wow. So many conspiracy theories on unavailability of biofuels in India all blaming it on the big businesses, the typical socialist nonsense. Did any of you guys give a consideration to the fact that the reason might be far more simple and far less sinister- like the biofuel being not as practical as the petrol because of either its cost or its availability issues- atleast till now?

    Seriously, if the claims of this article is true, then MNCs including Indian ones would be flocking to capitalise on this "innovation" because of the huge impact it will have on the world and how many billions they would make with that. So seriously take a break guys before falling into the usual "big oil corporation conspiracy" nonsense of the socialist conspiracy loonatics
    Did you consider the probability that their claims are over exaggerated to draw attention? No MNC in right mind would reject a fuel which is half the price of the petrol.

    India seriously needs a socialism cleansing program
     
  13. Mad Indian

    Mad Indian Proud Bigot Veteran Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    I dont think thats going to be possible ever
     
    Last edited: Feb 14, 2015
  14. karn

    karn Regular Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    India imports a large part of her edible oils .. I don't know how people can dream of replacing fossil fuels with different bio fuels.
    There is such high demand for palm oil in the world for industrial applications that large plantations have been setup ruining the environment in many countries . The government has a plan to increase palm production to reduce imports but already there is opposition from environmental groups.
     
  15. Sambha ka Boss

    Sambha ka Boss Regular Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Food material shouldn't be converted into biofuel. It would be better to use them to feed the rising population.
     
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  16. anoop_mig25

    anoop_mig25 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Well Mad Indian . post of mine was not speculate on any " conspiracy theories" but such projects donot get out of unversities ....


    All what lack is Gov will in case of mixing ethanol with petrol

    good eg is Brazil
     
  17. Mad Indian

    Mad Indian Proud Bigot Veteran Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    You dint say conspiracy theory but your's sure sounded like one. Such projects, "if" and "only if" found to be econmically better/viable, then it would have gotten out of universities

    Dude, Brazil's conditions cant be compared to that of India. If it becomes costlier in India to produce ethanol than that it is in Brazil so much that mixing ethanol with petrol is not a viable thing to do economically, would you still support it?
     
    Last edited: Feb 16, 2015
  18. Mad Indian

    Mad Indian Proud Bigot Veteran Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Exactly! If we leave the market alone, it will stabilize itself based on the most efficient source of energy. Govt interventions like mandatory solar energy(which is thrice as costly as the normal energy production) only makes things worse.

    I am pretty sure that many here will believe that the solar power is held back by the oil conglomerates like RIL petroleum :rofl:
     
  19. SREEKAR

    SREEKAR Senior Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    KUDOS....:peace::car:
     
  20. Sambha ka Boss

    Sambha ka Boss Regular Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    Well solar and wind energy are still very viable option to fulfill energy shortfall. Excessive use of biofuel can lead to foodgrain shortfall, like many countries use corn to produce biofuel and one of the major factor in contributing to inflation and shorfall across the world.
     
  21. Mad Indian

    Mad Indian Proud Bigot Veteran Member Senior Member

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    Re: Indian scientists convert coconut into biofuel with impressive mil

    My only problem is with people who blame every problem(real or imagined) on the supposed illuminati styled corporates.

    Also, solar energy is not viable by any means, atleast not for India. The average cost of producing a single unit of electricity from solar power is 14 Rs. as against 4.5 Rs. per nuclear energy. How is it being costlier by 3 times than conventional sources of energy viable?
     

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