Indian Navy`s Pocket Destroyers

Discussion in 'Indian Navy' started by Kunal Biswas, Aug 13, 2011.

  1. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Pocket Destroyers
    Sunday, 26 October 2008, By Sandeep Unnithan and Mrityunjoy Mazumdar


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    Nearly a decade after they were ordered by the public sector Garden Reach Shipyard (GRSE) in Calcutta, the Indian Navy's Project 25A Class corvettes have begun emerging from the shadows of shipyard delays and equipment supply problems. The first P25A corvette (INS Kora P61), a follow on to the earlier series of four Project 25 Class corvettes, was commissioned into the Navy by Defence Minister George Fernandes at the GRSE on 10 August 1998, eight years after her keel was laid down. Three other vessels, Kirch, Kulish and Karmukh have been launched and are in various stages of fitting out, with the last one to be inducted into the Navy by 2003. The INS Kora made its maiden international appearance at the IDEX-99 defence exhibition in Abu Dhabi in February 1999.



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    In fact severe delays, including labour unrest at the GRSE in Calcutta coupled with the stranglehold of the local mafia, had compelled the Navy to tow out the second P25A vessel, INS Kirch, to Bombay's Mazagon DY in 1995 to complete her fitting out. The INS Kirch is over 60% complete and will join the Navy in mid-2000. These 1400-tonne corvettes are a wholly indigenous design prepared by the Navy’s design organisation in the early 1980s to replace the 10 Petya II class corvettes transferred from the former Soviet Union between 1969 and 1974. The first two corvettes, the Khukri and Kuthar, were ordered from the Mazagon Docks Ltd., Bombay in December 1983, the next two, Kirpan and Khanjar, were ordered from GRSE in 1985. GRSE also bagged the order for the follow-on series in April 1990 at a cost of approximately $200 million. These vessels were originally conceived as a class of 12 units, being divided into three sub-classes of anti-air, anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare platforms. However due to budgetary constraints and extensive delays in construction & weapons supplies, the number has been revised downwards.

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    With its large AShM missile load, the ships can be used for massed attacks on coastal targets and flotillas either in independently or as flotilla leaders for smaller missile launching platforms such as the Tarantul Class corvettes or the Osa-II Class missile boats. They could also be used for extended patrolling and guarding the approaches to sensitive harbours and coastal installations, or as picket ships in scenarios too risky to involve sending prized assets like the Delhi Class destroyers which would be able to concentrate on more vital roles. The 16 ready-to-fire missiles rule out the need for a missile reload and the transfer of missile support facilities to the Gujarat coast for the Styx missiles, as was being done in war scenarios with Pakistan. In keeping with their size and role, all 8 of the Project 25 series have been named after oriental daggers, the Kora being an Eastern Indian chopping blade with an axe-head.

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    What immediately distinguishes INS Kora from its predecessors is its large weapon load of sixteen 3M-24 anti-ship missiles (Russian designation: Kh-35 Uran and NATO designation: SS-N-25 Switchblade) in four quadruple KT-184 launchers, which are inclined at an angle of 35º from the plane of the vessel's deck. The 3M-24 is also dubbed 'Harpoonski' in some circles as it resembles the US-made Harpoon AShM. The Navy is now standardizing this missile load on all its new surface combatants, beginning with the three Delhi Class destroyers, the three Brahmaputra Class frigates and the two modified Tarantul Class missile boats, which are under construction at Goa SY. This is quadruple the missile load of the P25 Class and gives the P25A Class, firepower capability comparable to the Delhi Class which are also armed with a battery of sixteen 3M-24s. The main objective behind the increased missile load is to provide a massed strike, thereby increasing the probability of a successful target engagement through saturation of enemy air defences.

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    The original plan was to have an identical AShM weapon fit of the P20/21/22 AShM (NATO: SS-N-2D Styx) using two KT-138 twin launchers on all eight Project 25/25A units. But delays in the delivery of the follow-on Project 25A series and the availability of the more modern 3M-24s ensured that the follow-on series would be much more heavily armed. GRSE officials say that the 3M-24 missile launcher complex abaft of the AK-176 main gun has necessitated some 40 minor structural changes in the original P25 design. However in INS Kora, the only external structural modification appears to be the removal of the missile blast deflectors intended for the heavier SS-N-2D Styx AShM and a somewhat modified bridge superstructure. As in the P25 Class, other armament consists of a single AK-176 76.2mm gun (85º elevation and fires up to 120 rounds per minute to 15 km), two AK-630 30mm six barrelled Gatling guns (85º elevation and fires up to 3000 rounds per minute to 2 km) which are employed in the close-in-weapon system (CIWS) role. However, one of the most glaring aspects of the corvette has been the near-lack of any significant air-defense (AD) or anti-submarine warfare (ASW) systems.

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    Fitting an AD system seems to have been compromised by the helicopter deck. Presently, INS Kora only carries two manually-aimed twin launchers for the SA-N 5/Igla short-range anti-aircraft missile, although it appears that at one time, the SA-N-4 Osa SAM system was considered for this class. Likewise there are no integral ASW assets and the ship will rely on the Chetak/ALH fitted with dunking sonar and torpedoes to fulfill its ASW functions. Additionally, ALH-launched Sea Eagle AShMs could supplement the vessel's main AShM armament. These omissions are explained in part by the fact that these vessels are cheap platforms and are supposed to operate with other ASW escorts under friendly air cover. Nevertheless, it is very debatable whether this is a sound operational philosophy on the IN’s part especially as comparable units in service with other navies have significant AD and ASW assets. Countermeasures systems include four PK-10 decoy launchers in the INS KoraKora seem to indicate that there are two PK-16 launchers as in the P25 Class and two BEL-supplied towed decoys (according to reports in Jane's IDR) although inspection of existing photos of INS .

    The sensor suite is largely of Russian origin along with some Indian-made sensors/systems and is substantially the same as the Project 25 Class with the possible exception of the new Ajanta P Mk.2 ESM system from Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL) and the SSM FCS. Fire control for the 3M24 is integrated into the Russian-designed Garpun-Bal surface-search multi-functional radar, which also functions in the ESM role. It is possible that this radar is being manufactured in India. In a combat situation, both single and group targets may be engaged with the missile FCS apportioning an optimal number of missiles to each set of targets, controlling the missile firing sequence and subsequent target engagement. The 3M24 missiles have yet to attain operational status in the Navy and it has been reported that the Kora was not actually armed with missiles at the IDEX-99 defence exhibition.

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    Other sensors of Russian origin include a Pozitiv-E (NATO: Cross Dome) air-search radar, a MR-123 Vympel (NATO: Bass Tilt) FCS for the AK-176 gun and the two AK-630 30mm CIWS. The missile FCS, probably known as Klub, is different from that of the P25 Class which is known as the Klon. It is thought that the Russian sensors and FC systems are integrated into the Bharat/Vympel combat data system, which is a version of the Italian Selenia IPN-10 system. As in the P25 Class, there is no onboard sonar apart from an echo sounder. The ship has a large helicopter deck located amidships immediately aft of the funnel. Although its equipped with comprehensive helicopter landing systems supplied by SOFMA of France, it lacks a hanger. At present, only the HAL Chetak (license-built SA-319B Alouette III) is embarked but the vessel is capable of handling the much larger indigenous HAL Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH). Though the naval variant of the new ALH has not been test flown off the Project 25 series, naval officials say all the parameters were fulfilled during the ALH’s deck landing trials off INS Ganga, a Godavari Class frigate, and INS Viraat in 1998.

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    At 1400 tonnes, the P25 Class is also 50 tonnes heavier than the P25A class, this can be partially attributed to an additional air-conditioning/heat-exchanger plant and a reverse osmosis plant capable of producing 20 tonnes of fresh water. INS Kora has an indigenous component of 70%. It is powered by two SEMT-Pielstick 18 PA6 V280 diesels which deliver 14,400 h.p. to two controllable pitch propellers. The diesels are assembled in India under license by Kirloskar. The ship has a top speed of 26 knots and a range of 4000 nautical miles at 14 knots. It has twin stabilisers on its sides to give impart stability to its weapon systems and ensure helicopter operations in high sea states. At one time it was planned to use gas turbines for propulsion in the P25A Class. The ship is poorly finished and ugly weld lines are visible on its sides. Unfortunately, it is one of the problems afflicting indigenously-built warships. The lack of stealth features is also very noticeable on this class and it must be remembered that the design of the ship dates back to the early 80s when stealth wasn’t exactly in vogue. However, given the existing regional threats and their expected roles, this may not really be a significant factor for this class of ships.

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    More Here: Bharat-Rakshak.com :: NAVY - Pocket Destroyers : The Project 25A Class
     
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  3. ashdoc

    ashdoc Senior Member Senior Member

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    the gulf war showed that ships without anti-aircraft missiles can be easily shot down by aircraft armed with harpoon missiles or other anti-ship missiles like exocet .

    these ships are sitting ducks without anti-air missiles .
     
  4. kickok1975

    kickok1975 Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    This destroyer is Russian's type look with plenty of missiles.
     
  5. captonjohn

    captonjohn Regular Member

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    Man these ships are not meant to operate alone, such type of ships operate in a group, in a battle group which consists of all types of ships including destroyer, corvettes and air defense ships. This is sitting duck if enemy aircraft find it lonely but they always be found in group so no chance to get destroyed by any aircraft.
     
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  6. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    These Ships are mainly deigned in 80s as per regional situation, You will find Kora class only in Bay of Bengal mainly as their are no Air-thread.

    Regarding Exocet and subsonic anti-ship missile this ships have two CIWS ( ak-630 ) for that reason..

    Begin small but have same teeth as a Delhi class as Anti-Ship Platform, These are trade off between a corvette and a destroyer..

    In 80s India was primarily buying Russian hardware, Delhi class and Kora class share the same anti-ship load and some look alike architecture..
     
  7. pankaj nema

    pankaj nema Senior Member Senior Member

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    Now a days Naval ships and even submarines move in " formations " or in naval terms Battle groups

    It is like One for all and all for one

    The aim is to protect each other and destroy the enemy's assets ASAP with maximum firepower and precision .

    In 1999 Kargil war and 2001 Operation Parakram Indian Navy's large BATTLE groups were very aggressively and very Strategically PLACED in North Arabian sea Just 13 Nautical miles OFF Karachi
     
  8. agentperry

    agentperry Senior Member Senior Member

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    well small, fast moving and heavily loaded with AshM. these ships will be used to ambush the enemy armada in the deep seas.
    think of PN ships mostly missile boats en route to an Indian port or coastal city, being ambushed by this ship sinking them with their AshM. as our enemy have few platforms which are small and have weaker self defense systems these ships will be used extensively. pn ships vulnerable to ins kora and company are larkana class missile boat, jalalat 2 and sino-pak fast attack crafts.
     
  9. sandeepdg

    sandeepdg Senior Member Senior Member

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    Pretty basic stuff, the Kora class of ships. But, I still feel that whether you are part of a battle group or sailing alone, whether it is a small corvette or a destroyer, they should deploy at least some number of SAMs even if they have a CIWS on board like the Kashtan or the AK-630. CIWS are the last source of defense, there should some ordinance to give some form of offensive capabilities too to these ships even if they are part of a battle group. Even in a battle group of say 7 surface vessels, comprising of two destroyers and five corvettes, if only the destroyers are armed with SAMs, I don't think they can give substantial protection to the other five non-SAM armed corvettes. Its just my theory, obviously all these issues are taken into consideration by a battle group commander in actual scenarios, but the shoulder-launched IGLA-1E twin launchers are hardly any credible anti-air defense system for the Kora class. Its a joke of an anti-air capability ! And, its the same with the Khukri class, the Veer and the Abhay class corvettes with negligible anti-air capabilities on board and all of them shoulder fired Igla and Strela SAMs.
     
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  10. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    JUST posted to show the size difference..
    Yet Kora carry same ASHM payload as a Delhi class Destroyer..
     
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  11. charlyondfi

    charlyondfi Regular Member

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    Unless you have more-than-enough air-born surveillance forces watching the sea, even grand navy need these small corvettes:
    1) operation flexibility
    2) cheaper alternatives
    3) fast deploy or response, and so on
    Some basic point-defense SAM should not be hard to deploy. I tend to say IN got its own assessment & plan...
     
  12. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Interesting Photos..

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  13. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    The Kora Class Corvettes will most likely be used in a rerun of the Raid on KarachI harbour if so required int he future , supported by AWACS and Sukhois/ Migs flying CAP over them out of Jamnagar and Pune these babies will be well protected from Air attack. also We could have a diversionary air attack on Karachi or any adjoining city so as to draw the PAF there while the Koras have their day!
     
  14. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    I doubt KORA will ever deployed in Arabian sea, Reason the absence of significant AD system..

    KORA are used in bay of Bengal as there is not airborne thread, They are used mainly to intercept and patrol, Any warship messing with these will have a bad day..
     
  15. Payeng

    Payeng Daku Mongol Singh

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    Shivalik class multirole frigate weapons and sensors
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    32 Barak point defence
    2 galting gun point defence,
    ASW but why just 8 VL AShM :why: ????
     
  16. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    This is a frigate deign for speed..
     
  17. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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  18. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    KORA Class ' Pocket Destroyer ' Spotted with New Cannons ..

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    Details >>

    ]OtoBreda 76/62 Super Rapid Deck Cannon

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    The Otobreda 76 mm gun is a naval artillery piece built by the Italian defence conglomerate Otobreda.Otobreda 76mm Compatto cannon system is compact enough to be installed on relatively small warships, like corvettes, avisos (a vessel somewhere between a corvette and a patrol boat), or patrol boats. The gun's high rate of fire makes it suitable for short-range anti-missile point defence, and its calibre also allows it to function in anti-aircraft, anti-surface, and ground support roles. Specialised ammunition is available for armour piercing, incendiary and directed fragmentation effects and there is also a new guided round that is supposed to be able to destroy maneuvering anti-ship missiles. In recent years a new stealth cupola has been offered.

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    Super Rapid

    Also called the "Super Rapido" this weapon, developed in early '80s, is the most up to date development of the Italian 76mm naval cannons, with an increased rate of fire of 120 rounds per minute. To achieve the higher rate of fire the Super Rapido requires a specially developed round that can be raised, loaded and chambered at higher speeds. While the older 76mm Allargato and 76mm Compacto can fire the new special round, it does not increase their rate of fire. Even the Super rapido can only fire at 120 rounds per minute in short bursts, despite the water cooling of the barrel.

    In the anti-missile defense role, citing it as being capable of countering several subsonic missiles from 6,000 to 1,000 meters away. 76mm Super Rapido turrets. The longer range means one single gun can engage more than one missile in a single engagement, and minimizes the danger posed by fragments and splinters if a missile is destroyed close to the ship. The 76mm was also capable of being used versus surface targets, being a medium calibre gun with relatively long range


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  19. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Valcano 76/62 mm ER ammunution

    In order to develop the maximum potential from those guns, OTO has developed and is continuing to develop a complete family of Guided and Intelligent ammunition.

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    It has a projectile equipped with an inertial/GPS mid-course guidance system and an IR homing guidance system, designed to engage naval targets at very long ranges.

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    The IR homing system, which is activated during the terminal attack phase of the flight, within a few kilometres of the target, allows final course correction. The hit probability is therefore extremely high, independent of the range.

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    Now with these advance in ammo technology One don`t need Anti-ship Missiles to engage Ship at 70-90kms away, When this technology is available in most Indian Navy Ships armed with Oto Melara 76/62 Super Rapid gun..

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    It has a projectile equipped with an inertial/GPS guidance system for the engagement of fixed coastal targets.The projectile is fired to a very high altitude and, during the intermediate phase of its trajectory, it performs a constant angle gliding descent that allows a considerable increase in range. By integrating the data coming from the inertial and GPS guidance systems, the projectile's control unit commands its canard control surfaces and steers it towards the target's position.

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    A variant to this configuration is being developed which, by making use of a semi-active laser (SAL) terminal guidance system, will allow the engagement of moving targets illuminated by an observer on the ground or by an UAV. In any case, the achievable accuracy is in the order of a few metres.

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    Its available for both 127mm gun as well as 76mm gun..
     
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