http://knol.google.com/k/vijainder-k-thakur/indian-navy-kilo-class-submarines/yo54fmdhy2mq/37# Overhaul, sensor and weapon upgrade including Club-S missiles The Indian Navy (IN) is in the process of upgrading its 10 Kilo class (Project 887EKM) submarines under a deal signed in 2001. Contents * Introduction * INS Sindhurakshak Overhaul * INS Sindukirti Overhaul * IN Project 636 / Kilo class submarine fleet * Kilo-class submarine capabilities * Club-S Missiles A port beam view of the Indian navy patrol submarine INS Sindhughosh en route to India. Introduction Each upgrade costs $80 million and involves a complete overhaul of the submarine and its hull structures; installation of an improved control system, sonar, electronic warfare system, and an integrated weapon control system. Four submarines - INS Sindhuvir, INS Sindhuratna, INS Sindhughosh, and INS Sindhuvijay - have already been overhauled at the Zvezdochka shipyard in Severodvinsk, which is getting ready to overhaul the fifth - INS Sindhurakshak. INS Sindhurakshak Overhaul A deal to overall INS Sindhurakshak was signed on June 4, 2010. The floating dock - Rolldock Sun - carrying the submarine on board left India for Severodvinsk on June 20, 2010. It arrived there on August 3. Overhaul of the sub is expected to take between 2-2.5 years. The submarine will be fitted with the Club-S missile system, and the Indian developed USHUS sonar and CCS-MK communication system. INS Sindukirti Overhaul Severodvinsk shipyard is concurrently repairing and modernizing INS Sindukirti in her basing site Vishakhapatnam, India. IN Project 636 / Kilo class submarine fleet The IN Project 636 / Kilo class submarine fleet comprises the following subs. Name Commission Date INS Sindhughosh S55 30 April 1986 INS Sindhudhvaj S56 12 June 1987 INS Sindhuraj S57 20 October 1987 INS Sindhuvir S58 26 August 1988 INS Sindhuratna S59 22 December 1988 INS Sindhukesari S60 16 February 1989 INS Sindhukirti S61 4 January 1990 INS Sindhuvijay S62 18 March 1991 INS Sindhurakshak S63 24 December 1997 INS Sindhushastra S65 19 July 2000 Kilo-class submarine capabilities The Kilo-class submarine is thought to be one of the most silent submarine classes in the world. It has been specifically designed for anti-shipping and anti-submarine operations in relatively shallow waters. Displacement.......2,300 tons Max Dive Depth.......350 m (1,200') Range..............6,000 miles Crew..................57 Armament.......... 2x533 Max Surface Speed 10 kts Max Submerged Speed 19 kts Endurance 45 days Max Depth 300m Russia has built Kilo-class submarines for India, China and Iran. Club-S Missiles All 10 IN Kilo class subs are also being retrofitted with Club-S submarine cruise missile family. The Club-S 3M-54E1 is a subsonic sea skimming (100') anti-ship missile which accelerates to supersonic speeds during its terminal phase covering the last 15 km in less than 20 seconds, making if difficult for anti missiles defenses to engage it. The missile can be launched from a 533 mm torpedo tube from a depth of 35 to 40 meters (130 feet). It can also be launched from a vertical launch tube. It uses an ARGS-54 active radar seeker and Glonass satellite and inertial guidance. Club-S 3M-54E1 Weight 4,400 lb Warhead 440 lb Range 300 km Terminal Speed 3,000 kph INS Sindhugosh and INS Sindhuvijay have already been equipped with the Club-S cruise missile systems. The upgrade wasn't smooth. After INS Sindhuvijay was upgraded, six test firings of the Club-S missile in 2007 failed and India refused to accept the submarines which spent two years in Russia. The technical glitches were eventually sorted out. The Zvezdochka shipyard will install Club-S cruise missile systems on four Kilo class diesel submarines in service with the Indian navy in the next five years. "The new missile system will be installed on the INS Sindhuratna, INS Sindhuraj, INS Sindhushastra, and INS Sindhuvir. The retrofit will be carried out at Indian shipyards," the shipyard in northern Russia said in a statement.