Gujarat plans first over-the-sea dam

Discussion in 'Politics & Society' started by RAM, Oct 25, 2010.

  1. RAM

    RAM The southern Man Senior Member

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    NEW DELHI: In a first, Gurajat is planning to build an over the sea dam in the northern portion of the Gulf of Khambat (Cambay) with an investment of over Rs 50,000 crore. The 35-kilometre dam project named Kalpasar Dam Alignment would lead to a sweet water reservoir. Besides, it will also have a road and rail overbridge, which will reduce the distance between Bhavnagar and Surat by 200 kilometre.

    While, the main dam help generate tidal power, the reservoir is expected to supply water for drinking and agricultural purposes.

    "The project envisages dam and road and rail overbridge from just north of Bhavnagar in the west coast of Gulf of Cambay to Alandar in Dahej in the east coast. Though final cost is to be worked out in detail, it will be over Rs 50,000 crore," a senior state government official said.

    The timeframe will be decided once the environmental and other clearances come.

    The Gujarat government has already set up a dedicated department for the project -- the Kalpasar department.

    "Besides creating a fresh water reservoir in the northern portion of the Gulf of Khambat, the road and rail overbridge will reduce the distance from Bhavnagar and Surat to 150 kilometre from the existing 350 kilometre," the official said.

    Travelling between Bhavnagar in Saurashtra and Surat in South Gujarat currently require a long detour through Ahmedabad.

    The dam is also expected to take thousands of square kilometre in the northern coast of the Gulf of Khambat out of Coastal Zone Regulation (CZR) rules.

    "This will allow development activity in a zone, which has high salinity and also create fishing opportunity in the envisage area," he said.

    With the construction of the dam, which is 160 kilometre from the Pipavav port, the nearby port of Bhavnagar is also likely to be upgraded as a prime port. The Dholera Special Investment Region lies close to the proposed dam area.

    "The State Maritime Board is studying the proposal for upgradation and expansion of the Bhavnagar port," the official said.



    Read more: Gujarat plans first over-the-sea dam - The Times of India http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/...sea-dam/articleshow/6811046.cms#ixzz13OKPlgIH
     
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  3. iNDiAN.96

    iNDiAN.96 Nationalist Senior Member

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    Way to go Gujarat .. :emot112:
     
  4. maomao

    maomao Veteran Hunter of Maleecha Senior Member

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    Great Going Soon Gujarat will beat Maharashtra!
     
  5. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    I always had great faith in Gujrat as a state. I am sure Gujrat will soon overtake Maharashtra. Way marathi people have linking for thakreys and their antics Gujrat always has advantage as a better and peaceful destination.
     
  6. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    What exactly is 'over the seas' dam?
     
  7. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    OVERVIEW OF KALPASAR PROJECT
    Kalpasar is Gujarat’s Key Project for the New Millennium


    [​IMG]

    OVERVIEW OF KALPASAR PROJECT


    In the Gulf of Khambhat, embraced by the Gujarat main land and the eastern coast of Saurashtra peninsula, yearly a volume of over 30,000 Mm3 of waters flows away before it can be used to mitigate the severe shortage of drinking and irrigation water in Gujarat, especially in the Saurashtra peninsula.

    The Gulf of Khambhat Project, or KALPASAR, aims at the creation of a fresh water reservoir in the Gulf of Khambhat by the construction of a dam connecting the east and west bank of the Gulf. In the reservoir the runoff from Sabarmati, Mahi, Dhadar and Narmada will be stored, together with the waters from the Saurashtra Rivers discharging into the Gulf of Khambhat. The stored waters are to be used for irrigation, water supply and industrial requirements in the Saurashtra region.

    KALPASAR is considered the evident solution for solving on the short as well as on the long term the threatening drinking and irrigation water problems in Saurashtra.

    Once the Gulf is closed, water levels within the reservoir can be controlled while the tidal fluctuation outside the reservoir continues and, hence, can be harnessed for the generation of tidal energy.

    In addition to fresh water storage and tidal power generation, KALPASAR also aims at land reclamation, transportation improvements and fisheries development.
     

    Introduction:
    Kalpasar is Gujarat’s Key Project for the New Millennium.
    Water Resources Scenario of Gujarat State:

    The State of Gujarat with a population of 50 million (year 2000) is situated on the West Coast of India. It has a geographical area of 1, 96,000 sq.km (19.6 Mha) and the cultivable area of 12.36 Mha. The average annual rainfall, confined to 3 months of the monsoon season, is 760 mm which is highly variable both in space and time, the southern part receiving 2500 mm of rainfall while the northern portion including Kachchh and the Saurashtra peninsula receiving rainfall of 300 to 450 mm. Intra-state rivers are small with very low and highly variable flows. Every 3rd year is a drought year in Saurashtra, North Gujarat and Kachchh region. Monsoon waters are required to be stored in reservoirs for use in the lean nine months of the year. The ground waters are saline and contain harmful proportions of fluorides and nitrates in large parts of the State. The limited utilizable ground water has been over exploited over the past 3 to 4 decades and ground water tables are presently going down rapidly by as much as 3 meters every year in North Gujarat and Kachchh regions. In recent past Gujarat has faced it’s most severe droughts in the years 1987 and 2000.
    Historical Background:

    The Gulf of Khambhat was identified as a promising site for tidal power generation by UNDP Expert, Mr. Eric Wilson in the year 1975. In 1988-89 a reconnaissance report was prepared for the dam across the Gulf of Khambhat. The report concluded that, assuming sound foundation conditions, the closure of Gulf was technically feasible.
    Kalpasar Project Transformed:

    A project thus conceived initially as a tidal power project was transformed as tidal power cum fresh water supply project providing large multipurpose benefits. It is in fact a project envisaging total multipurpose development of the Gulf of Khambhat. It is proposed to build a dam across the Gulf of Khambhat connecting Ghogha in Bhavnagar and Hansot in Bharuch Districts. The reservoir formed will be sub-divided into (a) Tidal basin and (b) Fresh water basin. This would provide benefits of tidal power generation, as well as use of large quantities of fresh water. This unique concept has, in no small measure, contributed to the economic viability of the Mega Project. The scope and size of the project would perhaps exceed that of any other similar project in the world.
    Dam height:

    The height of the closure works is not determined by reservoir water level, as is the case in river valley storage reservoirs, but by the water level conditions at the sea side of the KALPASAR reservoir.
    The crest level of the dam has been assessed at GTS + 13 m to prevent overtopping of the dam during extreme sea level and wave conditions. As a consequence, the maximum dam height corresponds to 53 m at the deepest part of the dam alignment, where the bottom level is at GTS-40m.
    Scope and Size of Project:

    The pre-feasibility study and six specific studies have shown that the project is technically and economically viable and detailed feasibility study needs to be taken up.
    The project planning and designs as well as the nature and quantum of benefits have undergone several changes and now the project has emerged as a mega-multi-purpose project.
    Closure method:

    A maximum acceptable flow velocity during closure of 6 m/s has been adopted in order to keep the handling of rock manageable. The maximum acceptable flow velocity occurs when the width of the opening of the Gulf at the location of the dam alignment is reduced to 10 km. Further narrowing of the opening leads to exceedance of the maximum acceptable flow velocity. As a consequence, the last 10 km need to be closed suddenly. Such sudden closure is achieved by placing, over a length of 10 km, gated caissons which can be closed suddenly by lowering the gates.
    Bottom protection is needed over the whole dam alignment to prevent local scour during construction.
    The adopted closure method is a proven concept. The immense scale of the Khambhat closure works justify the development of new technologies that could lead to a more economic construction method. In this stage of the project preparation, however, a definite confirmation of the technical viability of the closure of the Gulf of Khambhat can only be given on the basis of tried out closure concepts.

    Plan of Action:

    In keeping with the planned completion schedule of the Kalpasar Project, before end of second decade of the Millennium, it is essential that the detailed feasibility report is completed with the latest technology through a high international standard within the next 3-4 years. This, including the bankable project proposal, has to be prepared after carrying out various detailed and comprehensive investigations. These would include geotechnical assessments and explorations, topographical and bathymetric surveys, marine observations and analysis for the determination of design height of the sea waves, silt content in tidal waters as well as intensive data concerning the Arabian Sea tides.
    The Government of Gujarat has now taken up the task of preparation of the full scale feasibility report for which action plan has been prepared. All these activities will be taken up on hand with the help of the expert groups of both National and Internationals.
    Estimated Cost:

    The cost is approximately Rs.54,000 cores for single tidal basin options and Rs.47,800 cores for double tidal basin option at 1999 price level. The cost of the Kalpasar dam and tidal power works is estimated as Rs.44,301 cores and Rs.38,124 cores for single basin and double basin respectively at 1999 price level.
    Costs of closure works:

    The total costs of the closure works have been estimated at Rs 19,253 Cores. This cost includes 20 % miscellaneous and unforeseen, and also Rs 500 Cores for engineering, investigations and administrative costs for project preparation and management. Ship lock and spillway are also included at the rate of Rs 340 Cores and Rs 1,285 Cores respectively.

     
    Function of kalpasar project:
    Area of reservoir:
    2070 km2 (fresh water lake)
    872 km2 (Tidal Basin)
    Possible of storage water:
    Live storage of reservoir: 12247 Mm3
    Gross storage of reservoir: 16791 Mm3
    Dead storage of reservoir: 4544 Mm3
    The canal capacity:
    Canal capacity is 425 cumecs (15,000 cusecs).
    Tidal power can be gained in both of these cases:
    Tidal power to be gained. Single basin - 5880 MW (Installed)
    Double basin - 1680 MW (Installed)
    Cost of tidal power generation:
    Cost of tidal power generation. Single basin - Rs 44301 (Rs.in cores)
    Double basin - Rs 38124 (Rs.in crores)
    Flow in the canal by gravity or intermediate pumping proposed:
    In the total canal length of about 660 km, flow is by gravity as well as 13 lifts of about 10 m with total lift of @ 110 m.
    How many pumping stations:
    13 Pumping station at Chainage (km) 0.0, 7.2, 85.5, 87.0 , 88.8, 90.0, 91.2, 110.0, 209.0, 308.0, 407.0, 506.0
    Water is planned to flow for irrigation-water supply-industrial use:
    Sr.No. Water planning mm3
    1. Irrigation 5461
    2. Drinking W/s 900
    3. Industrial use 500
    4. Firming up of existing Irrigation projects. 430

    DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS

    Water availability for irrigation and water supply:
    Once the closure works are completed, the saline water body within the reservoir will be replaced by the fresh waters entering into KALPASAR. The desalinization period has been assessed at 4 years when the KALPASAR reservoir is used for fresh water storage only. When part of the reservoir is used for tidal power generation, this period is reduced substantially. With 500 km2 tidal power basin the fresh water reservoir can be used 2 years after the closure of the Gulf.

    The volume of the KALPASAR reservoir between the maximum and minimum allowable reservoir levels of respectively GTS + 4 m and GTS - 6 m amounts to 16,585 Mm3.The average yearly inflows of fresh water totals 12,552 Mm3.
    Tidal energy:

    All alternatives, except the "fresh water only" option, achieve the objective of making use of the tidal power potentials in the Gulf of Khambhat. The extent, to which use is made of this potential, depends merely on the amount of power installed. This is maximum in the "tidal power only" alternative and minimum in the combined alternative with 1,500 MW installed.

    Dam alignment:


    Geophysical and geotechnical surveys have shown that foundation conditions north of the Narmada river mouth can be considered fit for dam construction. The soil conditions south of the Narmada estuary are influenced by deposits of the river and are less suitable for the construction of closure works.

    The hydraulic conditions do not change significantly if the closure dam is constructed immediately north of the Narmada mouth or some 20 km more to the north. Shifting the dam alignment to the north reduces, however, the storage capacity of the reservoir.

    Dam construction in the proximity of the Piram Island has been rejected because the deep channels flanking the island have prohibitive impact on the construction costs.

    The selected dam alignment is located between Gogha on the Saurashtra bank and Luhara Point, south of Dahej on the eastern bank of the Gulf. From Luhara Point the dam is extended across the Bharuch Channel of the Narmada estuary towards the island of Alia Bet. The dam alignment continues along the southern outline of the island and crosses the secondary branch of the Narmada estuary near Hansot.

    The length of the closure of the Gulf of Khambhat between Gogha and Luhara Point amounts to 28.9 km, the dam closing the Narmada estuary hs a length of 34.0 km.

    Dam elements

    The works for the closure of the Gulf of Khambhat including the Narmada estuary consist of the dam body itself, of which 10 km is provided with closure caissons, a spillway, and a navigation lock.

    The spillway comprises 65 discharge openings with a width of 17 m each and a sill level at GTS - 11 m. The discharge openings are provided with 17 m high radial gates. The spillway allows the passage of the Narmada PMF in combination with the simultaneous occurrence of 50% of the sum of the PMF's of the remaining tributaries entering into the KALPASAR reservoir, without causing flooding of the reclaimed areas on the edge of the reservoir. In a worst case scenario in which the all PMF's occur simultaneously, still over 5 m freeboard is left at the reservoir side of the dam.

    A ship lock with length 200 m and a width of 35 m, with sill level at GTS - 10 m, is incorporated in the dam. This lock allows for ships of approximately 50,000 DWT to pass the dam under all tidal and reservoir level conditions. The lock is to be used for construction purposes and for maintaining the accessibility of existing ports after finalization of the closure works. A second ship locks allowing ships of approximately
    20,000 DWT to enter the tidal basin is envisaged if tidal power development is incorporated in the development alternative.
    Water availability for irrigation and water supply:

    Once the closure works are completed, the saline water body within the reservoir will be replaced by the fresh waters entering into KALPASAR. The desalinization period has been assessed at 4 years when the KALPASAR reservoir is used for fresh water storage only. When part of the reservoir is used for tidal power generation, this period is reduced substantially. With 500 km2 tidal power basin the fresh water reservoir can be used 2 years after the closure of the Gulf.

    The volume of the KALPASAR reservoir between the maximum and minimum allowable reservoir levels of respectively GTS + 4 m and GTS - 6 m amounts to
    16,585 Mm3. The average yearly inflow of fresh water totals 12,552 Mm3. For the assessment of this volume the situation has been taken that the development of the Narmada river basin has been completed according to the directions of the
    Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal, while only 10 % of the Gujarat share of the
    Sardar Sarovar Project 'spill' is allocated to KALPASAR.

    The demand for KALPASAR water for domestic and industrial use in Saurashtra has been set at 1,387 Mm3 per year on the long term (year 2060). When this demand is met with 100 % reliability, then a total yearly volume of 6,100 Mm3 can be made available
    For irrigation at 75 % reliability.
    Land reclamation:

    The Gulf of Khambhat is surrounded by salinity affected soils covering an area of almost 400,000 ha. By creating the fresh water KALPASAR reservoir, sufficient water will become available for a sustainable agricultural development of these salt affected areas.

    Most of the salinity affected areas are planned to be irrigated by Mahi waters or from the Sardar Sarovar Project through the Narmada canal. The area that is left to be reclaimed and irrigated within the KALPASAR scheme amounts to 119,100 ha only. With the KALPASAR concept proven to be feasible, the use of both KALPASAR and SSP waters needs to be optimized in order to improve the output of both systems.

    In the economic evaluation of the KALPASAR scheme, it is assumed that land reclamation will take place at a rate of 10,000 ha per year.

    Agriculture will be the principal use of the reclaimed areas. It is anticipated that some 60 % of the reclaimed area will be used for agriculture, this corresponds to some 70,000 ha net or 80,000 ha gross.


    Socio-economic criteria
    Investment costs:

    The cost of the construction of closure works, not including power works, would be as follows for the different alignments:

    - alignment of "fresh water only" and combined alternatives: Rs 19,597 Crore
    - alignment "tidal power only" alternative: Rs 13,857 Crore
    - northern dam alignment: Rs 13,950 Crore
    The inclusion of power works in the different alignments carries additional costs that have been valued at Rs 3.17 Crore per MW power on the average. The power works have a major impact on the total investments.

    Consequently, lowest investment costs (Rs 19,597 Crore) are related to the "fresh water only" alternative. The highest investment costs (Rs 34,961 Crore) are related to the "5,000 MW" alternative.

    It is anticipated that further investigations and research in closure techniques may result in savings on the costs of closure works.
    Environmental aspects:

    Sustainability KALPASAR reservoir

    From the environmental studies it is concluded that the viability of the KALPASAR project essentially is related to the willingness and capability to upgrade the water quality in the rivers flowing into the reservoir. This upgrading can be achieved either by treating the effluents, by relocation of industries and/or by diverting (treated) effluents towards the part of the Gulf that remains open. Part of these measures are essential in the without KALPASAR scenario also. The additional costs to be allocated to KALPASAR for making the project sustainable are difficult to estimate.

    However, assuming that the essential measures for improvement of the water quality in the without KALPASAR situation have been taken, the additional measures for KALPASAR sustainability are not the same for all alternatives.

    The additional measures are basically related to the maintenance of an acceptable water quality in the fresh water reservoir. Therefore, it is estimated that the "tidal power only" alternative will not require additional measures from a sustainability point of view.

    The quality of the water stored in the fresh water basin of the "northern dam alignment" alternative is more severely threatened by the Sabarmati river then the fresh water basins belonging to the southern alignment alternatives. It is anticipated, therefore, that the sustainability of the northern dam alternative will require more additional measures than the other fresh water or combined alternatives.

    For comparison sake, the alternatives with the Narmada included have been rated neutral, while the "tidal power only" and the northern alignment alternatives have been given a positive and negative value respectively.
     
  8. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    video is about proposed kalpasar project on Gulf of Khambat. Its in gujarati but hindi knowing folks can decipher it easily
    A massive project that involves building a 64 Km long dam across the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat. The benefits of the project can be viewed in the video


     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  9. pankaj nema

    pankaj nema Senior Member Senior Member

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    Mumbai is the perhaps the only city in the world where the native population ,in Mumbai 's case the Mahrashtrian community is 35 percent of the total population.

    So in such a situation it is but natural for the locals to be antagonised.

    Anyway Mahrashtra and Gujarat are not just good neigh bours with large business relations between the two states
    There are millions of Gujratis in Mumbai alone.

    In fact before 1991 only Mahrashtra Gujarat and Tamil NAdu were in the race to attract investments
    Now all states are keenly interested in investments

    But Mahrashtra has such a huge lead over other states and Mahrashtra's growth rate is above 8 % .So Mahrashtra will remain India 's no 1 economic power house which contributes 14 % to India's GDP.
     
  10. Iamanidiot

    Iamanidiot Elite Member Elite Member

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    this project isn't exactly new It has been a proposal from the nehruvian era it was called Project kalpasar took inspiration from netherland Dykes
     
  11. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Mumbai or maharashtra has progressed a lot and outsiders had a big role to play in that. Maharashtra had a lot of potential to develop further but it has slowed down considerably . I donot want to get into what are causes as everyone know that. In recent flare of tension against Non maharashtrians Gujrat was biggest winner. Many industrialists moved their projects out of maharashtra. Industry will prosper only when there is law and order. Till now Gujrat record has been impeccable in this . There may be riot but its not targeted against people from any particular region and thats why they are prospering and will prosper further .Just have a look at growth rate of Gujrat in recent days.
     
    Last edited: Oct 26, 2010
  12. pankaj nema

    pankaj nema Senior Member Senior Member

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    Of course Gujarat's growth rate is higher than Maharastra. But MAharashtra is a much bigger economy.
    Even than Maharastra's growth rate is still above 8 %

    There are always some projects which move from one state to another as an investor looks at 3 or 4 prospective sites.

    The anti North Indian agitation has NOT affected Maharastra's economic growth or its future prospects.
    Maharashtra will CONTINUE to be India's no 1 state for a very long time simply because of its huge lead.

    By the way North Indian states like UP Bihar have been FORCED to acknowledge that their state govern ments are use less and they should strive to provide employment oppurtunities to their people in their own states
     
  13. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Having a bigger base doesnt mean people should become complacent and it doesnt mean that anyone esle can overtake them.

    Check it with contractors whose projects got delayed and businessmen who moved their new proposed projects out of Maharashtra. Specially small business houses who donot have much money and muscle. Maharashtra politics is very chaotic and will deteriorate further due to tussle between MNS and Shiv sena.


    I never mentioned Maharashtra in my initial response and have to intention of harming anyones sentiment . I was just praising Gujrat handling their economy in best possible manner.
     
    Last edited: Oct 26, 2010
  14. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Gujarat on top, again


    It’s raining investments in corporate India and Gujarat seems to reaping the benefits. A Reserve Bank of India (RBI) bulletin for August 2007 places the total value of all investment proposals for 2006-07 in Corporate India at Rs 2,83,440 crore. That’s a 116 per cent increase over the figure for 2005-06.

    Gujarat, which was ranked #2 in 2005-06 with investments of Rs 24,531 crore, has emerged as the most preferred destination last year, trebling this figure and comfortably pipping the second-placed Andhra Pradesh. Interestingly, the number of projects proposed in Gujarat has fallen to 86 last year from 95 in 2005-06 but what has worked well for the state, which accounts for 25.8% of total investments in the country, is that the average investment per project has increased dramatically to Rs 851 crore from Rs 258 crore.

    Videocon Group Chairman Venugopal Dhoot thinks the high quality of infrastructure and a proactive government are primarily responsible for this impressive performance. “The government welcomes industrialists who are not from Gujarat. So, Gujarat will be the first choice for all our future projects,” he says emphatically.

    Maharashtra, which has ceded its pole position to its neighbour, has had a pretty ordinary run. The number of projects coming up there increased from 121 to 142, but the value of proposed investments dropped marginally to Rs 24,330 crore from Rs 24,828 crore. The worrying part, though, is not this fall or even its loss of its numero uno status as an investment destination. What should worry the Vilasrao Deshmukh government in Maharashtra is the fall in the state’s share of the all-India investment pie.

    From a level of 18.9 per cent in 2005-06, when it was ranked #1, the state’s share has fallen by more than half to 8.6 per cent. Result: It now lags behind Andhra Pradesh, is at par with Tamil Nadu and just ahead of Karnataka.

    All these states have registered impressive numbers. Karnataka is scheduled to get investments of Rs 19,930 crore, which is a 400 per cent jump over the figures for 2005-06. Gujarat and these three southern states have accounted for over half of the proposed investments for 2006-07 against 40 per cent in the previous year. For a while now, there has been a competition between Gujarat and Maharashtra for the label of “best investment destination”.

    But RBI’s bulletin puts the argument to rest, claims Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi. “The mandays lost due to labour unrest in Gujarat is only 0.65 per cent against 5 per cent in Maharashtra,” Modi recently told BT.

    It is also hard to miss the progress made by a former laggard like Orissa, which saw a threefold rise in investments to about Rs 15,000 crore, driven mainly by the giant, albeit controversial, plans of steel majors Posco, Tata Steel and a host of smaller steel companies. Overall, the size of projects has increased. “The sharp increase in the total cost of projects in 2006-07 was, to a great extent, due to the presence of 88 large projects each with costs exceeding Rs 500 crore.

    These projects aggregated to Rs 2,01,356 crore and accounted for more than twothirds of the total project cost, compared to 49 large projects amounting to Rs 74,988 crore in 2005-06” states RBI’s bulletin. That’s good news for India. And for now, it’s Gujarat that’s the clear leader of the pack.
     

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