Greatest Indian war hero

Discussion in 'Military History' started by jouni, Aug 27, 2014.

  1. jouni

    jouni Senior Member Senior Member

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    Last edited: Sep 14, 2014
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  3. Srinivas_K

    Srinivas_K Senior Member Senior Member

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    Chatra Pathi Shivaji

    Ashoka the great

    Chandra Gupta Maurya

    Raja Raja Chola

    Krishna DevaRaya

    Ranjith Singh

    Subhash Chandra Bose

    Sam Manekshaw

    Captain Vikram Batra

    the list is endless
     
    Last edited: Aug 27, 2014
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  4. Sambha ka Boss

    Sambha ka Boss Regular Member

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    Hyderabad Rangareddy
    Chandragupta Maurya
    Raja Bhoj
    Rajaraja Chola
    Shivaji Maharaj
     
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  5. Peter

    Peter Senior Member Senior Member

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    The greatest Indian heroes were

    Ashoka the Great
    Shivaji
    Khudiram Bose(I consider the fight against the British as a war against them)
    Bhagwat Singh

    and the greatest of them all

    Netaji Shubhash Chandra Bose
     
  6. LordOfTheUnderworlds

    LordOfTheUnderworlds Regular Member

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    India is too big, too too diverse and has a too too too too long civilizational history to have one or two greatest heroes. Such things are for small nations made of one or two ethnicities and with short history.

    Can you be more specific please.
     
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  7. jouni

    jouni Senior Member Senior Member

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    Too big, or you cannot make up your mind..LOL, I must google those guys on your list.
     
  8. LordOfTheUnderworlds

    LordOfTheUnderworlds Regular Member

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    The other problem is, we hadn't had many large scale wars in lat few centuries, except few limited short wars against Pakistan and China; as we were under british rule and our final 'war of Independence' was uniquiely non violent. Much of the history before that is either lost or ignored under British system. The so called world wars were not 'our' wars even though the soldiers had to fight for the Europeans.
     
  9. jouni

    jouni Senior Member Senior Member

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    So you are a pacifist peace loving nation. That is good. I remember when younger reading about gurkhas and thought India s are a warrior nation. Better this way.
     
  10. ghost

    ghost Regular Member

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    First I will provide you the list of martial races of India .This list was prepared by British ,but there are lot more,but I think these are more than enough for you.

    Ahir
    Baluch
    Dogra
    Gujjar
    Jats
    Kamboj/Kamboh
    Kodava
    Khokhar
    Labana
    Mahton
    Pashtun
    Rajput
    Saini
    Gurkhas
    Marathas
    Nairs
    Reddys
    Sattis
    Sikhs
    Tanolis

    FEW FROM WW2[​IMG]Khukris unsheathed, Gurkha troops charge the enemy lines in Burma.
    Now something regarding Gurkha's-Legend had it that Gurkhas never drew their service-issued kukri without drawing blood, even if it were their own. Although probably a tradition of a bygone era, the legend added immeasurably to the Gurkhas' reputation for toughness. The exploits and legends surrounding the Gurkhas are among the more memorable of modern military history.

    [​IMG]

    A Lt Colonel from the 20th Indian Division accepts the formal surrender of a Japanese Commander at Saigon, Vietnam, in September 1945.

    [​IMG]
    Indian soldiers storm a German trench, after exploding it with hand grenades.


    WW2: India's worst war, but most heroic moments
    July 10, 1944. 5th Maratha Regiment's Yeshwant Ghadge, all of 22, was caught in a mortal combat in the Upper Tiber Valley of Italy. Except for his commander, his platoon had been wiped out by enemy machine-gunners. With no alternative left, Ghadge rushed the machine gun nest, lobbing grenades, knocking off the gun and the gunner. He charged, shot another enemy. With no time to change his magazine, Ghadge clubbed to death two remaining enemy gunners. Ghadge finally fell to an enemy sniper.

    India's memories of the World War II are made of such tales of exceptional valour. Fought for the British masters, it was India's biggest and worst war.

    It was also a war where Indians were on either sides.

    While some 2.5 million Indians fought the war for British rulers, a few thousand men and women joined the Germany-Japan-Italy (Aix Powers) alliance, under Subhash Chandra Bose, hoping to overthrow the British rulers from India.

    Bose's venture was romantic and is an awe-inspiring chapter in India's freedom struggle.

    But for most of the Indians who donned uniforms during World War II, it was only to earn their daily bread.

    Though the war was not India's, Indians were among the most heroic, borne out by the fact that they won over 4,000 gallantry awards, among them almost 20 Victoria Crosses.

    Over 36,000 Indians were killed. Official estimates put the wounded at 64,000.

    Abdul Hafiz, 9th Jat Infantry, of the British Indian Army and was posted to Imphal, to defend the northeast borders where the Japanese were pushing in.

    Just 25, and a Jemadar under British officers, Hafiz led a charge up a bare slope and then up a steep cliff despite machine-gun fire.

    He pressed on, eliminated the enemy who vastly outnumbered Hafiz's platoon, but succumbed to his injuries.

    Hafiz was awarded the Victoria Cross for the last act of his life.

    Similar was the story of 22-year-old Yeshwant Ghadge whose act of exceptional courage came in the Upper Tiber Valley of Italy on July 10, 1944.

    His entire section, except the commander, were killed or wounded from machine gun fire. Ghadge rushed to the machine gun location, throwing grenade and knocking off the machine gun and its firer and then shot another.

    With no time to change his magazine, Ghadge clubbed to death two other remaining members of the machine gun crew. Ghadge like thousands of his Indian counterparts too fell to an enemy sniper and died.

    Many of the Indian VCs were won in Burma and other regions of India's northeast.

    If the Japanese forces, along with Bose's Indian National Army, had succeeded in their efforts to push into India the World War II would have had a different meaning for Indians.

    But the Indian soldiers, loyal to the master, risked and even gave it up to stall the Japanese.

    Some of Independent India's great warriors too were World War II veterans.

    Marshal of the Indian Air Force Arjan Singh earned his first recognition as an outstanding flier in the World War II.

    Stationed at Imphal valley, his unit played a key role in resisting a siege. Singh was awarded the Dinstinguished Flying Cross by Lord Mountbatten, the then chief of the South East Asia Command.

    While Indians played a pivotal role in safeguarding the northeast and Burma, they were also valiantly in action in places as far as Africa.

    The Fifth Indian Division fought against the Italians in Sudan, and against the Germans in Libya.

    Indians also played a critical role in protecting the Iraqi oilfields, which had by then become a key installation for the British Empire.

    The Fifth Division also was part of the occupational force of Malaya. And later it went to Java to disarm the Japanese troops.

    The Fourth Indian Division fought in North Africa, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus and then in Italy.

    World War II was also the only occasion when the American troops were ever stationed in Indian soil.

    They were deployed all over Northeast, and some units were even based in New Delhi. WW II veterans recall the lavish lifestyles of the Americans, who earned more than even British soldiers.

    The Americans also played key role in flying supplies from Calcutta (now Kolkata), Karachi and other ports to Burma, China and other theatres of war in the region.

    They also played an important role in developing road network in the northeast.

    India was a cultivation base for upping supplies for the Allies.

    In Assam a Muslim chief minister encouraged illegal migration from Bangladesh into Assam, and justified it to the British saying these Muslims would help in farming, which in turn was meant for war inputs.

    Across the country rationing and shortages were felt.

    In Calcutta the great famine of 1943, triggered by rice disease brown spot, was accentuated by the war-time shortages. An estimated 30 lakh people died in the famine.

    The war's crippling impact on British Empire eventually helped speed up India's freedom.

    But as is wont in India, the legacy of the 2.5 million Indian braves has lost the battle to neglect.

    India's only living Victoria Cross winner of WW II, Honorary Captain Umrao Singh, 85 gets a meager Rs 80 as monthly pension.

    Umrao Singh had held onto an advanced gun position against four assaults by Japanese troops.

    Despite injuries from two grenade attacks, Singh fought on. When he was discovered hours later, bodies of 10 Japanese were lying around him.

    WW2: India's worst war, but most heroic moments


    The Military of Ancient India[​IMG]War Elephants
    War elephants are the most iconic element of the Armies of India. They became heavily armored and could devastate enemy forces.

    As agriculture took root in the Indus River Valley one of the worlds earliest urban civilizations (c. 3300 BC) began to develop. This civilization would be smashed by war with invading Aryans around 1500 BC, but civilization and food production spread to the rest of the subcontinent. Throughout the long military history of ancient India foreign invasion would be reoccurring, but most warfare was between Indian Kingdoms. The formidable Himalayas largely separate India from the rest of Asia leaving the many kingdoms of ancient India to battle for dominance.


    The Ancient Warfare, Weapons and Military of India

    Dawn of Civiliation in Ancient India
    Throughout its history India and its diverse geographic regions were divided into many kingdoms, often at war and sometimes numbering in the hundreds. Warfare in ancient India took on a wide variety of exotic forms, but all of with a uniquely Indian flavor. As the military of ancient India developed so did its iconic features, including elephants, bamboo long bows and massive shirtless infantry armies. Each region of the subcontinent added its own unique elements to ancient Indian warfare. The deserts of the northwest were ruled by the Rajputs, skilled mounted warriors. The Nepalese ruled the mountainous to the North, one of their tough kingdoms eventually producing a world changing man called the Buddha. The monsoon soaked East was ruled by independent minded kingdoms such as Bengal and Assam. Over the centuries various tribes, ethnicities and dynasties battled for supremacy, but they where unconquerable by repeated invasions from the West. The ancestors of the Indo-European Aryan invaders established kingdoms in central India (earning the indo part of the Indo-European family). In the Southern jungles were the Dravidian kingdoms, these indigenous people of India had created the Indus Valley Civilization and formed India’s oldest kingdoms. The North and South of India are divided by the Deccan Plateau, home of many small kingdoms, defended by some of the fiercest warriors in India.

    India was Earth’s third civilization to use writing and an early trade partner of the Sumerians. However, after the Aryan invasion the secrets to their language were lost. Little is known about warfare during the Indus River Valley Civilization warfare; even if their writing could be deciphered it would probably tell us very little, most of the surviving text is on seals. Some of the weapons found in the archeological record would have been just as likely used for hunting as warfare, but others are clearly for military use. We do know they used axes, spears and maces. Their maces were similar to stone maces used in Egypt and Summer. They had a wood handle and head of alabaster, limestone or softer but easily shaped sandstone. They also used long, leaf shaped daggers and knifes. The blades were made out of copper or bronze and either one or two edged. For range weapons the ancient Indian warriors employed slings and bows. Their arrowheads were of a uniquely Indian variety, featuring thin heads with long barbs.

    Vendic Period of Ancient Indian War (1700 BC – 500 BC)
    Around 1700 BC a massive invasion of Aryans swept into India from the Northwest. The Aryans had a pastoral, nomadic and warrior culture. Their basic political unit was a grama (wagon train), a tribe was made up of various gramas and lead by a king or chieftain. These early Vedic Aryans had come from a group that had invented the Chariot and spread out in one of history’s great invasions (and migrations). From the steppes North of the Caspian Sea they spread from the Levant to the borders of China. A warrior class operated their Chariots, the expensive wonder weapon of its day. The mobile chariot was a leap beyond its horse and donkey cart forerunners and provided the Aryan warrior class with a distinct military advantage. The invaders also brought iron weapons with them and used it one their chariots. Iron is lighter and stronger than bronze and copper, giving another significant advantage to the invading warriors. Settled populations and their civilization were destroyed by the Aryan invasion and its ripple effect, as their techniques and weapons spread out across the old world causing what has been called the Bronze Age Collapse. In India there is no widely accepted archaeological or linguistic evidence of direct cultural continuity from the Indus Valley civilization. One of earth’s first great civilizations perished.

    As the Arians merged with the Indians they formed a new society. In its earliest phase the nomadic tribes were still on the move creating a complex political structure. The Aryans formed a semi-nomadic society, still based on herding, and a strict class system was imposed. The Vedic Aryans formed many competing kingdoms, each skirmishing, warring and shifting alliances in attempts to dominate the people and territory of their neighbors. The battlefields were ruled by massive chariots that were nothing like the sleek, fast two wheeled chariots of Egypt. Indian chariots were large four wheeled firing platforms requiring four to six horses to pull them. They weren’t used for out flanking enemies, but charged straight into the enemy ranks crushing anyone in its path. Two to six men manned the chariots, using the six foot height advantage a large chariot offered to rain arrows down on the enemies, while spear armed warriors made sure no enemies could climb aboard. Later (c. 470 BC), the Indians invented scythed chariots. These featured curved blades that were attached to the wheels, causing death and dismemberment to anyone unlucky enough to be in their path.

    The bow was the dominate weapon of the military of ancient India, but Vendic era warriors also employed slings and javelins as ranged weapons. Sword, axes and spears were used in close combat. However as the many warring kingdoms struggled for greater control a vast array of weapons and tactics developed, including the world’s first use of war elephants. (India was also the last nation to use war elephants in the 1800’s AD)

    Around 1000 – 500 BC, two ancient Indian epics were written, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Both epics are center around the wars and conflicts between the small kingdoms and various tribes. They refer to a wide variety of military formations, theories and esoteric weaponry. Tactically warfare moved away from focusing on individual warriors in battle towards formations. The weapons used ranged from the familiar such as axes, swords, javelins, and maces to the very exotic and even unimaginable. The Mahabharata mentions the use of the Pasa, a triangular noose weapon made of rope and lron balls for weight that was used for strangling opponents. Another example is the sudarshana chakra, a spinning disc like weapon with very sharp edge that is hurled at the enemy. Many of these weapons were linked to Hindu religion, for example the Chakra is an attribute of the Hindu God Vishnu and was made by the architect of gods, Vishvakarma. Other examples include hammers on the end of long five foot poles and an eight sided iron club.

    A wide variety of battle formations were used by ancient Indian armies. Examples of these intricate and possibly overly complex formations include the Wheel, Needle and Fish to name just a few. In one particular formation know as the lotus, archers where placed in the center and the infantry and cavalry formed “petals” around them for protection. The Eagle formation, which was commonly used, is another interesting example. A wedge formation of the toughest troops formed the beak and led the army into battle. The 'head’, just behind the beak would follow the beak into battle and where also of high quality. Often, war elephants would be placed in the beak and head. Two broad 'wings' would sweep out from behind the head, with the swiftest troops, the chariots and finally the cavalry at the outside. Reserves would then be positioned between the wings and the head to form the body.

    As the Aryan Kingdoms The Aryan kingdoms moved increasingly towards agriculture and away from their traditional pastoral organization they also put in place the rigid caste system. This system, still in effect today, formalized their dominance and strictly organized people’s places in society. Their armies developed into their classic four part organization, infantry, elephants, chariots and archers. However, all of this would soon be upended by a fearless conqueror from a distant, unknown land.

    War with Alexander the Great
    Alexander had inherited both masterful tactics from his father, Phillip of Macedonia, and the world’s best military force. He also inherited rule over the martially powerful Greeks and Macedonians. After Alexander consolidated his kingdom and defeated some warlike Thracian tribes on his Northern border he began to conquer the “known world”. Alexander defeated the world’s largest empire of the time, the Persians in two pitched battles. He then defeated the defiant Phoenician cities on the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt before returning to finish off the Persians in yet another massive pitched battle. After that he marched East, fighting the tough tribes of modern Afghanistan, there he lost more men in battle then in his war with the vast Persian Empire! Once he had established control of Afghanistan through brutal, genocidal war he aimed his army at the indo-gangetic plains where the hundreds of small kingdoms that had stretched across it had consolidated into sixteen different kingdoms.

    In 326 BC Alexander the Great began his invasion of the India. He moved East intent on conquering all the lands to the “Great Out Sea”, which he believed to be on the other side of India. Alexander and his forces crossed the Indus river but where halted at the Hydapes River by a large army on the other side. Porus, ruler of the Punjab Region, had positioned a large army on the other bank complete with war elephants, archers, infantry and chariots. The infantry were armed with bamboo cane framed hide shields and bamboo spears with iron heads. The Indian archers employed an effective 6 ft long bow also made out of bamboo that shot long cane arrows. However the most frightening aspect of the Indian army was the war elephants. These massive beasts were something the Greeks and Macedonians hadn’t faced and they would soon wreak havoc on the battle field.

    Alexander out maneuvered Porus and was able to cross up river with an elite part of his army. The Indian chariots that Porus sent to counter the crossing became stuck in the mud, and Porus’ son who was leading the counter attack was killed. As Porus turned his army to face Alexander the remaining part of Alexanders forces crossed the river forcing a confrontation on two fronts. Porus lined up his army to counter Alexander and sent his infantry and elephants against him. Alexander’s forces, formed into to formidable Macedonian phalanx, advanced in an echelon. A tactic Alexander had learned from his father, Phillip, who had in turn learned it from the great Greek general and strategist, Epaminondas.

    As the two armies approached each other they must have both been intimidated by the sight of their exotic opponents. Confronting the tightly packed and well armored Macedonian phalanx was a terrifying sight that had sent Persian armies fleeing before even engaging them. While the Indian war elephants with their bronze reinforced trunks terrified the Macedonians and panicked their horses. As the armies collided the elephants killed many Macedonians but the lightly armored Indian infantry was unable to compete with the Greek and Macedonian phalanxes who where the world’s best heavy infantry at the time. The Indian infantry huddled near the elephants for protection, however the great beasts having suffered many wounds, became enraged trampling anyone around them. Alexander’s cavalry then slammed into the back of the Indian army, delivering the deathblow.

    Porus was outclassed by Alexander’s refined combined arms tactics and the professionalism of his force, the panicle of hundreds of years of evolution in the Greek style of war. However, Porus himself fought on with such bravery and tenacity that he gained the respect and admiration of Alexander. Alexander made him a satrap, a regional governor but in practice he would be a subordinate king in his own right. Alexander would need the support of the local nobility to administer his far flung empire when he returned to the West.

    Interestingly, Alexander also encountered poisoned projectiles during his invasion of India, probably dipped in the venom of the Russell's viper.

    After the Battle of Hydapes Alexander’s army, home sick and tired after over a decade of campaigning mutinied, refusing to march further to the East fearing even greater Indian armies that were said to have thousands of war elephants. Alexander reluctantly agreed and returned to Persia where he died in 323 BC while planning an invasion of Arabia. At age 32 he had conquered most of the know world creating the greatest empire it had ever seen, but it would not survive his death.

    Maurya Empire and Military
    The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the first empire that was able to unite all of India. The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya. Chandragupta was a general who overthrew the ruling Dynasty of the Nanda kingdom, a state to the East of the straps created by Alexander. The Maurya Empire expanded rapidly westwards across central and western India in the wake of the withdrawing armies of Alexander’s quarrelling successors. Chandragupta’s successors continued his policies of expansion through war, creating the world’s largest empire at that time. The Greeks that remained merged cultures with the Indians over the following centuries creating an Indo-Greek identity.

    The Mauryan military reqruited people from all over the subcontinent and from all Castes creating a diverse army.
    The core of the army was composed of warriors from Uttarapathian in central and western India. Uttarapatha had many warlike peoples, including the Kambojas, Yavanas, and Sakas. Other groups that provided levy troops in times of war were the Maghadas, Assamese, and Cheras. While the Tamil (Dravidian) kingdoms in the Southern tip only paid tribute. One interesting group that was requrited into the Mauryan armies was the Nagas, which translate to ‘serpents’, a mystical people from Eastern India that worshiped cobras.

    Like the Vendic armies, Muaryan armies were formed out of four parts, the Chariot, Elephant, Infantry and Archers, the largest part of the force. At its height the Maurya Empire had 750,000 soldiers and made advances in the weapons and armor of their military. War elephants were even armored and fitted with sword like attachments on their trunks. Small forts were also put on their backs where soldiers would attack from with javelins and bows or long spears, tridents or other polearms at close range. The Mauryan military was reported to have over 9000 war elephants.

    After several week rulers the Muaryan Dynasty collapsed in 185 BC. The fall of the Mauryas left the Khyber Pass between Bactria and India unguarded, and a wave of foreign invasion followed. The Greco-Bactrian king, Demetrius, capitalized on the situation and invaded with his Greek army conquering the North East of the subcontinent around 180 BC. While the Greeks formed the Indo-Greek Kingdom the Muarya Empire broke up into smaller kingdoms, which then broke up into smaller Kingdoms again.

    Status Quo in Ancient Indian Warfare
    The Indo-Greeks were then conquered by an invading force of Scythians around 70 BC. The Scythians were a nomadic Indo-European people who then established the Indo-Scythian Empire in Northwest India. They fought as mounted horse archers, using the powerful composite bow. They were followed by the Yuezhi, Tocharian tribes who also invaded from the great Asian landmass and displaced the Scythians. The Yuezhi were then followed by yet another Indo-European group (this time from the Iranian branch) of nomadic horse archers, the Parthians. The Parthians then from Indo-Parthian kingdoms in Northwest of India while the Indo-Scythians had been pushed into central India. The Indo-Parthians in turn where concuered by the Kushans, another tribal confederation of Tocharian origins. The Tocharians were the most Easterly branch of the Indo-Europeans and had been being pushed out of central Asia. The Kushan Empire originally formed in the 1st century CE in and would eventually fall into decline and collapse under pressure from the Sassanid empire to the West and the emerging Gupta Empire to the East.

    While these events unfolded in Northwest, West and at times the central portions of the subcontinent other Indian Kingdoms formed in Eastern and Southern India. Examples include Pandyan, Cholas, and Chera. The
    Satavahana empire formed in the Southeast and later the kingdoms of Kalabhras, Kadamba and the Tamil Kingdom of Pallava formed in the South of India.

    The kingdoms that dominated the Northwest could never conquer the Southern and Eastern Kingdoms due to military factors. First of all their horses would succumb to the tropical climate of Southern and central India, even if they could operate effectively in the forested or mountainous regions. Furthermore the powerful, but expensive (they could take ten years to construct) compound bow was susceptible to warping in the humid climate unlike the bamboo longbow. Inversely, when the empires of the South and East advanced into the planes of Western or Northwestern India they would be out maneuvered and out shot by the mobile horse archers.

    The Military of the Gupta Empire
    The stalemate was eventually broken by the Gupta Empire, although they never were able to take over the central Duncan Plateau, Southwest or Southern regions. Forming in the Northeast of India, the Gupta Empire (320 to 550 CE) is considered a golden age of Indian and Hindu history. This was a time when Indian culture flourished in all areas but like all empires it was made possible by a powerful military.

    The military of the Gupta Empire remained based on the traditional four part armies of the past; however the chariot had been replaced by mounted cavalry by this time. They modeled the dress (trousers) and armor of their cavalry after the well clad and equipped Kushans. However, despite the use of horse archers by their enemies such as the Scythian, Parthian, and Hepthalite (White Huns or Huna) they never developed their own. The Gupta favored armored cavalry forces that attacked with lances or swords.

    The Gupta military continued to rely heavily on infantry archers, which was an effective counter to mounted archers. One advancement the Gupta military made they made in archery was creating the steel bow; this weapon could match the power of the composite bow while not being subject to the problem of warping do to humidity. This incredibly powerful bow was capable of excellent range and could penetrate thick armor. However, steel bows would have only been used by elite or noble class warriors while common archers continued to use the highly regarded bamboo longbow. Iron shafts were substituted for the long bamboo cane arrows when armor penetration was needed, particularly against armored elephants and cavalry. Fire arrows also were employed by the Gupta, their long bamboo cane arrows being particularly well suited for use in these operations.

    Gupta archers were protected by infantry units equipped with shields, javelins, and swords. They had no particular uniforms and dressed in accordance to their indigenous customs. Some warriors wore a type of tunic spotted with black aloe wood paste, which could be a type of tie-dye (or bandhni) that may have functioned as an early type of camouflage. Indian Gupta era infantry rarely wore pants, instead going into battle with bare legs. Skullcaps (more common) or thickly wrapped turbans were worn around the head to give some protection. Shields were generally curved or rectangular and featured intricate designs, sometimes decorated with a dragon’s head. The swords could be long swords, curved swords or daggers.

    Elite troops and nobles would have had access to armor, such as chainmail, although the hot Indian climate can make heavy armor unbearable. Use of a breast plate and simple helmet would have been more common. They had access to better steel weapons as well, such as broadswords, axes and the Khanda, a uniquely Indian sword with a broad double blade and blunt point. The Khanda was a slashing weapon and considered very prestigious. Steal was developed in the Tamil region of Southern India between 300 BC and the start of the common era. Steal weapons were highly prized and traded throughout the Near east and ancient Europe. Indian steal was legendary for its tensile strength and knowledge of it fueled a quest for improved metallurgy across the Near east and Europe. By the time of the Gupta’s steel weapons would have been more come common in Indian warfare, but still only used by elite warriors.

    War elephants continued to be used and pacaderm armor was advanced throughout this a period. Elephants remained a component of the combined arms tactics employed by Gupta generals. The use of war elephants coordinated with armored cavalry and infantry supported foot archers is likely the reason for the Gupta Empires success in war against both Hindu kingdoms and foreign armies invading from the Northwest. Another reason may have been a higher level of discipline compared to their tribal rivals. At its height the Gupta Empire had ¾ million soldiers.

    The Gupta empire also maintained a navy to control water ways and their coasts. They also had a high level of understanding of siege warfare, employing catapults and other sophisticated war machines.

    The Gupta Empire eventually collapsed in the face of a Hepthalite (Huna or White Huns) onslaught. This was another of the Asiatic hordes and was probably a confederation of nomadic tribes. Their origins are obscure, although their language is likely of East Iranian origin. They may have gone by the name of White Huns in order to associate themselves with the feared Huns of Turkic origins. The Hepthalite were initially defeated by Skandagupta which has been seen to mean that militarily the Indian armies could defeat them and that the fall of the Gupta Empire was due to internal dissolution. However, the collapse of the Roman and Chinese empires at the same time and to branches of the same invaders seems to point to something more.

    Return to the Status Quo
    Warfare in India had returned to what it was before the rise of the Gupta Empire, with a wide variety of kingdoms that could never achieve dominance over the others. This state continued throughout the ancient period of India and into the medieval and even modern times. The military of India continued to be a potent force, able to halt an Islamic invasion from the West, something the Persians, Egyptians and many other Nations where unable to do.


    Now we have so many great warriors that to give detail of each and every one in a single post is not possible.I will tell you about few,or if you wish regularly update this thread:wave:

    Beginning with Emperor Ashoka the Great[​IMG]Ashokan Pillar at Vaishali

    [​IMG]

    Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC.[1] One of India’s greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. He conquered the kingdom named Kalinga, which none of his ancestors had conquered starting from Chandragupta Maurya. His reign was headquartered in Magadha (present-day Bihar). He embraced Buddhism after witnessing the mass deaths of the Kalinga War, which he himself had waged out of a desire for conquest. He was later dedicated to the propagation of Buddhism across Asia and established monuments marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha. Ashoka was a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism. Ashoka is remembered in history as a philanthropic administrator. In the history of India, Ashoka is referred to as Samraat Chakravartin Ashoka– the “Emperor of Emperors Ashoka”.

    His name “aśoka” means “painless, without sorrow” in Sanskrit (the a privativum and śoka “pain, distress”). In his edicts, he is referred to as Devānāmpriya (Pali Devānaṃpiya or “The Beloved Of The Gods”), and Priyadarśin (Pali Piyadasī or “He who regards everyone with affection”).

    Early life

    Ashoka was born to the Mauryan emperor Bindusara and his queen, Dharmā [or Dhammā]. He was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, founder of Mauryan dynasty. Ashokāvadāna states that his mother was a queen named Subhadrangī, the daughter of Champa of Telangana. Queen Subhadrangī was a Brahmin of the Ajivika sect. Sage Pilindavatsa (aias Janasana) was a kalupaga Brahmin[3] of the Ajivika sect had found Subhadrangī as a suitable match for Emperor Bindusara. A palace intrigue kept her away from the king. This eventually ended, and she bore a son. It is from her exclamation “I am now without sorrow”, that Ashoka got his name. The Divyāvadāna tells a similar story, but gives the name of the queen as Janapadakalyānī.[4][5]

    Ashoka had several elder siblings, all of whom were his half-brothers from other wives of Bindusāra.

    He had been given the royal military training knowledge. He was a fearsome hunter, and according to a legend, killed a lion with just a wooden rod. He was very adventurous and a trained fighter, who was known for his skills with the sword. Because of his reputation as a frightening warrior and a heartless general, he was sent to curb the riots in the Avanti province of the Mauryan empire.[6]

    Rise to power

    English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing ...
    Image via Wikipedia


    Maurya Empire at the age of Ashoka. The empire stretched from Afghanistan to Bangladesh/Assam and from Central Asia (Afghanistan) to Tamil Nadu/South India.

    The Divyavandana talks of Ashoka putting down a revolt due to activities of wicked ministers. This may have been an incident in Bindusara’s times. Taranatha’s account states that Chanakya, one of Bindusara’s great lords, destroyed the nobles and kings of 16 towns and made himself the master of all territory between the eastern and the western seas. Some historians consider this as an indication of Bindusara’s conquest of the Deccan while others consider it as suppression of a revolt. Following this, Ashoka was stationed at Ujjayini as governor.[5]

    Bindusara’s death in 273 BC led to a war over succession. According to Divyavandana, Bindusara wanted his son Sushim to succeed him but Ashoka was supported by his father’s ministers. A minister named Radhagupta seems to have played an important role. Ashoka managed to become the king by getting rid of the legitimate heir to the throne, by tricking him into entering a pit filled with live coals. The Dipavansa and Mahavansa refer to Ashoka killing 99 of his brothers, sparing only one, named Tissa,[5] although there is no clear proof about this incident. The coronation happened in 269 BC, four years after his succession to the throne.

    Early life as Emperor

    Ashoka is said to have been of a wicked nature and bad temper. He submitted his ministers to a test of loyalty and had 500 of them killed. He also kept a harem of around 500 women. When a few of these women insulted him, he had the whole lot of them burnt to death. He also built hell on earth, an elaborate and horrific torture chamber. This torture chamber earned him the name of Chand Ashoka (Sanskrit), meaning Ashoka the Fierce.[5]

    Ascending the throne, Ashoka expanded his empire over the next eight years, from the present-day boundaries and regions of Burma–Bangladesh and the state of Assam in India in the east to the territory of present-day Iran / Persia and Afghanistan in the west; from the Pamir Knots in the north almost to the peninsular of southern India (i.e. Tamil Nadu / Andhra Pradesh).[5]

    Conquest of Kalinga

    Main article: Kalinga War
    While the early part of Ashoka’s reign was apparently quite bloodthirsty, he became a follower of the Buddha’s teaching after his conquest of Kalinga on the east coast of India in the present-day states of Orissa and North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Kalinga was a state that prided itself on its sovereignty and democracy. With its monarchical parliamentary democracy it was quite an exception in ancient Bharata where there existed the concept of Rajdharma. Rajdharma means the duty of the rulers, which was intrinsically entwined with the concept of bravery and Kshatriya dharma. The Kalinga War happened eight years after his coronation. From his 13th inscription, we come to know that the battle was a massive one and caused the deaths of more than 100,000 soldiers and many civilians who rose up in defense; over 150,000 were deported.[7] When he was walking through the grounds of Kalinga after his conquest, rejoicing in his victory, he was moved by the number of bodies strewn there and the wails of the kith and kin of the dead.

    Buddhist conversion

    As the legend goes, one day after the war was over, Ashoka ventured out to roam the city and all he could see were burnt houses and scattered corpses. This sight made him sick and he cried the famous monologue:

    What have I done? If this is a victory, what’s a defeat then? Is this a victory or a defeat? Is this justice or injustice? Is it gallantry or a rout? Is it valor to kill innocent children and women? Do I do it to widen the empire and for prosperity or to destroy the other’s kingdom and splendor? One has lost her husband, someone else a father, someone a child, someone an unborn infant…. What’s this debris of the corpses? Are these marks of victory or defeat? Are these vultures, crows, eagles the messengers of death or evil?

    The brutality of the conquest led him to adopt Buddhism, and he used his position to propagate the relatively new religion to new heights, as far as ancient Rome and Egypt. He made Buddhism his state religion around 260 BC, and propagated it and preached it within his domain and worldwide from about 250 BC. Emperor Ashoka undoubtedly has to be credited with the first serious attempt to develop a Buddhist policy.

    Will continue with more as and when I get enough time.[​IMG]Indian Khanda
     
  11. Meriv90

    Meriv90 Regular Member

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    I always thought that your greatest hero was Simo Häyhä in place of Torni that was a SS waffen
     
  12. jouni

    jouni Senior Member Senior Member

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    Häyhä is a good candidate with almost 500 sniper kill. Häyhä was an individual, Törni was a leader off men Detachment Törni was always put to the toughest places to help when tough action was needed. They had loose formal discipline, but high comeradenship. Also being in Waffen SS does not give you any stigma in Finland.
     
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  13. jouni

    jouni Senior Member Senior Member

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    Thank you for ghost for great summary of Indian history. Our killer reindeer pale in comparison to your war elephants, the MBT of the day.
     
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  14. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India has had many wars in the last century. Both world wars india fought and gained victories for Britain
    And after independence at least 5 wars officially some short .
     
  15. ghost

    ghost Regular Member

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    Rifleman Jaswant Singh – A Hero of the 1962 Indo-China War

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    Rifleman(RFN) Jaswant Singh, number 4039009, was serving with the 4th Battalion of the Garhwal Rifles.On 17 November the battalion was subjected to repeated Chinese assaults. A Chinese medium machine gun (MMG) located at a vantage point close to the A company lines was proving to be a dangerous menace. Jaswant, Lance Naik Trilok Singh Negi and RFN Gopal Singh Gusain went after the Chinese MMG and after approaching within 12 metres threw grenades at the bunker and charged it, killing a number of Chinese and capturing the MMG. Jaswant took the MMG and began crawling back towards the Indian lines but he and Trilok were fatally hit by Chinese automatic fire when nearing safety.Gopal Gusain was wounded but managed to drag the MMG into the Indian post. This turned the course of the battle and the Chinese retreated, leaving some 300 dead behind. Jaswant was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra (posthumous) and Trilok and Gopal the Vir Chakra.

    A popular and widely-disseminated local story goes as follows : It was the final phase of the Sino-Indian War in November 1962. Even as his company was asked to fall back, Jaswant Singh remained at his post at an altitude of 10,000 feet and held back Chinese soldiers for three days assisted by two local Monpa girls named Sela and Nura (in some versions one or the other girl is mentioned). Some sources say that he was escorted by one lady of the local village named Bum La during the War. They set up weapons at separated spots and maintained a volume of fire that made the Chinese think they were opposed by a body of troops. Finally the Chinese captured the man who was supplying rations to Jaswant and he revealed to them that they were opposed by only one man.They attacked in force,Sela died in a grenade burst, Nura was captured and Jaswant supposedly shot himself with his last cartridge when he realized that he was about to be captured. It is alleged that the Chinese cut off Jaswant Singh’s head and took it back to China. It is claimed by some that he killed more than 300 Chinese Soldiers in the war.

    However, after the ceasefire, the Chinese commander, impressed by the soldier’s bravery, returned the head along with a brass bust of Jaswant Singh. The bust, created in China to honor the brave Indian soldier, is now installed at the site of the battle.

    Jaswant Singh’s saga of valor and sacrifice continues to serve as an inspiration to all army personnel posted in this sector. He has become a ‘Baba’, a saint. At the spot where he fought,a small temple has come up with a bust of his and many of his personal effects. A marble plaque commemorates him and 161 other men of his battalion who died in the battle of Nuranang, which was awarded to Garhwal Rifles as a battle honour.This shrine known as Jaswant Garh is between Se La and Jang. All Indian Army personnel passing by this route from General or a jawan, make it a point to pay their respects here.So do civilians. Jaswant is treated as if he is alive, his boots shined and his uniform and accoutrements cared for by Army personnel posted at the shrine. He has received all his promotions in time, and has reached the rank of Honorary Captain.

    Rifleman Jaswant Singh – A Hero of the 1962 Indo-China War | Arise Bharat
    1962 war braveheart is Tawang deity
    JASWANTGARH (TAWANG): He is served bed tea at 4.30am, breakfast at 9am and dinner at 7pm. Five Army soldiers are at his service round-the-clock. There are no chores to be done. Life couldn't be more comfortable for 'Baba' Jaswant Singh Rawat... but for the fact that he is no more.

    Baba was captured by the Chinese way back in 1962 and hanged at the spot where his memorial stands today.

    No soldier, not even a general, is allowed to move ahead, towards the Sino-Indian border, unless he pays his tribute to rifleman 'Baba' Jaswant Singh Rawat. Baba of 4 Garhwal Corps who, along with two other soldiers, held on to this post - 21 km from Sela Pass near Tawang - for 72 hours, orchestrating a counter-attack on the Chinese forces before he was severely injured by enemy bullets, captured and then hanged.


    Baba Jaswant Singh has attained the status of a deity on the Sino-Indian frontier. A temple has been erected in his memory and the Army has posted five soldiers for the upkeep of his memorial.

    For these soldiers, Baba exists. They make his bed for him, polish his shoes and deliver the mail sent by his admirers. They even clear the mails the next morning after "he has gone through them". Lance Naik Rajesh Kumar of 5 Sikh Regiment, who is on duty these days at the memorial, claims: "Baba is very much there and eats the food served to him. He even goes out at night as you can make out from his soiled shoes, which are polished everyday."

    Rajesh Kumar, however, has one grudge. The Baba still "lives" without electricity. "We have a generator set which we use for sometime in the evening for putting on the lights at the temple and also in our huts," he says, hoping that the state government may someday provide a permanent electricity connection here.

    Incidentally, Rifleman Jaswant Singh Rawat was awarded a Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) posthumously, something the main Opposition in Parliament, BJP, is not happy about.

    "He was the last resistance the Chinese Army faced when they invaded Arunachal Pradesh, yet Jaswant Singh was awarded only the MVC," says BJP MP Kiren Rijiju who plans to raise the issue of Jaswant Singh getting the highest battle honour, the Param Vir Chakra.

    In the battle against Chinese in November 1962, Rawat and two other soldiers were instrumental in killing 300 Chinese soldiers against two casualties from the Indian side. The 4 Garhwal Rifles was awarded battle honour Nuranang, the only battle honour awarded to any Army unit in the Sino-Indian war of 1962.
     

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