Indian presence in Antarctica

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by I-G, Jul 27, 2009.

  1. I-G

    I-G Tihar Jail Banned

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    India to start building new Antarctia base in January
    PTI 26 July 2009, 09:29am IST


    NEW DELHI: India will begin construction of its third research station in Antarctica in January next and the facility is expected to be up and
    running within two years.

    "The actual construction will begin in January next year when the summer season begins in Antarctica," Secretary, Earth Sciences, Shailesh Nayak said.

    He said construction of roads and huts for the station at Larsemann Hills region would be taken up during the summer season which lasts for about 90 days.

    Scientists believe that Larsemann Hills region broke away from the Indian peninsula about 120 million years ago and drifted to its current place after the break up of the Gondwanaland continent. This makes its study crucial.

    Scientists have finalised the conceptual design for their perch in the icy continent which had received a nod from the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) two years back.

    The ATCM, formed as per the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, is the final authority on matters related to the icy continent.

    The site is located on the ice-free rock stretch of Larsemann Hills, around Prydz Bay. It has moderate climate as compared to Maitri though strong winds blow from east to southeast during summer.

    Daytime air temperatures from December to February at times exceed 4 degrees Celsius, with the mean monthly temperature being a little above zero degrees.

    This would be the third research base to be set up by India after Dakshin Gangotri and Maitri.

    Dakshin Gangotri was set up in 1983 and later abandoned in 1988-89 as it was submerged under ice. The second research base Maitri was thereafter set up in a moderate climatic zone in 1990.

    As per the plan, the new research base would have a life span of 25 years and accommodate 25 people during the summer months and 15 during the winter period.

    The base would be a self-contained thermally insulated double-storeyed structure on stilts capable of withstanding extreme weather conditions of the region.

    While the ground floor will house general facilities like storage, laboratories, the upper floor will be used for accommodation, kitchen, lounge, offices, medical centre and recreation clubs.

    Wind turbines and solar panels would be set up to harness renewable sources of energy and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, officials said.

    The construction and operational activity of the research base shall have no more than minor or transitory impact on the Antarctic environment and scientists have proposed suitable mitigation measures to minimise even this.

    India to start building new Antarctia base in January - India - NEWS - The Times of India
     
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  3. I-G

    I-G Tihar Jail Banned

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    Indian expedition to Antarctica approved

    Indian expedition to Antarctica approved
    ANI 27 August 2009, 03:23pm IST


    NEW DELHI: The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) on Thursday accorded its approval for the continuation of the project "Polar Science;
    Expedition to Antarctica" during the XI Five Year Plan period at an estimated cost of Rs.230.01 crore.

    The scientific expeditions which started in 1981 have contributed substantially to the growth of polar science in the country.

    Experiments mounted by Indian scientists in disciplines such as atmospheric sciences and meteorology, earth sciences and glaciology, biology and environmental sciences have also contributed directly to global experiments mounted under the aegis of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR).

    The Indian Antarctic research base "Maitri" (70o 45' 56.9''S : 11o 44' 08.62"E) is one of the few active permanent research stations in the Central Donning Maudland (CDML) of East Antarctica from where systematic scientific experiments are conducted on a year-round basis.

    The facilities available at this research base include a weather observatory, geomagnetic station; a permanent seismological observatory, GPS station, ice-core drilling facilities and laboratories for environmental, human health and communication research.

    The entire activities related to the planning, coordination and implementation of the Indian Antarctic Programme is managed by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) through the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa, an autonomous institute under the Ministry, established in 1998.

    The objectives of this Programme are to continue the long-term scientific pursuits undertaken to understand the global processes and phenomena some of which are directly pertinent to our needs having potential applications.

    The continuation emphasizes our perceptible and influential presence in Antarctica to uphold the country's strategic interests in the Polar region and the surrounding oceans.

    Indian expedition to Antarctica approved - India - NEWS - The Times of India
     
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  4. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Crossing Antarctica, Indian flag in hand

    The Hindu : Sci-Tech / Science : Crossing Antarctica, Indian flag in hand

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    A young doctor, son of Indian immigrants, is set to become the first foreigner of Indian origin to walk across Antarctica carrying the Indian Tricolour to what he ecstatically describes as “The uttermost end of the world” – the South Pole and back again.

    Dr. Alexander Kumar told The Hindu from Antarctica where he has been living since January conducting research for the European Space Agency’s human spaceflight programme that he was “excited” and “proud to represent the best aspects of my British-Indian heritage”.

    He said he had been inspired as much by the spirit of scientific inquiry as by Mahatma Gandhi in undertaking the expedition.

    “I will never forget reading Gandhi’s autobiography and about his famous salt march. His life was so inspiring,” he said.

    Dr. Kumar, who has been selected as the Chief Medic and Chief Scientist for the expedition, is among a team of six who will make the crossing retracing the steps of two famous British explorers – Sir Robert Falcon Scott and Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton.

    They will spend nearly two years training for the expedition scheduled for 2014 with trips to Arctic Norway, Greenland and Canada.

    “It will take us nearly four months to march across Antarctica,” he said.

    Currently, he is based in Concordia Station – a French-Italian base in the interior of Antarctica – which he describes as “the most isolated and extreme research station in the world”. He and his crew live in complete isolation “with no chance of evacuation even in a medical emergency”.

    Dr. Kumar said that he had lived and worked in some 60 countries but never before had he experienced such extreme conditions.

    “Working in Antarctica is completely different…”This is world’s most extreme environment and it is the closest you can come to living, isolated on the surface of another planet or perhaps the dark side of the moon. Here your skills are really put to the test. Every day I learn more about the limits of human psychology and physiology, as I push my fellow crew members in experiments designed to help understand and prepare astronauts for a future manned Mission to Mars. I am here for the science.”

    Battling a lack of Oxygen had been a big challenge.

    “We are living at around 4,000 metres altitude where we breathe one third less oxygen as is available at sea level, so you can imagine how difficult it can be,” he said.

    Dr. Kumar (28) whose father came from Jammu said although he was born and brought up in Britain India was “home” to him. He had very fond memories of his time at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences where he worked on placement while studying medical science at King’s College in London.

    “I enjoyed working in India and it felt closer to me than working in any other country. AIIMS is an incredible specialist hospital taking referrals from all over India and providing a high standard of care for free. It is an example to the rest of the world,” he said.

    But from where he is now, Delhi, indeed, looks “door–ast” – very far.
     
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  5. Vishwarupa

    Vishwarupa Senior Member Senior Member

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    State-of-the-art ground station to come up at Antarctica soon

    A state-of-the-art ground station for earth observation satellites which will function in sub-zero temperatures and withstand high wind speeds will be established at Bharati Station, the third research facility being set up by India on the icy continent of Antarctica.

    The installation and commissioning of the ground station will be taken up in summer season at Antarctica, starting from December 2012 to March 2013.

    The prestigious project for setting up the ground station as also a communication facility has been bagged by the Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) from the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) for a contract value of Rs.50 crore in the face of stiff global competition, according to Y.S. Mayya, Chairman and Managing Director, ECIL.

    High-speed satellite raw data would be beamed in real time from Bharati Station to NRSC at Shadnagar, near here, for processing the images once the project starts functioning.

    Communication facility

    As part of it, a data reception station and another data communication facility linking Bharati Station and NRSC would be established.

    ECIL would install two large antennae of 7.5 diameters each-one for remote sensing and the other for communication. The antennae would be enclosed in a radome to protect them from heavy winds. While one antenna was already fabricated, the second one was expected to be ready shortly.

    The antennae would be installed on a platform weighing 50 tonnes and developed with special steel structure.

    The entire equipment would be taken to Cape Town, South Africa, by the end of September 2012 and transported from there to Bharati Station with logistic support from National Centre for Antarctica and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa.

    In 2007, ECIL also established the communication link between Maitri, the second Indian research station in Antarctica and NCAOR. Among others, research on tectonics and geological structures would be undertaken at Bharati Station by Indian scientists.

    The Hindu : Sci-Tech / Technology : State-of-the-art ground station to come up at Antarctica soon
     
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  6. LurkerBaba

    LurkerBaba Staff Administrator

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    India's station in Antarctic operational - Times Of India

     
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  7. LurkerBaba

    LurkerBaba Staff Administrator

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    Re: State-of-the-art ground station to come up at Antarctica soon

    Indian Bases in Antarctica:

    1. Dakshin Gangotri (abandoned)
    2. Maitri
    3. Bharathi
     
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  8. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    India preparing law on Antarctica, poised to expand research activities in coldest continent
    India is also preparing a law for safeguarding its interest in Antarctica, an official of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) said on Tuesday.

    By Zee Media Bureau | Last Updated: Tuesday, May 9, 2017 - 15:57

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    Image credit: ISRO

    New Delhi: Indian scientists have been going to Antarctica for research purposes since 1981.

    Now, the country is also preparing a law for safeguarding its interest in Antarctica, an official of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) said on Tuesday.

    "India doesn't have laws for Antarctica. We are preparing it and it is in circulation in the law ministry," MoES secretary Madhavan Nair Rajeevan told the media.

    "The law entails regulating our activities. When we go there if we do a mistake, what will happen, what to do. It is about safeguarding our own interests," he said, adding that the country is also poised to expand its research activities in the coldest continent.

    The National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, organises the Indian Scientific Mission to Antarctica every year.

    This year in March, four teams from ISRO participated in the 36th Indian scientific expedition, where climate change was the main area of focus. The Indian space agency, ISRO, has been participating for a long time.

    Maitri, which is India's second research station in Antarctica as part of the Indian Antarctic Programme, will be replaced by a new one in the next few years.

    "The Maitri station will be replaced by a new station in the next three-to-four years. Scientific activities will be expanded. We are also planning to buy a ship which can go to Antarctica," Rajeevan added.

    About Indian Missions to Antarctica
    The first ever Indian Expedition to Antarctica took place in 1981 under the leadership of Dr Sayed Zahoor Qasim. However, the origin of indian missions to the Antarctic can be traced to the agreement between ISRO and Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia agreements, which led to Indians, such as Dr. Paramjit Singh Sehra, joining the 17th Soviet Antarctic expedition of 1971–1973.

    Antarctica, which has two seasons, is a desert having no trees or bushes. The region is too cold for people to live there for a long time. Scientists take turns going there to study the ice.

    India has three research stations in Antarctica :

    • Dakshin Gangotri - The first permanent settlement, built in 1983.
    • Maitri - The second permanent settlement, put up in 1989 on the Schirmacher Oasis, and has been conducting experiments in geology, geography and medicine. India also built a freshwater lake around Maitri known as Lake Priyadarshini.
    • Bharati – The newest research station for oceanographic research that will collect evidence of continental breakup to reveal the 120-million-year-old ancient history of the Indian subcontinent.
    According to NASA, Antarctica is a good place to find meteorites, or rocks that fall from space to Earth, with scientists finding more space rocks in the region than any other place in the world.

    The US space agency also sends teams to Antarctica to learn more about the planet Mars and to study astronaut nutrition.

    http://zeenews.india.com/environmen...-activities-in-coldest-continent-2003599.html
     
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  9. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    NCAOR is going to hold a National Conference on Polar Sciences (NCPS-2017) during May 16-17, 2017 @ NCAOR.

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    National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) is organising a National Conference on Polar Sciences (NCPS-2017) at NCAOR, Goa, during 16-17 May 2017. NCPS-2017 aims to bring eminent researchers, working in diverse fields from Antarctic, Arctic, and surrounding ocean realms as well as Himalayas, to identify and discuss the interdisciplinary approach to address the various scientific and operational issues. This event will provide a platform to exchange their research ideas, experiences, findings and to motivate the Early Career Scientists/Researchers. Researchers are invited to participate and present their findings on various aspects of Polar Regions including Himalayas. The conference will include invited and contributed oral as well as poster presentations. High quality original and unpublished work (conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical) shall be encouraged. Limited financial support towards travel/accommodation is available for research students and who are in need of financial support should send a request email to the Convenor, NCPS-2017.

    For more details & updates, please download the First Announcement Brochure and see the conference website: www.ncps2017.ncaor.gov.in
     
  10. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    Indian Polar Expeditions - Antarctica

    The importance of Antarctica as a pedestal for front-ranking scientific research was recognized by Indian way back in 1981 itself, when the first Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica was launched. Since then, India has made great strides in initiating scientific projects of both national and global relevance as well as in catering to the entire gamut of complex logistics operations called for, in the Annual Expeditions to Antarctica. Experiments mounted by Indian scientists in such disciplines as atmospheric sciences & meteorology, earth sciences and glaciology, biology and environmental sciences have also contributed directly to global experiments mounted under the aegis of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). The Indian research station Maitri has also served as a platform for collaborative studies with some Antarctic Treaty nations i.e. Germany, Italy, France, Poland and the United States of America. It has also facilitated scientists from Malaysia, Columbia, Peru and Mauritius to work in Antarctica.

    Some of the noteworthy accomplishments of Indian scientific community in Antarctica are:

    1. Identification of a number of new species of bacteria from the cold habitats of Antarctica- 30 out of 240 new species discovered so far have been by Indian scientists.
    2. Identification of new genes from the bacteria as genes required for the survival of bacteria at low temperature.
    3. Identification of a number of lipases and proteases active at low temperatures and useful for the biotechnology industry.
    4. Preparation of comprehensive geological and geomorphological maps of the Schirmacher Oasis.
    5. Studies of cold adaptability of human beings in the harsh environment of Antarctica which have provided significant baseline data for use in similar studies on India’s armed forces serving in the Himalaya.
    Objectives:
    1. Continuation of the scientific programs in the Antarctica in the fields of atmospheric sciences, climate change, geoscience and glaciology, human physiology and medicine, polar biology and environmental science.
    2. Initiating novel programmes in the frontier realms of polar science, viz. Assessment of microbial diversity in Arctic and Antarctic: Past and Present; Environmental monitoring and health of the Indian Antarctic Stations in pursuit of Antarctica-Treaty-System and its governance; Long-term monitoring and modeling of precipitation over Antarctica; and Satellite-based monitoring Antarctic sea ice and land ice topography, with special focus on glaciers.
    3. Ensuring a prominent and sustained presence of India in the Antarctica through initiation of scientific research in some of the frontier realms of polar science including paleo-climate reconstruction from the Antarctic coastal water.
    4. Continue to play a lead role amongst the nations with a sustained presence in Antarctica.
    http://www.moes.gov.in/programmes/polar-expeditions-antarctica

    Indian Stations in Antarctica

    Maitri

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    http://www.ncaor.gov.in/antarcticas/display/376-maitri-

    Bharati

    [​IMG]

    http://www.ncaor.gov.in/antarcticas/display/377-bharati
     
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  11. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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  12. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    Videos of Indian presence in Antarctica


    Indian flag hoisting at Bharti station




    Bharti station during 35th scientific expedition




    Inside view of Bharti station




    More:

    Dr MANOJ SAIN
     
  13. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    Finally Maitri research station has its own pincode.:india:
     
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  14. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    Indian aerospace engineer Bhavana Singh on 10 day expedition to Antarctica with International Antarctic Expedition 2017 (sponsored by Himalaya)



    [​IMG]

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  15. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    India’s Antarctic Ocean expedition to deploy under-ice mooring
    India's expedition to the Southern Ocean, scheduled to be launched in December, will deploy an under-ice mooring for a period of one year to understand the seasonal variabilities in the coastal waters of Bharati station in Antartica, and its impact on the ecosystem.
    [​IMG]
    An under-ice mooring is a line anchored to the seafloor and held aloft by floats at the surface. (Reuters)
    India’s expedition to the Southern Ocean, scheduled to be launched in December, will deploy an under-ice mooring for a period of one year to understand the seasonal variabilities in the coastal waters of Bharati station in Antartica, and its impact on the ecosystem. An under-ice mooring is a line anchored to the seafloor and held aloft by floats at the surface. Bharati is an Antarctic research station commissioned by India. It is the country’s third research facility and one of two active stations, alongside Maitri. India’s first committed research facility, Dakshin Gangotri, is being used as a supply base. “During the Southern Ocean Expedition (SOE) 2017, detailed observations were made in the Prydz Bay (PB) region during austral summer,” Dr N Anilkumar, from Ocean Science Group of Goa-based National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) said.

    “However in the Southern Ocean (SO) expedition 2017-18, it is planned to deploy an under-ice mooring for a period of one year,” he said. “This time, the observations are significant to understand the seasonal variabilities in the dynamics and bio-chemical processes of the coastal waters of Bharati station as well, as its impact on this ecosystem,” the scientist said. The tenth SOE to the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean will be launched in early December to have a comprehensive study in the region between the Polar Front (PF) and PB as well as with an under-ice mooring in the coastal waters of the Bharati station, Anilkumar said. The SO research programme is mainly focusing on the “role and response of Southern Ocean to the regional and global climate variability”.

    The previous SOEs, from 2004-2017, attempted to understand the spatial and temporal variability of different fronts as well as the coastal processes in the Indian Ocean sector of the SO based on the hydrographic data collected along various transects. “The last four years’ SOE mainly focused on the Subtropical Front (STF) to Polar Front (PF) and in the Prydz Bay (PB) region, coastal waters of Antarctica near India’s third station, Bharati,” the NCAOR said. A set of mooring equipments like current meters, micro-cats and sediment traps have been deployed in the STF region during SOE 2016-17 for a comprehensive understanding of the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the physical, biological and geological parameters of this dynamic regime.

    The Indian Ocean sector of the SO is a region which remains under-investigated, where the data available is sparse which impedes our knowledge to understand the role of SO in the climatic variablities. Availability of long term data from this area is imperative for understanding the various processes affecting the climate so as to evolve suitable mitigating measures, the NCAOR said.

    http://www.financialexpress.com/ind...xpedition-to-deploy-under-ice-mooring/732716/
     
  16. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    Historic: India’s First Luxury Cruise To Antarctica In December

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    Taking vacation to a whole new level, India’s first ever cruise to Antarctica is being curated this December so get set for the experience of a lifetime!

    The first ‘Indian Ship’ is setting sail to Antarctica this winter, and 200 voyagers have the chance to hop on! The Q Experiences, which is a Mumbai-based luxury travel company, has announced a plan to charter the luxury yacht ‘Le Soléal’ to Antarctica

    The cruise will set sail between 9-19th December from Ushuaia in Argentina.



    Company's website
    http://www.thewhitecontinent.com


    More
    https://so.city/#!/delhi/article/cr...very-first-luxury-cruise-to-antarctica-in-dec


    http://www.livemint.com/Leisure/DkYaIEBz3Qw9EblFFFYXjK/The-first-Indian-cruise-to-Antarctica.html
     
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  17. Cutting Edge 2

    Cutting Edge 2 Regular Member

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    Scientists at Hyderabad-based NGRI find volcanic margins in East Antarctica
    Aug 30, 2017
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    Scientists at city-based National Geographical Research Institute (NGRI) have found volcanic passive continental margins beneath the Maitri Station in the East Antarctica. They have inferred that these margins are affected by the thermal events which were responsible for the Gondwana supercontinent break-up, including the Indian sub-continent.

    Maitri is India’s second research station in the Antarctica. Studies are conducted there on intra crustal layers beneath this region.

    NGRI scientists, led by Sandeep Gupta and Nagaraju Kanna and A. Akilan, conducted seismic studies and published a paper in the Polar Research journal.

    Mr Sandeep Gupta said, “The earth is made of plates which constantly move and get together and get apart. This is called plate tectonics. The Gondwana supercontinent existed till 542 million years and broke into two 180 million years ago. The Western Half included America, Africa and the Eastern Half included the Indian sub-continent, Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica. Around 140 million years ago, Africa and America separated from the Western Half and in the Eastern Half, India and Madagascar separated from Australia and the Antarctica. Around 90 million years ago, Madagascar separated from the India sub-continent and 65 million years ago India got separated for Seychelles.”

    “In our study, we tried to understand how this separation of Gondwana took place. The magma came up and plates got thinned up. Whatever is happening inside the earth is expressed on the surface. To know what is happening beneath the Maitri station we used seismic imaging. We have observed signatures at this crucial part that explained how the Antarctica got separated from Africa. We have used data collected over years. It is called passive as there is no activity,” Sandeep Gupta said.

    “We investigated the crustal shear wave velocity model beneath the Maitri station, situated in the central Dronning Maud Land of the East Antarctica, through the receiver function modelling,” said the researchers.


    http://www.deccanchronicle.com/scie...find-volcanic-margins-in-east-antarctica.html
     
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