11 Steps to Survival Canada Emergency Measures Organization Department of National Defence Blueprint for Survival No. 4 Make this your handbook for emergencies. Keep it in a handy place so that you and your family can refer to it quickly should any emergency threaten. Keep other emergency advice such as first aid and artificial respiration instructions, antidotes for poison, emergency telephone numbers, in the same place. Introduction The Canadian Government has joined other peace-minded nations in doing everything possible to reduce world tensions, to assist in the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means and to achieve disarmament with such controls as are necessary to preserve the security of all nations. However, the awesome threat of a major nuclear war involving North America remains a factor in plans for the defence of Canada. The nature and scale of a possible nuclear attack on North America, and the extent to which Canada would be involved in such an attack, cannot be predicted with accuracy. Our major centres would be at some risk of deliberate attack, random explosions could occur, and there would be the certainty of the danger from widespread, radioactive fallout over most of the Country. Governments at all levels have made, and are continuing to make, preparations which will reduce the number of casualties, safeguard survivors and contribute to the capacity of this nation to survive and recover from such a tragedy. The purpose of this booklet is to assist individuals and families in making personal survival plans and preparations to guard themselves against the potential dangers of nuclear war. Many of the precautions which are recommended will serve a double purpose in that they will save lives in peacetime disasters such as flood, tornado, fire, hurricane, blizzard, ice storm or earthquake. Attention has been directed to this important feature throughout the various steps. All Canadians are urged to read "11 Steps to Survival" with care to act on the advice it contains and to keep it handy for emergencies. Although protected by Crown Copyright, the contents may be reproduced in whole or in part provided proper acknowledgment of the source is made. The Queen's Printer Ottawa, 1969 Cat. No. Id 83-1/4 The Eleven Steps to Survival Governments and communities at all levels are planning for the survival of our Nation in the event of a nuclear war. But the survival of individuals also will depend upon the preparation that each person makes. Persons ready to take the right action before and following an attack will increase their chances of survival. This pamphlet describes what YOU can do before and following a nuclear attack. You can greatly increase your family's and your own protection by taking the Eleven Steps to Survival: * Step 1: Know the effects of nuclear explosions. * Step 2: Know the facts about radioactive fallout. * Step 3: Know the warning signal and have a battery-powered radio. * Step 4: Know how to take shelter. * Step 5: Have fourteen days emergency supplies. * Step 6: Know how to prevent and fight fires. * Step 7: Know first aid and home nursing. * Step 8: Know emergency cleanliness. * Step 9: Know how to get rid of radioactive dust. * Step 10: Know your municipal plans. * Step 11: Have a plan for your family and yourself. Step 1: Know the Effects of Nuclear Explosions A nuclear explosion releases vast amounts of energy in three forms: 1. Light and heat 2. Blast 3. Radiation The amount of energy released depends upon the size and design of the weapon. A wide range of weapons and delivery systems are available to an aggressor and we have no way of knowing what size of explosions might take place in Canada. For illustration purposes, we describe in this pamphlet the effects of a 5-megaton H-bomb equal to the explosive force of five million tons of TNT. Such a bomb could substantially damage the largest Canadian city. The effects depend upon whether the weapon is exploded high in the air, or on, or near the ground. An air burst usually produces more fire and blast-damage than a ground burst which results in a big crater and more radioactive fallout. The effects described below are approximate for a 5-megaton explosion and can only be approximate since effects depend upon a number of conditions such as weather, terrain, etc. Air Burst Ground Burst Light and Heat A blaze of light brighter than the sun is produced by a nuclear explosion. It lasts for about 15 seconds. Temporary blindness and eye injury can result from the glare if eyes are not shielded. The heat rays from the explosion travel at the speed of light or about 186,000 miles per second. It can start fires up to 20 miles away. Many fires are caused when the heat pulse comes through a window to set fire to curtains, paper, clothing and furniture. The heat flash also can set fire to the outside of wooden buildings. The following are some examples of the predictable effects on unprotected skin of the heat flash of a 5-megaton weapon exploded on a clear day: * Skin is badly burned up to 15 miles from the explosion. * Skin is blistered up to 18 miles from the explosion. * Sunburn types of burns up to 23 miles from the explosion. Nuclear explosions in the air rather than on the ground are more likely to produce a greater number of serious burns through the heat flash. Clothing will give some protection. A shield between you and the light will give protection against burns from the heat flash. Effects on Buildings Effects on Exposed People Blast The blast wave travels more slowly than the heat flash. Several seconds may pass after you have seen the light or felt the heat before the blast wave reaches you, depending on the distance you are from the explosion. It is like the time between seeing the flash of lightning and hearing the sound of thunder. For example, at ten miles from the centre of an explosion, it would take about 35 seconds for the blast wave to reach you. If caught in the open during a nuclear explosion, this time can be used to find some protection from the blast wave. You might be injured by being thrown about by the blast; therefore, keep low. The greatest danger is from flying glass, bricks and other debris. The blast from a 5-megaton explosion could injure people as far away as 15 miles. Blast The kinds of damage that the blast can do to buildings are: * Complete destruction of all buildings three miles from the centre of the explosion. * Damage beyond repair to buildings three to five miles distant. They would have to be torn down. * Major repairs required to buildings five to 10 miles distant before they could be occupied. * Light to moderate damage to buildings 10 to 15 miles distant. They could be occupied during repairs. A 20-megaton bomb increases the approximate ranges of damage described above to five, eight, sixteen and twenty-four miles. These are approximate distances as the strength of buildings is not uniform. For example, reinforced concrete buildings are more blast resistant than wood frame structures. In some areas four miles away from the explosion, concrete buildings might be repairable, while wood frame buildings would be completely destroyed. Windows, of course, are very vulnerable and are apt to be blown in as far away as 25 miles from the explosion. Radiation A nuclear explosion causes both immediate radiation and residual radiation. Immediate radiation is given off at the time of the explosion. It is dangerous only within two or three miles. If you were near the explosion without adequate protection and managed to survive the effects of blast and fire, you could still be seriously affected by immediate radiation. Residual radiation is given off by the radioactive particles left as "fallout" after the explosion. The danger from fallout would be so great and widespread that it is discussed separately, in >Step 2. Protection against Heat, Blast and Immediate Radiation The illustrations below show some of the most probable situations in which you might find yourself at the time of a nuclear attack, and what you should do: Protection against Heat, Blast and Immediate Radiation Step 2: Know the Facts About Radioactive Fallout If a nuclear weapon is exploded on, or near, the ground, danger from radioactive fallout is greatest. The force of the explosion may make a crater up to a mile wide and to a depth of one hundred feet. Millions of tons of pulverized earth, stones, buildings and other materials are drawn up into the fireball and become radioactive. Some of the heavier particles spill out around the point of explosion. The rest are sucked up into the mushroom cloud. This radioactive material is then carried by winds until it settles to earth. This is called "Fallout". Under some circumstances you may see the fallout; under others you may not. The radioactivity it gives off cannot be seen. You can't feel it. You can't smell it. But fallout doesn't come out of the sky like a gas and seep into everything. It can best be described as a fine to coarse sand carried by the winds. Because the wind direction varies at different heights above the ground, it is not possible to judge from the ground where the fallout will settle. It can settle in irregular patterns hundreds of miles from the explosion. The fallout from a 5-megaton explosion could affect seriously an area of 7,000 square miles. If nothing were done to gain protection during the period of high radioactivity, there would be a grave danger to life in that area. Because fallout is carried so far and covers such a large area, it could be the greatest danger to the largest number of Canadians in a nuclear war. If Canada was not hit by nuclear bombs, those exploding in the United States close to our border could result in serious fallout in many parts of Canada. There are four things which determine the amount of radiation reaching your body from fallout: 1. The time that has passed since the explosion. 2. The length of time you are exposed to fallout. 3. The distance you are from the fallout. 4. The shielding between you and the fallout. Direction of Fallout at Various Altitudes Fallout Spread Time The radioactivity in fallout weakens rapidly in the first hours after an explosion. This weakening is called "decay". After seven hours, fallout has lost about 90% of the strength it had one hour after the explosion. After two days it has lost 99%; in two weeks 99.9% of its strength is gone. Nevertheless, if the radiation at the beginning were high enough, the remaining 0.1% could be dangerous. Radiation must be measured by special instruments handled by people trained to use them. But, if you stay in a shelter during the first days following an explosion, you escape the strongest radiation. You should stay in the shelter until radiation has been measured and you have been told aver the radio that it is safe to come out. Radiation Decay Time Distance The strength of radiation reaching your body is reduced the farther you are from the fallout. Here are some illustrations of the safest place to be when you are in various kinds of buildings. Distance Shielding The most effective protection is to place some heavy material between yourself and the fallout. The heavier the material the better the protection. Many common materials give excellent protection. The materials and design of the fallout shelter recommended in Blueprint for Survival No. 1 will stop penetration of 99% of outside radiation. These thicknesses of material will stop 99% of radiation: * 16 inches of solid brick * 16 inches of hollow concrete blocks filled with mortar or sand * 2 feet of packed earth Ä 3 feet if loose * 5 inches of steel * 3 inches of lead * 3 feet of water A fallout shelter is the best way to protect your family and yourself against radiation because: * It keeps the radiation at a distance. * It shields you from radiation. * The time spent there is the period when radiation is most intense. By providing your family and yourself with a fallout shelter, you are unlikely to suffer serious effects from radioactive fallout. Shielding Personal Danger from Fallout Radioactive particles in contact with your skin for a few hours may produce burns. Follow Step 9 to prevent this danger. Radioactive particles swallowed in food or water might be harmful. Follow Step 9 to prevent this danger. Radioactivity from an area of fallout may produce illness in the unprotected individual after a few days. Follow Step 4 to prevent this danger. Radiation illness develops slowly. It cannot be spread to other people. Except for temporary nausea shortly after exposure, evidence of serious effects from radiation may only appear after an interval of from a few days to three weeks. A combination of loss of hair, loss of appetite, increasing paleness, weakness, diarrhoea, sore throat, bleeding gums and easy bruising indicate that the individual requires medical attention. Nausea and vomiting may be caused by fright, worry, food poisoning, pregnancy and other common conditions. Step 3: Know the Warning Signal and have a Battery-Powered Radio All Canadian communities where there is a likely need are provided, or will be provided, with sirens. Other areas should have warning arrangements based on local systems such as telephones, horns, bells or factory whistles. Warning devices are only attention-getters. Dependent on the size of your municipality, the sirens, bells, telephones, etc., will sound the Attack Warning. There is one type of siren warning signal in Canada: The ATTACK WARNING Signal The ATTACK WARNING Signal: A wailing (undulating) tone on the sirens of three to five minutes duration or short blasts on horns or other devices repeated as necessary means: * An attack on North America has been detected; * Warning of fallout. WHEN YOU HEAR THE WARNING SIGNAL, YOU SHOULD TAKE PROTECTIVE ACTION AND LISTEN TO THE RADIO FOR INSTRUCTIONS. A Radio is Essential When the Attack Warning sounds, you must take protective action. Take a battery-powered radio with you. Broadcast advice and instruction may help to save your life. If you don't have a portable radio, turn up the volume of your house radio so that it can be heard in your shelter. If away from home you are forced to take emergency shelter and are near a radio-equipped vehicle, turn up the volume and open all the vehicle's doors or windows. The Canadian Emergency Broadcasting System, a network of all Canadian radio and television stations which will be formed when a nuclear attack on Canada has been detected, will tell you when and how to take emergency protective action against possible attack and shelter against fallout if an attack occurs. broadcast_warning Before Attack If sirens or warning systems signal impending attack, regardless of where you are or what you are doing, you must take the best available cover against the blast, heat and light effects of nuclear explosions. Emergency broadcast instructions will include the following advice: * If you are at home go to the basement or strongest part of your house or building which offers the best protection. If material is handy, improvise blast protection. See Step 4. * Take your battery radio with you, or turn up the house radio so that you can hear it while under cover. * Stay away from windows. * Lie down and protect yourself from flying glass and falling debris. * Shield your eyes from the flash of an explosion. * If you are away from home take protective cover immediately. * If you are travelling, stop and take protective cover immediately, or if you are only a few minutes from a safe destination, proceed and take protective cover immediately. * Listen to your radio for further instructions. After Attack If sirens or warning systems sound following nuclear attacks, the warning may mean another attack or that radioactive fallout is approaching your area. You will be advised over the radio. If the advice concerns fallout, you must take cover against the fallout effects. (See Step 4). Radio broadcasts will identify areas which will be affected by the fallout and give instructions and advice. These might include: * Location of nuclear explosions causing local fallout. * Information about the parts of the country to be affected by fallout. * Length of time before fallout is likely to reach specific communities or areas. * Ways to increase fallout protection. * Supplies to take to your fallout shelter. * Whether it is safer to stay in your community or area, or to go to other areas. * Advice as to which areas are free of danger. * Advice on when to leave shelters and for how long as danger from radioactive contamination diminishes. * Requests for help in rescue operations, such as rescue, firefighting and medical assistance. * Advice on conservation of food, water and fuel. * How to keep warm when power is off and the weather is cold.