Hydrogen fuel

Discussion in 'Strategic Forces' started by LETHALFORCE, Jan 28, 2012.

  1. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    IOC to open India's first hydrogen fuel pump

    While conventional fuels are derived from crude oil or gas, the hydrogen fuel will use atmospheric air to synthesise pure hydrogen.

    Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the country’s largest oil marketing company by sales, will open the country’s first hydrogen fuel-dispensing station in New Delhi next month. The new-age pump will be set up in Dwarka.

    “This is the culmination of a journey undertaken by IOC to diversify the energy mix of the country which ultimately results in energy security in the future,” says RK Malhotra, IOC’s executive director of research and development.
    While conventional fossil fuels like petrol, diesel and CNG are derived from raw materials such as crude oil or gas, and mostly imported, the hydrogen fuel to be dispensed at this pump will use atmospheric air to synthesise pure hydrogen, which will be used to fuel vehicles. The process is called “electroliser” technology.

    Further, hydrogen-fuelled cell cars emit only water, while CNG vehicles emit noxious oxides that have been a concern to authorities ever since CNG was introduced as an automobile fuel in the capital.

    The fuel pump, according to the company, will be set up at a cost of Rs 5 crore, with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas funding the project in equal measure.

    In 2006, the government unveiled its National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, outlining an ambitious target of converting one million vehicles to run on hydrogen.

    The hydrogen fuel pump will dispense a mix of hydrogen and CNG roughly in the ratio 20:80 to a group of test vehicles comprising three-wheelers and passenger vehicles, mainly drawn from the government’s fleet.

    General Motors India has confirmed to Business Standard that its next-generation fuel car under validation in the US — the Equinox, which is a hydrogen-powered fuel cell car — has been sounded out by IOC as a possible test vehicle in India in the coming months.

    German auto major BMW also runs a fleet of cars on pure hydrogen across Europe. “But the hydrogen we use is qualitatively different from the one India will experiment with. So we are unable to participate in the rollout,” said the spokesperson of BMW India.

    In the initial phase, we plan to target current CNG vehicle-owners in the capital — public transport vehicle operators, goods carriers or passenger car owners because these vehicles can be run on hydrogen fuel mix with a little modification,” says Malhotra. But use of 100 per cent pure hydrogen as auto fuel, Malhotra adds, will require a completely new engine.

    Automobile manufacturers like Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Ashok Leyland, Eicher Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra have been involved in IOC’s efforts to test hydrogen fuel as a commercially viable fuel option in the country since 2006. In 2005, talks were conducted between IOC and Bangalore-based Reva Electric Car Company (RECC) to fine-tune the hydrogen fuel technology for large-scale commercial use in the country. No progress was made on the joint venture, says RECC.

    In terms of mileage efficiency, cost of fuel and emissions, hydrogen is superior to CNG. “It depends on how you use hydrogen fuel. If used in a fuel cell car, the mileage efficiency obtained is twice that of a conventional internal combustion (petrol) engine,” says Chetan Maini, deputy chairman and chief technical officer, RECC.
     
    trackwhack and Kunal Biswas like this.
  2.  
  3. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
  4. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    India: New milestone: Hydrogen fuel cell technology | FuelCellsWorks

    India: New milestone: Hydrogen fuel cell technology


    AS WORLD’S poor suffer from severe food shortages, we waste and cry about CO2. There are people in India who are working towards greener future since last twenty five years in Rajasthan.

    Recently, Professor Y K Vijay and his team from Physics department, Rajasthan University, Jaipur, have discovered new technique of hydrogen fuel cell technology in car.

    Professor Y K Vijay, hydrogen fuel cell research contributes to the growing role that advanced technologies play in addressing the nation’s energy challenges. His research focuses on hydrogen production, delivery and storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; analysis; education; and manufacturing of car. Automobiles are the leading cause to country’s air pollution problem. Cars also release toxic emissions that damage our environment. Pollution is hurting our environment by adding to the greenhouse effect, damaging air quality and decreasing the ozone level. By this technology, he has proved that we can reduce pollution level more then CNG.

    Biggest problem in cars running with hydrogen fuel cell is that it needs refilling from outer source. Because of this, these cars are not considered good for long distance travelling. To overcome this problem, he worked on ‘onward fuel generation’ technique. It means hydrogen will be generated in the car itself. His team has added some new techniques in it. They prepared cell with aluminum electrode with saline water (salt and water solution). With electrosis process, cell will produce hydrogen fuel frenziedly in car. He used special type of air filters and thin film membrane to separate fuel from hydrogen. By this way, purity of hydrogen will increase. In addition, pollution level in environment will fall considerably. On a test drive, it was found that pollution level from cars running with hydrogen fuel cell is very less in comparison to cars running with gas/petrol.

    Professor Y K Vijay and his team next step are to take patent from Ministry of New and Renewable Energy as this research is going under this ministry since 1984. When this project will be cleared, it will not only be a blessing for industrial sector, but also will help to clean environment. Automobile companies are free to experiment on hydrogen fuel cell technology under guidance of Professor Vijay.
     
    Kunal Biswas likes this.
  5. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    Clean hydrogen fuel gets IIT boost - Express India

    Clean hydrogen fuel gets IIT boost

    Kolkata, March 8 A Team of researchers in the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur has claimed of making a significant breakthrough in isolating a hydrogen-producing bacterial strain that produces 40 per cent more hydrogen than other bacterial strains.
    The development is considered to be significant in the production of hydrogen gas, an efficient and clean fuel.

    According to Prof Debatrata Das, who is heading the research team, Enterobacter cloacae can produce about 3.85 moles of hydrogen from one mole of the substrate, which is very close to the theoretical limit of 4 moles of hydrogen during anaerobic fermentation.

    Since past few years, the biotechnology department of the IIT has been involved in the various aspects of synthetic hydrogen gas research, which is also currently pursued in different foreign universities. The researches have even used sewage sludge as substrate for the bacteria and have found similar results. This is considered vital, as it will help in energy generation as well as disposal of waste, feel the researchers.

    An 800-litre plant for generating fuel has already been set up at the institute this year as part of a pilot project.

    “We have also carried out research on photo fermentation, and it is also giving results as high as 12 moles of hydrogen from one mole of reactants,” said Das. “Present research work aims at making the process economically viable,” he added.

    Several organisations like the ONGC and some private companies have approached the IIT to develop a pilot project for large-scale industrial and commercial production of synthetic hydrogen from bacteria.
     
    Kunal Biswas likes this.
  6. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
  7. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    Soon, hydrogen powered gadgets that could last for weeks - Sci/Tech - DNA

    Soon, hydrogen powered gadgets that could last for weeks

    Apple is said to be working on laptops and smartphones powered by hydrogen fuel cells that would last for weeks without needing to be refuelled.

    According to patent filings, in two documents submitted to the US Patent and Trademark Office, the iPhone maker said its proposal "eliminates the need for a bulky and heavy battery".

    A hydrogen fuel cell converts hydrogen and oxygen into water and electrical energy.

    The technology has long been hyped as a potential power source for cleaner cars. Electronics manufacturers have also shown growing interest in replacing batteries that rely on toxic chemicals with hydrogen fuels cells that would last longer and produce only water as a by-product.

    “Our country’s continuing reliance on fossil fuels has forced our government to maintain complicated political and military relationships with unstable governments in the Middle East, and has also exposed our coastlines and our citizens to the associated hazards of offshore drilling,” the Telegraph quoted Apple as saying in its patent filings.

    “These problems have led to an increasing awareness and desire on the part of consumers to promote and use renewable energy sources,” it said.

    It also notes that hydrogen fuels cells could be smaller and lighter than batteries, while still powering mobile computers for longer.

    “Such fuel cells and associated fuels can potentially achieve high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities, which can potentially enable continued operation of portable electronic devices for days or even weeks without refuelling,” Apple said.

    The two patents, “Fuel Cell System to Power a Portable Computing Device” and “Fuel Cell System Coupled to a Portable Computing Device” are not the first signs that indicate that Apple is working to replace battery technology.

    In October a further pair of patent applications detailed ways of squeezing more power from lighter hydrogen fuel cells.
     
    Kunal Biswas likes this.
  8. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    Boeing plane flies on hydrogen, fuel cells - US news - Environment - Green Machines - msnbc.com

    Aviation first: Plane flies on hydrogen, fuel cells


    Engineers from across Europe have successfully developed and flown a manned airplane powered by hydrogen and fuel cells — a first in history and a step towards cleaner and more energy-efficient aviation, Boeing announced Thursday.
    The breakthrough is "full of promises for a greener future," Boeing Chief Technology Officer John Tracy told reporters at the company's research center in Ocana, Spain, where the aircraft was on display.
    Given rising fuel costs and concerns about climate change, the air industry is keen to find ways to cut energy bills and emissions tied to global warming. While hydrogen is still expensive to produce as an energy carrier, it emits no pollutants.
    "Boeing recognizes that pollution represents a serious environmental challenge," Tracy added.
    The two-seat, propeller-driven plane flew three test flights in February and March at the airfield in Ocana, Boeing said.
    During the flights, the pilot climbed to 3,300 feet using lithium batteries and power generated by hydrogen fed into fuel cells, which in turn create electricity to power an electric motor.
    After reaching the cruise altitude and disconnecting the batteries, the pilot flew straight and level at a cruising speed of 60 miles per hour for approximately 20 minutes on electric power solely generated by the fuel cells, Boeing said.
    The auto industry has been working on developing hydrogen fuel cells for vehicles but obstacles include the costs of producing fuel cells, the cost of producing hydrogen, the lack of a broad supply infrastructure.
    On the other hand, fuel cells are two to three times more efficient in converting energy than today's internal combustion engines.
    Boeing doesn't expect fuel cells to completely power large aircraft, but it does see a role powering small manned and unmanned aircraft.
    "Over the longer term," the company said in a statement, "solid oxide fuel cells could be applied to secondary power-generating systems, such as auxiliary power units for large commercial airplanes."
    Boeing added that it "will continue to investigate their potential, as well as other sustainable alternative fuel and energy sources that improve environmental performance."
     
    Kunal Biswas likes this.
  9. Vyom

    Vyom Seeker Elite Member

    Joined:
    Dec 23, 2009
    Messages:
    1,041
    Likes Received:
    328
    So has anyone cared to research any side-effects of hydrogen fuel? What will happen if millions of vehicle start using the air of the atmosphere to fuel the themselves? Will it result in depletion of pure air?
     
  10. Defcon 1

    Defcon 1 Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Nov 10, 2011
    Messages:
    1,457
    Likes Received:
    444
    Location:
    Lucknow
    i don't understand how can they produce hydrogen from air, but the only viable way seems to me is to use the water vapour present in air which is I think about 0.33%.......So there will be no depletion of air.....although i really don't understand how will they produce hydrogen....there should be some other way.....or the hydrogen will be manufactured in plants and not in the vehicle itself.....that is viable.....
     
  11. Godless-Kafir

    Godless-Kafir DFI Buddha Senior Member

    Joined:
    Aug 21, 2010
    Messages:
    5,829
    Likes Received:
    1,799
    Well even by todays technology we can even run a vehicle based on pure shit or used toilet paper but the fact is oil is the cheapest way to run the economy. Thats why all its competitors fail to match mineral oil, this syndrome is called "technological lock in" where even if we try to move away the investement in oil infrastructure is so huge to abandon, so we are locked into useing it.
     
  12. JAISWAL

    JAISWAL Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Mar 13, 2010
    Messages:
    1,512
    Likes Received:
    1,016
    Location:
    ghaziabad
  13. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

    Joined:
    May 26, 2010
    Messages:
    27,604
    Likes Received:
    28,412
    Location:
    BHARAT, INDIA, HINDUSTHAN
    U-214 Subs use Fuel cells, Which use Hydrogen and they are quite efficient..

    Same used in Space stations..
     
    LETHALFORCE likes this.
  14. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    Kunal Biswas likes this.
  15. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    Kunal Biswas likes this.
  16. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    Hydrogen-Powered Skylon Spaceship Could Launch EU Into Space

    Hydrogen-Powered Skylon Spaceship Could Launch EU Into Space

    [​IMG]

    Hydrogen fuel is a promising technology, but the economics and infrastructure just aren’t there for cars yet. But what about spacecraft? The European Space Agency has just reviewed and pass a hydrogen-powered spaceship called the Skylon.
    Powered by Sabre engines, what makes the Skylon unique is that it (in theory) can take off and land at a conventional airport and achieve low orbit. It does this by scavenging air from lower altitudes, rather than having to carry extra oxygen to burn in what are essentially rocket boosters. Air entering the Sabre engines will need to be cooled from 2,000 degrees to -200 degrees in about 1/100th of a second. The solution? Feed the air through tiny tubes in a pre-cooler before burning the oxygen in the engine.
    Source: Gas 2.0 (Hydrogen-Powered Skylon Spaceship Could Launch EU Into Space)

    [​IMG]

    Sounds complicated, right? And yet the ESA reviewed and passed this project, which means the next step is to build a working prototype of the engine. Sounds far out to me, but the concept does have some merit. If the Skylon has to carry a minimal amount of oxygen on board to achieve orbit, that makes room for more people, research equipment, and what have you. Right now the heaviest cargo on the soon-to-be-retired space shuttles is the actual fuel itself. Another bonus? Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. This technology could prove to be a huge boon in humanity’s quest to conquer the stars.
    With ingenuity like this, the universe doesn’t stand a chance.
    Source: Gas 2.0 (Hydrogen-Powered Skylon Spaceship Could Launch EU Into Space)
     
    pmaitra and Kunal Biswas like this.
  17. Godless-Kafir

    Godless-Kafir DFI Buddha Senior Member

    Joined:
    Aug 21, 2010
    Messages:
    5,829
    Likes Received:
    1,799
    Hmmm...Did they copy our Avatar model?
     
  18. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    Kunal Biswas likes this.
  19. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,548
    Likes Received:
    6,551
    India Showcases Hydrogen Fuel Auto-Rickshaws | TheCityFix

    India Showcases Hydrogen Fuel Auto-Rickshaws

    Auto-rickshaws are a mode of low-cost, point-to-point transportation in Indian cities. The use of two-stroke engines running on gasoline and diesel, coupled with poor maintenance, often results in high pollutant emissions, particularly particulate matter and hydrocarbons. There have been a number of initiatives in recent years to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions, and a number of Indian cities have shifted to alternate fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). However, one of the key caveats associated with these fuels is that oil is still added in the two-stroke version of the vehicle, which can contribute to a considerable amount of pollution.

    To fulfill the twin objectives of high energy efficiency and less pollution, research is now underway to assess the feasibility of hydrogen-fueled auto-rickshaws. Hydrogen, being a clean, non-polluting source of energy, can potentially contribute towards energy security of the country, as well as help in achieving reductions in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Energy Conversion Devices,Inc., a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India’s largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, launched a project (funded by the U.S. government) to construct and prepare prototype auto-rickshaws with hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (ICE) from the normal gasoline auto-rickshaws. The researchers found that the performance was comparable with CNG autos (see the fully study: “Clean Hydrogen Technology for 3-Wheel Transportation in India.”)

    More recently, at the Auto Expo that concluded last month in New Delhi, Mahindra showcased its new hydrogen-fuel auto-rickshaw, HyAlfa, which has been touted as the world’s first hydrogen auto-rickshaw. The project cost nearly $1 million and was co-financed by Mahindra & Mahindra and United Nations Industrial Development Organization’s International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (UNIDO-ICHET). Experts at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi designed and tested the vehicle, which was then adapted and manufactured by Mahindra & Mahindra. A fleet of 15 auto-rickshaws is currently on a trial run at Pragati Maidan, an exhibition complex in Delhi, but the rickshaws are not expected to enter commercial markets until 2020.

    However, given the high number of owner-drivers in the auto-rickshaw sector, operating costs remain a major barrier. Hydrogen fuel is expected to cost around INR 250 (US$5) per kilogram in the market, compared to INR 35-50 (US$0.7-1) per kilogram of CNG fuel. Another consideration is the cost of the vehicle, which is expected to be at least INR 20,000 (US$405) to INR 25,000 (US$507) higher than a CNG auto-rickshaw. An earlier report had estimated the cost of setting up a hydrogen fuel pump as INR 5 crore (learn more: “A Study of Fuel Cell Hybrid Auto Rickshaws Using Realistic Urban Drive Cycles.”)

    Commercial viability of the hydrogen-fueled auto-rickshaws remains to be seen, but the introduction of the auto-rickshaw to the market is a positive ste towards cleaner and less polluting transport systems.
     
  20. W.G.Ewald

    W.G.Ewald Defence Professionals/ DFI member of 2 Defence Professionals

    Joined:
    Sep 28, 2011
    Messages:
    14,140
    Likes Received:
    8,528
    Location:
    North Carolina, USA
    LETHALFORCE likes this.
  21. W.G.Ewald

    W.G.Ewald Defence Professionals/ DFI member of 2 Defence Professionals

    Joined:
    Sep 28, 2011
    Messages:
    14,140
    Likes Received:
    8,528
    Location:
    North Carolina, USA

Share This Page