How USSR prevented a joint US-UK attack on India in 1971

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by jackprince, Sep 16, 2015.

  1. jackprince

    jackprince Turning into a frog Senior Member

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    http://www.defencenews.in/defence-news-internal.aspx?id=2$$3/ZDbdMJQ=


    Exactly 40 years ago, India won a famous victory over Pakistan due to its brilliant soldiers, an unwavering political leadership, and strong diplomatic support from Moscow. Less well known is Russia’s power play that prevented a joint British-American attack on India.
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    In 1971, India won a famous victory over Pakistan due to its brilliant soldiers, an unwavering political leadership, and strong diplomatic support from Moscow. Less well known is Russia’s power play that prevented a joint British-American attack on India.


    Washington DC, December 3, 1971, 10:45am ::

    US President Richard Nixon is on the phone with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, hours after Pakistan launched simultaneous attacks on six Indian airfields, a reckless act that prompted India to declare war.

    Nixon: So West Pakistan giving trouble there.

    Kissinger: If they lose half of their country without fighting they will be destroyed. They may also be destroyed this way but they will go down fighting.

    Nixon: The Pakistan thing makes your heart sick. For them to be done so by the Indians and after we have warned the bitch (reference to Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi). Tell them that when India talks about West Pakistan attacking them it's like Russia claiming to be attacked by Finland.


    Washington, December 10, 1971, 10:51 am ::

    A week later the war is not going very well for Pakistan, as Indian armour scythes through East Pakistan and the Pakistan Air Force is blown out of the subcontinent’s sky. Meanwhile, the Pakistani military in the west is demoralised and on the verge of collapse as the Indian Army and Air Force attack round the clock.

    Nixon: Our desire is to save West Pakistan. That's all.

    Kissinger: That's right. That is exactly right.

    Nixon: All right. Keep those carriers moving now.

    Kissinger: The carriers—everything is moving. Four Jordanian planes have already moved to Pakistan, 22 more are coming. We're talking to the Saudis, the Turks we've now found are willing to give five. So we're going to keep that moving until there's a settlement.

    Nixon: Could you tell the Chinese it would be very helpful if they could move some forces or threaten to move some forces?

    Kissinger: Absolutely.

    Nixon: They've got to threaten or they've got to move, one of the two. You know what I mean?

    Kissinger: Yeah.

    Nixon: How about getting the French to sell some planes to the Paks?

    Kissinger: Yeah. They're already doing it.

    Nixon: This should have been done long ago. The Chinese have not warned the Indians.

    Kissinger: Oh, yeah.

    Nixon: All they've got to do is move something. Move a division. You know, move some trucks. Fly some planes. You know, some symbolic act. We're not doing a goddamn thing, Henry, you know that.

    Kissinger: Yeah.

    Nixon: But these Indians are cowards. Right?

    Kissinger: Right. But with Russian backing. You see, the Russians have sent notes to Iran, Turkey, to a lot of countries threatening them. The Russians have played a miserable game.

    If the two American leaders were calling Indians cowards, a few months earlier the Indians were a different breed altogether. This phone call is from May 1971.

    Nixon: The Indians need—what they need really is a—

    Kissinger: They’re such bastards.

    Nixon: A mass famine. But they aren't going to get that…But if they're not going to have a famine the last thing they need is another war. Let the goddamn Indians fight a war.

    Kissinger: They are the most aggressive goddamn people around there.


    The 1971 war is considered to be modern India’s finest hour, in military terms. The clinical professionalism of the Indian army, navy and air force; a charismatic brass led by the legendary Sam Maneckshaw; and ceaseless international lobbying by the political leadership worked brilliantly to set up a famous victory. After two weeks of vicious land, air and sea battles, nearly 100,000 Pakistani soldiers surrendered before India's rampaging army, the largest such capitulation since General Paulus' surrender at Stalingrad in 1943. However, it could all have come unstuck without help from veto-wielding Moscow, with which New Delhi had the foresight to sign a security treaty in 1970.

    As Nixon’s conversations with the wily Kissinger show, the forces arrayed against India were formidable. The Pakistani military was being bolstered by aircraft from Jordan, Iran, Turkey and France. Moral and military support was amply provided by the US, China and the UK. Though not mentioned in the conversations here, the UAE sent in half a squadron of fighter aircraft and the Indonesians dispatched at least one naval vessel to fight alongside the Pakistani Navy.

    However, Russia’s entry thwarted a scenario that could have led to multiple pincer movements against India.


    Superpowers Face-Off ::

    On December 10, even as Nixon and Kissinger were frothing at the mouth, Indian intelligence intercepted an American message, indicating that the US Seventh Fleet was steaming into the war zone. The Seventh Fleet, which was then stationed in the Gulf of Tonkin, was led by the 75,000 ton nuclear powered aircraft carrier, the USS Enterprise. The world’s largest warship, it carried more than 70 fighters and bombers. The Seventh Fleet also included the guided missile cruiser USS King, guided missile destroyers USS Decatur, Parsons and Tartar Sam, and a large amphibious assault ship USS Tripoli.

    Standing between the Indian cities and the American ships was the Indian Navy’s Eastern Fleet led by the 20,000-ton aircraft carrier, Vikrant, with barely 20 light fighter aircraft. When asked if India’s Eastern Fleet would take on the Seventh Fleet, the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Vice Admiral N. Krishnan, said: “Just give us the orders.” The Indian Air Force, having wiped out the Pakistani Air Force within the first week of the war, was reported to be on alert for any possible intervention by aircraft from the Enterprise.

    Meanwhile, Soviet intelligence reported that a British naval group led by the aircraft carrier Eagle had moved closer to India’s territorial waters. This was perhaps one of the most ironic events in modern history where the Western world’s two leading democracies were threatening the world’s largest democracy in order to protect the perpetrators of the largest genocide since the Holocaust in Nazi Germany. However, India did not panic. It quietly sent Moscow a request to activate a secret provision of the Indo-Soviet security treaty, under which Russia was bound to defend India in case of any external aggression.

    The British and the Americans had planned a coordinated pincer to intimidate India: while the British ships in the Arabian Sea would target India’s western coast, the Americans would make a dash into the Bay of Bengal in the east where 100,000 Pakistani troops were caught between the advancing Indian troops and the sea.

    To counter this two-pronged British-American threat, Russia dispatched a nuclear-armed flotilla from Vladivostok on December 13 under the overall command of Admiral Vladimir Kruglyakov, the Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet). Though the Russian fleet comprised a good number of nuclear-armed ships and atomic submarines, their missiles were of limited range (less than 300 km). Hence to effectively counter the British and American fleets the Russian commanders had to undertake the risk of encircling them to bring them within their target. This they did with military precision.

    In an interview to a Russian TV programme after his retirement, Admiral Kruglyakov, who commanded the Pacific Fleet from 1970 to 1975, recalled that Moscow ordered the Russian ships to prevent the Americans and British from getting closer to “Indian military objects”. The genial Kruglyakov added: “The Chief Commander’s order was that our submarines should surface when the Americans appear. It was done to demonstrate to them that we had nuclear submarines in the Indian Ocean. So when our subs surfaced, they recognised us. In the way of the American Navy stood the Soviet cruisers, destroyers and atomic submarines equipped with anti-ship missiles. We encircled them and trained our missiles at the Enterprise. We blocked them and did not allow them to close in on Karachi, Chittagong or Dhaka."

    At this point, the Russians intercepted a communication from the commander of the British carrier battle group, Admiral Dimon Gordon, to the Seventh Fleet commander: “Sir, we are too late. There are the Russian atomic submarines here, and a big collection of battleships.” The British ships fled towards Madagascar while the larger US task force stopped before entering the Bay of Bengal.

    The Russian manoeuvres clearly helped prevent a direct clash between India and the US-UK combine. Newly declassified documents reveal that the Indian Prime Minister went ahead with her plan to liberate Bangladesh despite inputs that the Americans had kept three battalions of Marines on standby to deter India, and that the American aircraft carrier USS Enterprise had orders to target the Indian Army, which had broken through the Pakistani Army’s defences and was thundering down the highway to the gates of Lahore, West Pakistan’s second largest city.

    According to a six-page note prepared by India's foreign ministry, "The bomber force aboard the Enterprise had the US President's authority to undertake bombing of the Indian Army's communications, if necessary."


    China in the Box ::

    Despite Kissinger’s goading and desperate Pakistani calls for help, the Chinese did nothing. US diplomatic documents reveal that Indira Gandhi knew the Soviets had factored in the possibility of Chinese intervention. According to a cable referring to an Indian cabinet meeting held on December 10, “If the Chinese were to become directly involved in the conflict, Indira Gandhi said, the Chinese know that the Soviet Union would act in the Sinkiang region. Soviet air support may be made available to India at that time.”

    Interestingly, while the cable is declassified, the source and extensive details of the Indian Prime Minister’s briefing remain classified. “He is a reliable source” is all that the document says. There was very clearly a cabinet level mole the Americans were getting their information from.


    Cold Warriors ::

    Another telephone conversation between the scheming duo reveals a lot about the mindset of those at the highest echelons of American decision making:

    Kissinger: And the point you made yesterday, we have to continue to squeeze the Indians even when this thing is settled.

    Nixon: We've got to for rehabilitation. I mean, Jesus Christ, they've bombed—I want all the war damage; I want to help Pakistan on the war damage in Karachi and other areas, see?

    Kissinger: Yeah

    Nixon: I don't want the Indians to be happy. I want a public relations programme developed to piss on the Indians.

    Kissinger: Yeah.

    Nixon: I want to piss on them for their responsibility. Get a white paper out. Put down, White paper. White paper. Understand that?

    Kissinger: Oh, yeah.

    Nixon: I don't mean for just your reading. But a white paper on this.

    Kissinger: No, no. I know.

    Nixon: I want the Indians blamed for this, you know what I mean? We can't let these goddamn, sanctimonious Indians get away with this. They've pissed on us on Vietnam for 5 years, Henry.

    Kissinger: Yeah.

    Nixon: Aren't the Indians killing a lot of these people?

    Kissinger: Well, we don't know the facts yet. But I'm sure they're not as stupid as the West Pakistanis—they don't let the press in. The idiot Paks have the press all over their place.


    *************

    A good, brief article showing why the double faced Americans can never be trusted by the Indians. It may be old news for most of us, but there's been some new members and this article is to the point and concise. So @mods you may merge it with some existing thread if there is any, and pardon me for not doing extensive search for an existing one.
    And, people wonder why India still doesn't leap with joy when those western nations send out feelers, and reluctant to part with Russia even now? India knows better than Pakistan to be treated like toilet paper. The USSR was a valued friend, and its heir Russia is our natural ally.
     
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  3. Capricorn

    Capricorn Regular Member

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    There is no ' trust' in international relations. There are only interests.

    India has done well thus far by not ' trusting' any nation by putting all its eggs in one basket.

    Networking is the key.
     
  4. The enlightened

    The enlightened Regular Member

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    There was a lot of posturing by the Americans and Russians. Neither would have eaten a single nuke for either India or Pakistan.
     
  5. Capricorn

    Capricorn Regular Member

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    Of course not.

    They were posturing for their respective galleries.
     
  6. Sakal Gharelu Ustad

    Sakal Gharelu Ustad Detests Jholawalas Moderator

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    Why is US double-faced in this case? They supported their stupid ally Pakistan as much as they could.
     
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  7. Capricorn

    Capricorn Regular Member

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    That's how the world runs, no one is double faced.

    Pk was China's protege , they had facilitated the ping pong diplomacy which the US wanted.

    Breaking up of Pk completely as IG wanted was not in US interests , halving it was.
     
  8. I_PLAY_BAD

    I_PLAY_BAD Regular Member

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    The term "India has done well" doesn't go down well with me.
     
  9. I_PLAY_BAD

    I_PLAY_BAD Regular Member

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    Then why are they trying suck ours now ? Why don't they continue sucking Pakis ?
    That is why we call them double-faced.
     
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  10. SREEKAR

    SREEKAR Senior Member Senior Member

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    Ya thanks for posting this article...
     
  11. Sakal Gharelu Ustad

    Sakal Gharelu Ustad Detests Jholawalas Moderator

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    Everyone is double-faced then. Nothing is static in this world.
     
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  12. I_PLAY_BAD

    I_PLAY_BAD Regular Member

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    Pakistan was bisected even with lot of muscles behind it and they called Indians cowards ???
    Pakistanis are the real cowards. They didn't have the balls to stand up against us. Only pure vocal rhetoric nothing else. They sucked USA's, sucking China's and going to suck Russia's.....
    Suck nation Pakistan !!
     
  13. I_PLAY_BAD

    I_PLAY_BAD Regular Member

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    No one can overtake the bloody Americans in playing double games.
     
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  14. Sakal Gharelu Ustad

    Sakal Gharelu Ustad Detests Jholawalas Moderator

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    Replaced logic with rhetoric now!!
     
  15. Yumdoot

    Yumdoot Regular Member

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    Cannot deny the networking part. Even against enemies the war has to end at some point and a new beginnings made.

    But what the hell is this pop-pshychology "There is no ' trust' in international relations. There are only interests."

    If a man cannot be trusted with his interests then how the hell can his interests enable any trust at all.

    Or IOW, if the interests are really so fleeting then what is to say that this pragmatic self-interest will not change again and again and again. Is that how nations survive and prosper?
     
  16. Capricorn

    Capricorn Regular Member

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    Interests create trust.

    Once interests cease so does the trust
     
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  17. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    This event became the catalyst for the Indian nuclear weapons program. Smiling Buddha was successfully tested in 1974.
     
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  18. Hari Sud

    Hari Sud Senior Member Senior Member

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    There has been one incident which during 1999 Kargil operation which was briefly reported and then it disappeared from the public eye completely.

    During the height of Kargil war, Indian naval flotilla was approaching Karachi to blockade it or burn the harbour down (we do not know the details) that the Indian flotilla commander received a fictitious message on his top secret communication network and he was ordered to turn back, which it did and Karachi survived.

    It was later learnt that, that top secret message did not come from Indian High Command. Somebody (most likely US) had broken thru the chain of communication network and sent that fictitious message to turn the flotilla back. It was done not to further humiliate Pakistan any further. They were already loosing the Kargil war.

    It was then realized that the India naval high command needs a secure communication network. It was then that the C41 network for communication especially in naval communication was ordered from abroad, again with the full knowledge of US. It was rush implemented.

    US had been playing a dubious role all along in the last 70 years history of India - Pakistan conflict. It always sided with Pakistan. This naval incident during 1999 Kargil operation was US payback for useful services rendered by Pakistan to the U.S. And CIA during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.

    Does any forum member has additional knowledge of this incident.
     
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  19. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    I am not sure and I don't think this could be correct.

    While I do not doubt CIA penetration in the Indian establishment, I don't think India was planning to attack Karachi. The naval blockade was meant to cut off Pakistan from external aid, such as fuel for its military, thus ensuring that in the event India launched an attack along the East Punjab-West Punjab front, the Pakistanis would not be able to sustain long, and capitulate.

    However, you can search and post sources if this has been reported elsewhere.
     
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  20. jackprince

    jackprince Turning into a frog Senior Member

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    Actually, what @I_PLAY_BAD said is not rhetoric, but fact and logical. US is the only democratic country which has been systematically destroying democracies all over the world and supporting despots, and claiming to be spreading democracy. If that is not double faced, I don't know what is. There're many more instances which proves what @I_PLAY_BAD 's point. Once I get back to my PC, I will give you a detail logical view of how much of a traitorous piece of $hit the whole USA regimes from the days after the WWII have been proven to be.
     
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  21. I_PLAY_BAD

    I_PLAY_BAD Regular Member

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    And, USA may have had a role in 1947 partition. I have been hearing this rumour. Don't know how far it is true. Clarify....
     

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