Greatest Indian of the 20th Century

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by truthfull, May 14, 2010.

?

Choose one of your favourite Indian of last Century

  1. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

    35.3%
  2. Mahatma Gandhi

    29.3%
  3. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

    36.1%
  4. General Sam Manekshaw

    12.0%
  5. Homi Jahangir Bhabha

    8.3%
  6. Jawahar Lal Nehru

    3.8%
Multiple votes are allowed.
  1. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    I am creating this new thread to slect greatest indian of last century i will give option to you
     
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  3. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    i want ajtr to shed more light on it with reasoning
     
  4. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    Alsi AV you should give your views
     
  5. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    i think ajtr has vast knowledge about good and bad leaders so he must shed light on it ,i want his views and also on poll
     
  6. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Though with the limited choices you have given its quite difficult to choose....why there is no indira gandhi in the choices if you keep your choice only limited you gonna do injustice to the other know unknown indians.No human is perfect they have their own faults too.for me greatest indians are those who toil hard for indian progress on the heigths of siachin to the deserts of rajasthan and marshes of kutch and jungles of east.for that matter Rukhsana of rajouri has to be the greatest indian till present.

     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  7. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    ajtr i know from yopur post that you are a great member although indira won a 1971 war but he made no gain from that war .i have given choice of subhash chandra bose to you .I think i have made right choices . plz write some important commentsd about netaji and bose,bhabha,Patel
     
  8. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4100961.stm

    Poll for South Asia's greatest ever leader
    Who do you consider to be the most important leader in South Asia in modern times?

    Readers were given 16 famous names to choose from and the option of 'none of these' if you had another choice.

    The poll has proven to be enormously popular. See the results to the right.

    We also include a wide selection of your views on the candidates and who else you would have included.



    Your views on South Asia's greatest leader
    Ahmed Shah Masood 1953-2001


    The most important leader in the anti-Taleban Northern Alliance in Afghanistan. A follower of radical Islamic politics as a young man, he went on to become one of the most successful Mujahideen commanders in the fight against the Soviet invasion of the 1980s. He was assassinated two days before the 9/11 attacks.



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    Atal Behari Vajpayee 1926-


    India's longest serving prime minister outside the Congress party, completing six years in office over two terms. Widely seen as the moderate face of the Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and was instrumental in beginning the peace process with Pakistan.



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    JR Jayawardene 1906-1996

    One of Sri Lanka's most influential politicians and a key figure in the United National Party. He became the country's first elected president in 1978. Under his rule, Sri Lanka embraced the free market leading to large-scale economic development.



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    BP Koirala 1914-1982

    Nepal's first democratically elected prime minister, taking office in 1959. In 1951 he had led a popular revolt which overthrew the Rana oligarchy which ruled Nepal. In 1960, he was jailed by King Mahendra who banned all political activity and assumed absolute power.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Chandrika Kumaratunga 1945-


    Has been Sri Lanka's president for more than a decade. Both her parents had been the country's prime ministers. Survived an assassination attempt by suspected Tamil rebels. Has been an opponent of the way peace initiatives with the rebel have been conducted.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Indira Gandhi 1917-1984


    Only child of Jawaharlal Nehru. A charismatic and controversial leader, serving four terms as prime minister. Gandhi led India in the war against neighbouring Pakistan which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan. Assassinated by Sikh bodyguards after the Indian army stormed the Golden Temple.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Jawaharlal Nehru 1889-1964


    Indian nationalist leader who worked for independence and social reform. He became the first prime minister of independent India, a position he retained until his death. He charted India's non-allignment policy in foreign affairs.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Mahatma Gandhi 1869-1948

    Devoted his life to gaining independence for India through a policy of non-violence and religious integration. He launched an anti-British civil disobedience campaign. Gandhi was assassinated by Hindu extremists in 1948, a year after India gained independence.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Muhammad Ali Jinnah 1876-1948

    Lawyer and politician who fought for the cause of India's independence from Britain, then moved on to found a Muslim state in Pakistan in 1947. In Pakistan, Jinnah is revered as Quaid-e-Azam, or 'Great Leader.'



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 1920-1975 1920-1975

    Bengali nationalist leader and first prime minister and president of independent Bangladesh. He was also the founder of the Awami League party. Four years after independence Rahman and several family members were killed in a military coup.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Sirimavo Bandaranaike 1916-2000

    The world's first woman prime minister. Known affectionately in Sri Lanka as Mrs B. The shy housewife turned three-time prime minister retired from politics in 2000 and left behind a political dynasty. Chandrika Kumaratunga is her second daughter.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Subhash Chandra Bose 1897-1945

    Indian nationalist leader who fought against British colonial rule. He believed that only an armed rebellion could oust the British from India and organised the Indian National Army in 1943. Died in a plane crash in Japan.



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    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto 1928-1979

    Became Pakistan's first popularly-elected prime minister after the army's debacle in the 1971 war against India. The lawyer-turned politician was ousted by General Zia ul Haq and sentenced to death on charges of murdering a politician.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Ziaur Rahman 1936-1981

    Came to power in a military coup. As a martial law administrator, Rahman began economic reforms programmes. He later lifted the ban on political parties, founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and won popular elections. Assassinated by dissident elements in the military.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Zahir Shah 1914 -

    The last king of Afghanistan. Gave his country a constitution making it a democracy as early as in 1964. Yet under a decade later, he was deposed and Afghanistan slid into war. Spent nearly three decades in exile in Italy, before returning to Kabul after the fall of the Taleban.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Zia ul Haq 1924-1988

    Army general who led the military coup that overthrew Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and enforced martial law in Pakistan. He became president in 1978, postponed general elections, and introduced strict Islamic laws. Killed in an air crash.




    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Send your views on South Asia's greatest leader using the form below these comments.

    It can only be M.K.Gandhi, "Father of the Nation" of the largest democracy in the whole world called India. Who can match his simplicty, non-violence etc.
    Anand H., Hyderabad - Andhra Pradesh


    First of all I do not understand what you are trying to achieve from such a voting. In my opinion this is not of any use to the South Asians. Each person listed in the list has done something good to their own country and thus has helped in moving towards better South Asia. The world does not forget the contribution of Gandhiji to the India and Jinnah to Pakistan. Of course these two countries have a big population and this has only triggered an e-voting war to make their own leaders win. br />Tony Roy, Dunedin, New Zealand

    For me, all the men of this world are great leaders because they emulate in some point of their lives strength and courage to overcome odds and fight negative energies. However, with respect to this poll, I consider Indira Gandhi to be the strongest South Asian leader ever. My justification, however, isn't really biased because of cultural obligations. I feel that she had an aura of perfection around her, she was assertive and dignified.
    Rahul Prabhakar, Bangalore, India


    Let bygones be bygones and lets work towards betterment of all mankind instead of competing on such votes! I don't see how this vote is going to make any difference for the better! This is more like a population check. Only VERY rarely will any Asian vote for a non native!
    Abdul Moiz Penkar, Karachi, Pakistan

    I am a born Indian but to be honest I would recognise Quaid as the best leader of Sub-continent. His intellectual devotion and his whole life forces me to rate him as the best of all great leaders mentioned above.
    Ravi Sharma, Delhi, India

    When there comes the question of Leadership only one name comes to mind, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. People can say I'm biased as an Indian and a Bengali. Let it be that way, i don't mind. He was the true leader of modern India, fighting against the British and the political aspirations of Nehru and other Congress leaders of that time. Netaji was the spirit of India who didn't want to beg for what is rightfully ours and for all humanity...Freedom.
    Shubhabrata Paul, Kolkata, India

    A leader is the one whom people choose. Who talks of people. By looking into the history Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was one of the greatest leaders, because he raised the voice of people infront of who is considered to be a sacred cow in the mostly-military-ruled countries like Pakistan. Also he gave Pakistan with many such programs like Nuclear Projects, Satellite Earth Stations in the era of 70s, which none of the governments, whether military base nor political have given to this country.
    Sarfrazul Haq, Karachi, Pakistan

    Ranjit Singh Maharaj. He ruled the whole of India in the 18th century, united the Sikhs Muslims and Hindus. Frightened the British from ever attempting to take over India under his reign and of course had legendary spirit!
    Shamsher Singh Nijar, Staffordshire

    I think every leader has done something great to help their respective countries to be where they are presently. I salute them all for their minutest little contribution.
    Reshu Singh, Pune, India

    I think in this world you find very few of men who spend all their life for their nation's happiness and prosperity, AHMAD SHAH MASOOD was one of the few heroes born in the world. We cannot ignore what he did for his nation, soviet unions' invaded republics, and for west as he fought against communism, he was fighting with only twelve men and some limited number of ordinary machine guns against that time's super power. In my opinion I think that beside being South Asia's Greatest Leader, he is one of the world's greatest leader too, because he fought against both communism and terrorism.
    ! Ahmad, Kabul, Afghanistan

    Chandrika Kumaratunga is the gratest she has all the qualities and personality to be and she can stand for not only for Srilanka but for the whole south asia
    Cyril Ekanayake, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    Define leader...political, religious, spiritual, a national icon. Where are Tagore or Radhakrishnan? How was this list drawn up and by whom. It is often more interesting to see what is left out rather than what is included!!
    Luther Blissett, UK

    I am an Indian, but I have to admit that Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the best leader. He was infact the one who gave india's leader the idea of separation from the British rule. He was the best leader for both Pakistan and India, but Gandhi was the best only Indian leader.
    raj kumar, Bangalore, India

    How could have been forgotten Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, the emancipator of the scheduled classes of India ?
    B Bellanova, Bologna, ITALY

    South Asia has never had a great leader, period. Greatness of a leader manifests itself in the people and the life of the countries they had an impact on. The impact in South Asia has been poverty, ethnic strife, political and institutional corruption, human rights abuse and suppression of women, minorities and people labeled as lower caste. The list goes on and on. All these indices lag behind the rest of the world, except maybe Africa and the Middle East. So the term great leaders of South Asia is an oxymoron.
    jbin, USA

    It is extremely baffling that General Zia-ul-Haq should be in cosideration as South-Asia's greatest leader. He overthrew a constitutionally elected government, ruled tyranically for more than a decade, sowed the seeds of extremism and fundamentalism, used religion for political gains and had the audacity to claim: "What is the constitution but a piece of paper which I can tear whenever I so choose".
    Osama Ali Arshad, Topi, Pakistan

    Even if this had been a contest for the entire world, I think there stands no parallel to Mahatma Gandhi as leader. Reason being, there are numerous examples in History where leaders have been able to influence the minds of there followers to achieve the objectives of a struggle following a violent path but Mahatma Gandhi is the only leader who was able to influence his followers to accept the non-violence path to achieve freedom for India which included present Pakistan.
    Satya Prakash, Jabalpur India

    None of them are great leader because still people of South Asia are dying due to poverty. There are so many people in our region(south asia) can not have two meals in a day. How we can call these leaders as great leader? If you looks their personal account or personal family history they are among richest person of each nation so I believe leader of South Asia are not true leader for their country.
    rabindra KC, Nepal

    I am an Indian. When I saw the results i found that it becomes an internet fight between Indian and Pakistanis. Indians vote for Gandhi while Pakistanis for Jinnah. But no one votes for "Bhagat singh" and "Chandrashekhar Azad".I don't know what history is taught in Pakistan but regarding these great people history in India is biased. If you read unbiased books than you find the reality. So I only want to say that try to see the clear picture and than decide who is the greatest leader.
    Amitabh, New Delhi & India

    I am an Indian living in the USA, I believe the greatest leaders from South Asia on the list are Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, Chandrika Kumaratunga and Jinnah. They have done more for their respective countries as leaders than any others. MK Gandhi is obviously the most popular among the leaders on the list as he is probably the most recognised face not just in South Asia but all over the world. I consider him a great soul but not a great leader.
    Rahul Mohan, Washington D.C USA

    I believe that B.P. Koirala was the greatest leader in his time. In my opinion it is worthless doing this type of voting because of how much people of south Asia has the access of internet and those big country having more people and more internet users will give more vote to their leader. My suggestion is for the final polling consider the internet users of the country too.
    Dev Raj Pudyal, Kathmandu Nepal

    It's sad not to find Rajiv Gandhi on that list. He was one man who shaped the face of India like it is now. He brought economic reforms & technology. Today India tops the Charts in IT & Computers, its all because of him. He was one great visionary, likes of him don't find now on the Indian Political horizon. Any given the choices I feel we would have been much better off if we got freedom on terms of Subash Chandra Bose than Mahatma Gandhi. He is definitely my choice.
    Kshitij Malhotra, Kanpur, India

    Now as we are free, we should live with one policy that is: "First think of ourselves as human beings rather than Pakistanis, Indians, Bengalis or any other nation. " Lets help out our countries and make our leaders dream comes true! .
    Samab Ali Ahmad, Edinburgh, UK

    You have missed out the greatest ever - Thiru K.Kamaraj. He was the root cause for introducing Noon Meals scheme to the poor students of Tamil Nadu. This scheme was introduced in the year 1956 to all the primary schools... In 1960, he introduced a scheme of Free Education up to standard eleven and provided a golden opportunity for everybody to learn. He also introduced Pension Scheme for teachers and Government employees... Kamaraj insisted that every youth must actively participate in politics and he relieved himself from the post of Chief Minister, thereby setting himself an example to others.
    Sankara Raman, Delhi

    I believe "great" is a very subjective and vague term. What are the parameters on which you want to judge these personalities? It's difficult to opine on one person being the greatest since they are/were really good with significant contribution during their period.
    Nikhil Pande, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Jinnah's icy determination galvanised a community into following him toward his goal, Pakistan. It was the same determination, seen this time as obduracy, that so infuriated Gandhi, Nehru and Louis Mountbatten, Viceroy of India, who eventually accepted the division of Britain's greatest imperial possession into two sovereign countries--Pakistan and India. "Failure is a word unknown to me," Jinnah once commented. His personality demanded a cool, cerebral response, working through legal and constitutional channels to bring about an end to British rule.
    Adnan Sarosh, Daejon, South Korea

    This is a useless exercise and which I believe must be the dirty mind of the British who still believe in "Divide and Rule" policy... Please stop that immediately... it's ridiculous. Any way all of them are good for their country during their period but Mahatma Gandhi is the best...
    Rakesh Oza, London, UK

    Ziaur Rahman should be the greatest leader in South Asia. He is the most visionary leader in this area who formulated and developed the idea of South Asian unity by forming SAARC. SAARC is now played a vital role to mitigate conflicts in the region and gave great economic strengh which will be the next economic power in the world... His contribution in his country and international arena will keep him alive for ever.
    Salahuddin Riaz, Montreal, Canada

    Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto... had knowledge and guts to be a popular leader not only of Pakistan but also South Asia, by creating a friendly atmosphere in the region. He was also was also the first person who introduced real democracy in Pakistan after long military dictatorship.
    Munwar Soomro, Kansas, USA

    Stop this foolish vote. You are defaming the Asians
    Arun Arulambalam, Sri Lanka

    I think it is Mahatma Gandhiji, not because I am an Indian but I seriously think in the age of world wars, he was adamant about getting independence only through peace...
    sowmya, UK


    I believe that Mahatma Gandhi is the greatest leader of South-Asia who helped free the Indian people from British rule through non-violent resistance, and is honoured by his people as the father of Indian Nation. I am a Pakistani but I believe that such gems are hard to be explored. God bless him
    Ali Wazir, Islamabad

    Subhash Chandra Bose has to be the greatest since he galvanized millions into fighting colonial rule while Gandhi followed a policy of appeasement. Jinnah was a demagogue whose only vision was a separate homeland for Muslims. His impact on South Asia as a whole was minimal.
    Arjun Rana, Delhi

    Sardar Vallabhai Patel according to me qualifies to be Southasia's greatest ever leader. His mass apeal and popularity can be gauged from his tremendous popularity among all Indians. You will find many Gandhi Baiters and Nehru haters but none who will have anything bad to say about Sardar Patel - the iron man of India.
    Vijay, Mumbai, India

    I am an Indian Muslim. No slavery nor any systematic extermination of Muslims exists or has ever existed, a Gujarat 2004 here or there not withstanding in India. Jinnah would have done better to have led an undivided India and we would have been so much better for it. After all would there be a Kashmir issue in an undivided India today? A Bangladesh issue? A Rann of Kutch issue? Military takeovers of the country? Loss of 1 million lives during partition? Loss of civilian lives in Bangladesh? Taliban in Afghanistan? etc, etc. Certainly Jinnah was a great leader but with a narrow vision of what was rightfully the heritage of Muslims in the sub-continent. Perhaps a greater vision was that of Maulana Abdul Kalaam Azaad who saw it as a birthright of every Muslim to live and pray freely not just in Lahore but from Quetta to Calcutta.
    Faiz Hakim, New York, USA

    I am a German recently on a visit to the Indian subcontinent and have visited both India and Pakistan. I can clearly make a pronouncement without sounding partisan. I would say Gandhi and Bose are both in the league for greatness because of their strong secular credentials and belief in Hindu-Muslim unity for a good cause. Both proved this to be true in their on spheres on influence, Gandhi through the Indian National Congress and Bose through the Azad Hind Fauj.
    Richard Loew, Bangalore, India

    As an Afghan, I consider Mahatma Gandhi to be the most influential and imprortant leader in South Asia in modern times. His love for India's independence by way of peaceful struggle and respect for ALL of India's people of different religious and ethnic background puts him number ONE in my list! Also, as an Afghan, I must admit that the two Afghan "leaders" who are mentioned on this list, do not deserve to be on this list. Sad but true! It would have been something totally different if Ahamd Shah Abdali's name had been nominated!
    Brayshind, Baltimore, USA

    General Pervez Musharraf is the greatest leader of South Asia. He has turned Pakistan's economy around, eliminated corruption, gave equal voting rights to religious minorities and had the guts to take on the fundamentalists. He has initiated the peace process with India and has ended Pakistan's diplomatic isolation.
    Nooman Naqvi, Chicago, USA

    JR Jayawardene introduce free market policies to Sri Lanka about decade ahead of rest of South Asia embrace it.He was most far sighted politician of his generation.His constitutonal reforms seems far ahead even to present politicains to apprehend. He doesn't need statues or places to named after him because his legacy lives on in Sri Lanka.Truely father of modern Sri Lanka.
    C Basnayake, Dundee, Scotland

    The question is flawed if not stupid. Leaders are rated depending upon the situations and environment they were operating in. This poll would lead to lot of heat and no light. Any way the leader in my view was the "common man" who inspite of all the problems in South Asia still has a hope in future and in his hard work,
    KAMAL SHARMA, USA

    None of your "candidates" deserve to be the "greatest South Asian leader of modern times". None of them can truly be described as truly "democratic". In one way or the other, all have professed or sought sectarianism, unilateralism or personal "immortality". The best of the lot, in my view, would be Bose followed closely by Gandhi for bringing to the Indian (South Asian) masses the hopes and aspirations for independence from far off rulers, thus bringing their destiny in their own hands.
    Au Ahmed, Toronto, Canada

    Judging from the current economic and social indicators - poor third world countries, 500 dollars per capita income, total GDP equal to that of Mexico - I grudgingly pick none of the above. All of them have standardized visions which have been obsolete in rest of the dynamic world. The greatest south Asian leader in the long history has to be none other than Sidhartha Guatama Buddha. Politically, several regional leaders have been greater than national level leaders. Sir Sikander Hayat Khan, Khan A Ghaffar Khan, G. M. Syed and among the recent ones Shahbaz Sharif and Chandrababu Naidu have done better job than national level leaders.
    J B Sameer, New York, USA

    As a Tamil from Ceylon ,I consider only Vellupillai Pirabaharan [Leader of the Tamil Forces - the LTTE] as the greatest leader in South Asia...
    Vijay Kandasamy, Toronto, Canada

    This is an idiotic exercise reminiscent of the Financial Times' ill-fated exercise to find the 'Greatest European of the last 25 years'. The BBC should be spending its license payer's money on better things than this.
    John, London, UK.

    I would have to say it's a tie. A tie between Mahathma Gandhi and Chandrika Kumaratunga. Ghandhi for showing the world that goals could be better achieved by non-violent means and for making a mockery of the once mighty British Empire and Mrs. Kumaratunga for leading a country sucessfully through highly troubled times in the face of all-odds from the one of the most deadliest terrorist organisations, the tamil L.T.T.E.
    Senaratne, Toronto, Canada

    I endorse Mr. Krishna's views. Europe is responsible for all poverty and allied woes in the world. If Europe is rich, it is because Asia and Africa are poor. The UK in particular is the sole cause of the animosity between the countries of South Asia. Europeans are responsibe for god knows how many genocides unparelled in the history of mankind. This poll is indeed without any doubt a continuation of the famous British policy aimed at widening the rift between the estranged children of a common mother.
    Rohit Viswanath, Nottingham, U.K

    I vote for the Bangladesh founding father Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The difference between him and the other leaders is that he was the creator of the only single secular nation state of South Asia.
    M. Emaduddin, Oxford, UK

    It's a very interesting poll; possibly bit contentious - but thought provoking to say the least. As a Pakistani, my natural choice should be Mohammad Ali Jinnah but I think he was an accidental hero. British had already planned to abandon the sub continent. Even if Jinnah did in fact win a piece of land for Muslims it was too little, in the wrong geographical area and at too high a cost. Mahatma Gandhi, seems to be a better contender to be the winner since he introduced the whole concept in the first place. His plan cost the least price in terms of loss of life and his personal life, unlike that of Jinnah, does not seem to be a paradox of one's own teachings. My fellow countrymen may lynch me for saying this but that would mostly be reflection of state tutored propaganda influencing them since childhood.
    Nouman Alvi, Edinburgh, Scotland.

    I think this is a very inflammatory question & will do no good other than promoting a drive among the subcontinent internet maniacs to uphold their beliefs. I wish if BBC would have conducted a survey to know about the future of peace in subcontinent. I am still wondering for how long this British policy of divide & rule will go on? For God's sake please look forward at the future & not the past.
    Muhammad Asad Ali, Chicago,IL USA

    I think Ahmad Shah Masood is the greatest South Asian leader that world has ever seen in South Asia. He was known as the Lion of Panshir. I myself am a Pakistani but I just really love what he did for Afghanistan.
    Faisal, Alabama , USA

    My vote goes for Mahatma Gandhi. He inspired his generation of people in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to fight for independence using non-violent means. M.K.Gandhi's ideas have inspired people in all parts of the world - US civil rights leader Martin Luther King, South Africa's Nelson Mandela and Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyi to name a few.
    Sarah, CA, USA

    I quote Professor Stanley Wolpert: "Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three"
    Humza Javed, U.A.E, Dubai

    I look at the list and all I find, except few exceptions, is the list with leaders - selfish, power hungry and willing to go to any length to hold on to power. No wonder with these choosen top 16 leaders, we South Asians are where we are now. And regarding the poll itself, I see it merely becoming a competition between Indians and Pakistanis trying to get either Gandhi or Jinnah nominated the greatest leader (This is certainly a big deal! Good luck!)
    MK, Nepal

    A true visionary, who charted a course for India that the World admires;How to gain respect as a poor nation, but rich in moral values!.The Schools set up by Nehru are producing the best minds and the whole world is in awe that 600 million can vote in a third world democracy!
    sidney sridhar, Richmond, Canada

    Madam Chandrika is the greatest leader of our time. She has refused to bow in to the terrorism and western double standards on terrorism. If not for her, Sri Lanka would already be a divided country.
    Sihala, Sri Lanka

    I think jinnah was the greatest leader of all because he struggled not only against hindus and the english but also against the muslim mullahs of his own community who were against the formation of Pakistan.I am impressed by the fact that he encountered all of them, alone, and got what he dreamt off.
    omar, sendai japan

    It might be difficult to select the greatest among the big heavy weights but there is certainly no doubt in my mind regarding the worst one, Zia ul Haq. There is hardly any facet of life in Pakistan that he has not destroyed. He introduced the militant organisations, the extremist, destabilized the political system, hanged the only popular prime minister, introduced parties based on languages and divided the people. Introduced a Kalashinkov culture and filled the whole country with drug traffickers from Afghanistan. His era was based on lies and promises that never came true. This era introduced military and militant based monarchy and its after effects are still difficult to erase.
    Imran, Montreal, Canada

    Interesting to see Atal Behari Vajpayee described as the "moderate face" of Hindu nationalism. When he did more to help legitimise and inject the ugly poison of sectarianism into South Asian politics, the effect of which are still being felt today. Influential - maybe. Moderate - NO
    Imran Khan, Bristol Uk

    Please believe me that I am not at all emotional and my words are not outbursts. I adore Bhutto because he was the best leader Pakistan had after Quaid-e-Azam. Initially, I may have been sceptical about him but after reading so much about him and deliberating for years, I share my nation's admiration for this great leader of Pakistan and the Muslim Ummah. His greatness is evident from the fact that he chose to die an honourable death rather than making a compromise with the devil's advocate.
    Khalid Khan, Manchester

    These 16 people have done things that are historically significant in the South Asian context, but why that makes any of them "Great" per se is far from clear. What is your definition of "Great Leader" BBC? Lastly, if "Great" is supposed to be a synonym for historically significant, then why not include, for example, Vellupillai Prabhakharan, the leader of the LTTE, and Mullah Omar from the Taliban on the list as well?
    Andrew Kendle, London, Uk

    Do you at the BBC really think it was wise to find out who people thought was the greatest South Asian leader? I think you are really looking to instigate a flame war between Indians and Pakistanis on the internet.
    Krishna, Lordstown, USA

    While Bose was the "Malcolm X" of the Indian revolution, Mahatma Gandhi was the most prominent figure. I know that the polls will have Jinnah in a tight lead with Gandhi, and no doubt that this is the Pakistani influence; however, there would be no Pakistan or Jinnah without the work of Gandhi.
    Chris, Akron, Ohio

    In my opinion, BP Koirala is the most important leader of the South Asia in modern times. He fought against the 104 year old Rana regime(dynasty), became the first popularly elected prime minister of Nepal. He had the vision of the socio-economic development necessary for countries like Nepal. He never compromised against the people's interest, fought the autocratic monarchy for his whole life. Moreover, he created many outstanding fictions during his jail-life. HE WAS THE TRUE LEADER OF NEPALESE PEOPLE.
    Churamani Gaire, New York, USA

    I vote for Subhash Chandra Bose. He had the guts to challenge the British when the rest of India was mesmerized by Gandhi's passive aggressive behavior.
    Somdev Roy , Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, USA

    Quaid-e-Azam is the greatest leader ever in South Asia
    sajid, karachi pakistan


    The Quaid led the masses to an Islamic State when the rest of the Muslim World was overcome by the Western concept of nationalism. His greatness lie in the fact that he believed in democratic and lawful means.
    Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad, Islamabad

    I firmly believe that Mahatma Gandhi is the greatest leader South Asia has produced. Not only for South Asia, he is one of the greatest leaders, the world has seen. He was not just a political leader. He was an institution in himself. He not only taught people the principles of non-violence and truth, but showed people a way of life. His life exemplifies commitment, dedication and devotion to the cause of welfare of masses. He has influenced very many leaders right from Jawaharlal Nehru up to Nelson Mandela.
    Kandarp Mehta, Barcelona, Spain

    It is a very inappropriate contest. South Asia is not a single political entity and in that sense it is a meaningless exercise.
    Rao Tripu, Rockville, MD, USA

    The memory of Jinnah will remain forever. His courage and dedication for the cause of Indian Muslims should not be underestimated nor should it be forgotton. By making Pakistan, he probably saved millions of Muslims from slavery and death.
    Bairam Hassan, Lahore, Pakistan

    Let there be no doubt that Mr. Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the greatest leader of modern times.
    Aamir Khan, Uk
     
  9. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    http://www.zeenews.com/zeeexclusive/2009-01-24/500914news.html

    Home » Zee Exclusive
    Netaji: The Youth Icon
    Updated on Thursday, January 22, 2009, 00:00 IST Buzz up! Share Biplob Ghosal

    Some people write history with a pen, some by their might, and some simply by virtue of being associated with someone. But if ever there was a man, who wrote history by his blood, courage and sheer determination, it was Subhash Chandra Bose. His motivational leadership inspired thousands of Indians to die for the motherland, and his Indian National Army shook the foundations of the mighty British Empire.


    "Never for a moment falter in your faith in India's destiny. There is no power on earth that can keep India enslaved. India shall be free and before long."


    "Give me blood and I'll give you freedom".

    These were the words, which Subhash Chandra Bose, famously known as Netaji, spoke to prepare the youth for a revolution, when our country was under the imperialistic British regime. He not only brought the youth together, but also revolutionized their thoughts to enable them to come to the forefront in the war of Independence.

    Netaji was a man who dared to dream a dream that appeared more of a mirage to the hapless millions, who had forgotten what it meant to breathe in free air. He played a vital role in the student and youth movements and advocated an aggressive and violent fight to counter the British. The formation of the All India Forward Bloc in 1939, a political party and later the INA in 1943 is a true example of his revolutionary ideas.

    A great leader in the making

    Subhash Chandra Bose was not only a leader of revolutionary ideas, but was also way ahead of his contemporaries in India’s freedom struggle. His demand of "complete independence" at the Calcutta Congress of 1928 instead of "dominion status" is a case in point.

    Deeply influenced by Chittaranjan Das, Netaji accepted him as his mentor. Bose’s support to the Non Cooperation and Khilafat movements reflects his dedication to the cause of India's freedom based on Hindu-Muslim unity.

    Subhash Chandra was one of India's greatest nationalist leaders of the 20th century. He was born on Jan 23, 1897, at Cuttack, Orissa. He was the ninth child of a lawyer of Kayasth caste. Netaji dedicated himself for the cause of India’s independence at a very early stage of his life. After securing a Cambridge University honours degree, he returned to India and involved himself in Left-wing politics.


    The Bose-Gandhian conflict

    In 1938 he was elected as the president of Indian National Congress. But slowly ideological differences with Gandhiji began to creep in. Netaji was a strong believer in a militant overthrow of British rule, whereas Gandhiji preferred non-violent resistance.

    So in 1939 when he decided to stand again – this time as the spokesperson of radical groups, he was opposed by many senior leaders including Sardar Patel, Rajendra Prasad, JB Kripalani, who put up Pattabhi Sitaramayya as their candidate for the post. However, Subhash Bose was elected on 29 January by a thumping majority

    However, at the Tripuri session of the Congress (8-12 March 1939), Bose completely misjudged his support and the meaning of his majority in the presidential election. He believed that the Congress was strong enough to launch an immediate struggle and that the masses were ready for such action. He wanted to be the leader of the movement and wanted Gandhiji to follow the strategy and tactics laid down by him and the Left wing parties and groups. But Gandhiji would have none of this and believed in following his own principles.

    Bose had no other option but to resign. Nehru tried to mediate between the two sides, but Netaji did not waver from his stand. He founded the All India Forward Bloc in 1939, a political party, and went ahead with his battle for freedom to overthrow the British Empire.


    Bose and INA

    Miffed at his friendly attitude towards the axis powers, the British put Netaji under house arrest in 1941. He, however, managed to flee. The first Indian National Army(INA) formed in early 1942 collapsed in the same year in December. But was soon revived by Bose in 1943. In World War II, he saw an opportunity to free India from the clutches of British rule.

    After escaping the house arrest he reached Germany and sought help from Hitler. Though the dictator was initially not inclined to help Bose, as was evident when he said, “I, as a man of Germanic blood, would, in spite of everything, rather see India under English rule than under any other”, but he later allowed Netaji to set up a Free India Centre in Berlin and induct, for an 'Indian Legion', Indians in British uniform captured by the Germans.

    But Nazi racism got in the way of Bose's grand plans for an Axis-Indian Army. So he next turned to the Japanese.

    With the help of the Japanese, he came back to Singapore via sea route. This was the time when he broadcast an inspiring appeal to Indians through the Japanese-controlled Radio Singapore 'Give me blood and I will give you freedom!'

    On Oct 21, 1943 in Capitol Theatre he organised the ‘Indian National Army’ (Azad Hind Fauj) with the help of Japan. A women's regiment by the name of ‘Rani Jhansi’ was also formed.

    Addressing the members of the force, Bose urged, “It is our duty to pay for our liberty with our own blood. The freedom that we shall win through our sacrifice and exertions, we shall be able to preserve with our own strength.' ....."

    In November 1943, the INA, helped by the Japanese Army, captured Andaman and Nicobar Islands and freed nearly two million Indian. Netaji then moved his headquarters to Yangon. From there, he gave the slogan Chalo Delhi. The INA continued its march and later crossed the Myanmar border and raised the national flag on the Indian soil.

    Despite their ideological differences, Bose had high regard for Mahatma Gandhi. This becomes evident in his address on July 6, 1944 when in a broadcast on Azad Hind Radio he addressed Gandhiji and said, “'India's last war of independence has begun . . . Father of our Nation! In this holy war of India's liberation, we ask for your blessing and good wishes.'

    On July 8, 1945, Bose laid the foundation stone of the INA War Memorial at the Esplanade in Singapore to commemorate the “Unknown Warrior” of the INA. The words inscribed upon the War Memorial were the motto of the INA: Unity (Ittefaq), Faith (Ehtmad) and Sacrifice (Kurbani).

    However, INA’s success was short lived, as the defeat of the Japanese Army in the War dealt a severe blow to its march and they soon began losing ground.

    Adieu

    Netaji’s death has been wrapped in mystery. Though his death was officially announced by Radio Tokyo on August 18, 1945, many disagreed and said that he might have forged the accident in order to escape the British and team up with Stalin, the then Russian President to carry on the fight against the British.

    Bose's death has occupied the Indian mindscape in the same way as the American President Kennedy’s killing has occupied that of Americans. The mystery is still unresolved.

    His greatness can be judged by the fact that few years back a BBC online poll named Bose the third greatest-ever leader in South Asia after Gandhi and Jinnah. Despite being a great nationalist Bose has been denied his rightful place in the annals of India history.

    Netaji’s charisma has lived beyond his death and his very name evokes a sense of pride and excitement among the Indian people. He had given a new dimension to the freedom struggle, which played a crucial role in making the nation free. He always wanted to see harmony and brotherly relations among the Indians. He was a spiritualist, leftist, nationalist, and many other adjectives while he lived. Fulfilling his dream by keeping our freedom secure would be a true homage to this great son of India.


    Biplob Ghosal

    Some people write history with a pen, some by their might, and some simply by virtue of being associated with someone. But if ever there was a man, who wrote history by his blood, courage and sheer determination, it was Subhash Chandra Bose. His motivational leadership inspired thousands of Indians to die for the motherland, and his Indian National Army shook the foundations of the mighty British Empire.


    "Never for a moment falter in your faith in India's destiny. There is no power on earth that can keep India enslaved. India shall be free and before long."


    "Give me blood and I'll give you freedom".

    These were the words, which Subhash Chandra Bose, famously known as Netaji, spoke to prepare the youth for a revolution, when our country was under the imperialistic British regime. He not only brought the youth together, but also revolutionized their thoughts to enable them to come to the forefront in the war of Independence.

    Netaji was a man who dared to dream a dream that appeared more of a mirage to the hapless millions, who had forgotten what it meant to breathe in free air. He played a vital role in the student and youth movements and advocated an aggressive and violent fight to counter the British. The formation of the All India Forward Bloc in 1939, a political party and later the INA in 1943 is a true example of his revolutionary ideas.

    A great leader in the making

    Subhash Chandra Bose was not only a leader of revolutionary ideas, but was also way ahead of his contemporaries in India’s freedom struggle. His demand of "complete independence" at the Calcutta Congress of 1928 instead of "dominion status" is a case in point.

    Deeply influenced by Chittaranjan Das, Netaji accepted him as his mentor. Bose’s support to the Non Cooperation and Khilafat movements reflects his dedication to the cause of India's freedom based on Hindu-Muslim unity.

    Subhash Chandra was one of India's greatest nationalist leaders of the 20th century. He was born on Jan 23, 1897, at Cuttack, Orissa. He was the ninth child of a lawyer of Kayasth caste. Netaji dedicated himself for the cause of India’s independence at a very early stage of his life. After securing a Cambridge University honours degree, he returned to India and involved himself in Left-wing politics.


    The Bose-Gandhian conflict

    In 1938 he was elected as the president of Indian National Congress. But slowly ideological differences with Gandhiji began to creep in. Netaji was a strong believer in a militant overthrow of British rule, whereas Gandhiji preferred non-violent resistance.

    So in 1939 when he decided to stand again – this time as the spokesperson of radical groups, he was opposed by many senior leaders including Sardar Patel, Rajendra Prasad, JB Kripalani, who put up Pattabhi Sitaramayya as their candidate for the post. However, Subhash Bose was elected on 29 January by a thumping majority

    However, at the Tripuri session of the Congress (8-12 March 1939), Bose completely misjudged his support and the meaning of his majority in the presidential election. He believed that the Congress was strong enough to launch an immediate struggle and that the masses were ready for such action. He wanted to be the leader of the movement and wanted Gandhiji to follow the strategy and tactics laid down by him and the Left wing parties and groups. But Gandhiji would have none of this and believed in following his own principles.

    Bose had no other option but to resign. Nehru tried to mediate between the two sides, but Netaji did not waver from his stand. He founded the All India Forward Bloc in 1939, a political party, and went ahead with his battle for freedom to overthrow the British Empire.

    Bose and INA

    Miffed at his friendly attitude towards the axis powers, the British put Netaji under house arrest in 1941. He, however, managed to flee. The first Indian National Army(INA) formed in early 1942 collapsed in the same year in December. But was soon revived by Bose in 1943. In World War II, he saw an opportunity to free India from the clutches of British rule.

    After escaping the house arrest he reached Germany and sought help from Hitler. Though the dictator was initially not inclined to help Bose, as was evident when he said, “I, as a man of Germanic blood, would, in spite of everything, rather see India under English rule than under any other”, but he later allowed Netaji to set up a Free India Centre in Berlin and induct, for an 'Indian Legion', Indians in British uniform captured by the Germans.

    But Nazi racism got in the way of Bose's grand plans for an Axis-Indian Army. So he next turned to the Japanese.

    With the help of the Japanese, he came back to Singapore via sea route. This was the time when he broadcast an inspiring appeal to Indians through the Japanese-controlled Radio Singapore 'Give me blood and I will give you freedom!'

    On Oct 21, 1943 in Capitol Theatre he organised the ‘Indian National Army’ (Azad Hind Fauj) with the help of Japan. A women's regiment by the name of ‘Rani Jhansi’ was also formed.

    Addressing the members of the force, Bose urged, “It is our duty to pay for our liberty with our own blood. The freedom that we shall win through our sacrifice and exertions, we shall be able to preserve with our own strength.' ....."

    In November 1943, the INA, helped by the Japanese Army, captured Andaman and Nicobar Islands and freed nearly two million Indian. Netaji then moved his headquarters to Yangon. From there, he gave the slogan Chalo Delhi. The INA continued its march and later crossed the Myanmar border and raised the national flag on the Indian soil.

    Despite their ideological differences, Bose had high regard for Mahatma Gandhi. This becomes evident in his address on July 6, 1944 when in a broadcast on Azad Hind Radio he addressed Gandhiji and said, “'India's last war of independence has begun . . . Father of our Nation! In this holy war of India's liberation, we ask for your blessing and good wishes.'

    On July 8, 1945, Bose laid the foundation stone of the INA War Memorial at the Esplanade in Singapore to commemorate the “Unknown Warrior” of the INA. The words inscribed upon the War Memorial were the motto of the INA: Unity (Ittefaq), Faith (Ehtmad) and Sacrifice (Kurbani).

    However, INA’s success was short lived, as the defeat of the Japanese Army in the War dealt a severe blow to its march and they soon began losing ground.

    Adieu

    Netaji’s death has been wrapped in mystery. Though his death was officially announced by Radio Tokyo on August 18, 1945, many disagreed and said that he might have forged the accident in order to escape the British and team up with Stalin, the then Russian President to carry on the fight against the British.

    Bose's death has occupied the Indian mindscape in the same way as the American President Kennedy’s killing has occupied that of Americans. The mystery is still unresolved.

    His greatness can be judged by the fact that few years back a BBC online poll named Bose the third greatest-ever leader in South Asia after Gandhi and Jinnah. Despite being a great nationalist Bose has been denied his rightful place in the annals of India history.

    Netaji’s charisma has lived beyond his death and his very name evokes a sense of pride and excitement among the Indian people. He had given a new dimension to the freedom struggle, which played a crucial role in making the nation free. He always wanted to see harmony and brotherly relations among the Indians. He was a spiritualist, leftist, nationalist, and many other adjectives while he lived. Fulfilling his dream by keeping our freedom secure would be a true homage to this great son of India.
     
  10. truthfull

    truthfull Regular Member

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    see the poll result ot this poll. Netaji has emerged as third most popular leader of south asia
     
  11. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    .....lol.....Are BBC guys gone mad in compiling zia's name in greatest of all in south asia......Pakistan still rues zia's era cursing him with each terror attack in pakistan and the govt is on the verge of deleting zia's name from pakistani history text books.wat world is experience the pakistani terror cancer was bought on by zia....this BBC list is worst joke on poor people who get daily slaughtered by terrorists in suicide bombings in pakistan.
     
  12. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    nethaji partnered bigger evil nazis and japs to drive out another evil british.well india's choices during world war 2 were to choose lesser of the two evils. both ways it was being doomed in partnership.india chose to go along with british and suffered partition. now think about scenario if japs and nazis were victorious then there would have been redux of jews geno cide and nanjing genocide in india .ask chinese and korens about japs brutality.
     
  13. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    na ji na i'm no great poster its just that i come here like common poster to post on the subjects i like....so i just read militaay forum and rarely post there but on politics a lot.let me compile my list i'll post with in days here.right now busy with compiling singhji's indus water treaty....heck there is lot of data and sure ur thread gonna be having lot of data to compile with..just matter of time.
     
  14. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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  15. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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  16. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel, one of the six children of Jhaverbbai Patel and Ladbai was born at Nadiad in Gujarat. There is no record of his date of birth. The generally accepted date, October 31, 1875, of which the source is his Matriculation certificate, was chosen by Vallabhbhai himself while filling in a form. The family was an agriculturist one, of the Lewa Patidar Community and could in terms of economic status be described as lower middle-class. It was poor and had no tradition of education. Vallabhbhai's childhood was spent away from books, in the ancestral fields at Karamsad. He was already in his late teens when he passed out from the Middle School at Karamsad and went to the High School at Nadiad from where he matriculated in 1897.

    Even as a young boy Vallabhbhai displayed qualities of organization and leadership that marked him out for his future role. Once as a sixth-form boy he organized a successful strike of his classmates that lasted for three days to teach a lesson to one of the teachers who was unduly fond of the rod. Vallabhbhai must have inherited these attributes from his father who, it is said, had fought in the Mutiny under the Rani of Jhansi and was subsequently taken prisoner by Malharrao Holkar.

    Vallabhbhai was a mature young man of twenty-two when he matriculated. Owing to the impecunious circumstances of the family higher education was not within his reach. The next best thing was to take a course in law and set up as a country lawyer. This he did and established a small practice at Godhra But an attack of plague, which he contracted while nursing a friend, made him leave the town and after spending some time in Nadiad, he moved on to Borsad in 1902, a town in the Kheda district where at that time the largest number of criminal cases in Gujarat were recorded. Vallabhbhai became quite popular here as a defence lawyer.

    Vallabhbhai now wanted to go to England and qualify as a Barrister. From his practice at Borsad he had earned enough for his expenses there but owing to certain circumstances he was not able to make the trip at once. His brother Vithalbhai desired that he should complete education in England firm and not Vallabhbhai Vallabhbhai readily acquiesced in this.

    His wife, Zaverbai, died early in 1909 after an operation for some abdominal malady. When news of the bereavement reached Vallabhbhai, he was cross-examining a witness in a murder case at Anand. With an impregnable composure for which he became known later, he did not show grief but went on with the cross-examination in hand.

    He finally sailed for England in 1910 joined the Middle Temple. Here he worked so hard and conscientiously that he topped in Roman Law, securing a prize, and was called to the Bar at the end of two years instead of the usual period of three years.

    On his return to India in 1913, he set up practice in Ahmedabad and made a great success of it. He had ready wit, a fund of common sense and a deep sympathy for those who were the objects of the British officials' wrath and were caught in the clutches of the law, which was not the uncommon in the Kheda district. He came to enjoy a position in public life that his eminence as a Barrister. He accepted Mahatma Gandhi's leadership, having been tremendously impressed by the fearless lead that Mahatma Gandhi gave to right public wrongs. In 1917 he was elected for the first time as a Municipal in Councillor Ahmedabad. From 1924 to 1928 he was Chairman of the Municipal Committee. The years of his association with the, Municipal administration were marked by much meaningful work for the improvement of civic life. Work was done to improve water supply, sanitation and town planning and the Municipality came to be transformed from being a mere adjunct to the British rule into a popular body with a will of its own. There were also calamities like plague in 1917 and famine in 1918, and on both occasions Vallabhbhai did important work to relieve distress.

    In 1917 he was elected Secretary of the Gujarat Sabha, a political body which was of great assistance to Gandhiji in his campaigns. The association with Mahatma Gandhi became closer during the Kheda Satyagraha in 1918, which was launched to secure exemption from payment of the land revenue assessment since the crops had failed. It took three months of intense campaigning that was marked by arrests, seizures of goods and chattels and livestock and much official brutality before relief was secured from an unwilling Government. Gandhiji said that if it were not for Vallabhbhai's assistance "this campaign would not have been carried through so successfully".

    The five years from 1917 to 1922 were years of popular agitation in India. The end of the war was followed by the Rowlatt Act and still further curtailment of individual freedom. And then followed the Khilafat movement with massacres and terror in the Punjab. Gandhiji and the Congress decided on non-cooperation. Vallabhbhai left his practice for good and gave himself up wholly to political and constructive work, touring in villages, addressing meetings, organizing picketing of foreign cloth shops and liquor shops.

    Then came the Bardoli Satyagraha. The occasion for the Satyagraha was the Government's decision to increase the assessment of land revenue from Bardoli taluka by 22 per cent and in some villages by as much as 50 to 60 per cent. Having failed to secure redress by other means the agriculturists of the taluka decided, at a Conference on February 12, 1928, to withhold payment of land revenue under the leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel. The struggle was grim and bitter. There were seizures of property and livestock to such an extent that for days on end, people kept themselves and their buffaloes locked in. Arrests followed and then brutalities of the police and the hired Pathans. The struggle drew the attention of the whole country to it. Patels and Talatis resigned their jobs. Government revenues remained unrealized. The Government had ultimately to bow before popular resolve and an inquiry was instituted to find out to what extent the increase was justified and the realization of the increased revenue was postponed. It was a triumph not only of the 80,000 peasants of Bardoli but more particularly of Vallabhbhai personally; he was given the title of "Sardar" by the nation.

    About this time the political situation in the country was approaching a crisis. The Congress had accepted its goal of Purna Swaraj for the country, while the British Government through their policy of pitting one. interest against another and through constitutional tricks were trying to stifle the voice of freedom and doing everything they could to perpetuate their rule. The boycott of the Simon Commission was followed by the launching of the famous Salt Satyagraha by Gandhiji. Vallabhbhai Patel. though he had not committed any breach of the Salt Law, was the first of the national leaders to be arrested. He was in fact arrested on March 7, 1930 - some days before Gandhiji set out on the march to Dandi. He was released in June. By then Gandhiji, Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders were in jail and the tempo of the struggle in the country was rising. In a few months Vallabhbhai was back in prison.

    In March 1931 Vallabhbhai presided over the 46th session of the Indian National Congress which was called upon to ratify the Gandhi-lrwin Pact, which had just then been concluded. The task was not an easy one, for Bhagat Singh and a few others had been executed on the very day the Congress session opened and delegates, particularly the younger sections, were in an angry mood, while Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Bose were not happy with the terms of the Pact. But the Congress finally put its seal on the Pact with one voice. Civil Disobedience was suspended, political prisoners were released and the Congress agreed to participate in the Round Table Conference.

    The Round Table Conference failed. Gandhiji as also the other top leaders were arrested and a policy of repression followed. Vallabhbhai Patel was lodged with Gandhiji in Yeravada Jail and they were together there for sixteen months-from January 1932 to May 1933. Vallabhbhai then spent another year in the Nasik Jail.

    When the Government of India Act 1935 came, the Congress, though generally critical of the Act, decided to try out those of its constitutional provisions that seemed to grant to India a measure of self-government and to take part in the elections for Provincial legislatures that were envisaged under it. In seven of the eleven Provinces Congress majorities were returned and Congress Ministries were formed. Vallabhbhai Patel, as Chairman of the Congress Parliamentary Sub-Committee, guided and controlled the activities of these Ministries.

    Not for very long, however, for, on September 3, 1939 when Britain declared war on Germany, the Viceroy without consulting either the Central or the Provincial Legis latures, proclaimed India as having entered the war as an ally of Britain. The Congress could not accept this position and the Congress Ministries resigned. Gandhiji launched Individual Civil Disobedience opposing India's participation in the war, and the Congress leaders began to court arrest. Vallabhbhai Patel was arrested on November 17, 1940. He was released on August 20,1941 on grounds of health. Then the All India Congress Committee passed the famous Quit India resolution in Bombay on August 8,1942, and Vallabhbhai, along with the other members of the Working Committee, was arrested on August 9, 1942 and detained in the Ahmednagar Fort while Gandhiji, Kasturba and Mahadev Desai were detained in the Aga Khan's Palace. The Sardar was in jail for about three years this time.

    When, at the end of the war, the Congress leaders were freed and the British Government decided to find a peaceful constitutional solution to the problem of India's Independence, Vallabhbhai Patel was one of the chief negotiators of the Congress. When India attained Independence he became the Deputy Prime Minister and was responsible for the Home, States and the Information and Broadcasting portfolios. It was in this capacity that he was called upon to tackle the most intricate and baffling problem of the States' integration into the Union of India. And it is here that his tact, his powers of persuasion and his statesmanship came into full play. He handled the question as only he could have handled it, managing, in less than a year's time, to reduce the Princely States from 562 to 26 administrative units and bringing democracy to nearly 80 million people of India, comprising almost 27 per cent of the country's population. The integration of the States could certainly be termed as the crowning achievement of Vallabhbhai Patel's life. But for him, this may not have been achieved easily and quickly.

    As Minister of Home Affairs, he presided over efforts to bring back order and peace to a country ravaged by communal strife unprecedented in its history. He accomplished this task with the ruthless efficiency of a great administrator. He sorted out the problems of partition, restored law and order and dealt with the rehabilitation of thousands of refugees with great courage and foresight. He reorganised our Services which had become depleted with the departure of the British and formed a new Indian Administrative Service, to provide a stable administrative base to our new democracy.

    While Gandhiji gave to the Congress a programme for a broad-based action, it was Vallabhbhai who built up the Party machine to carry out that programme. No one before Vallabhbhai had given adequate thought to the need to have an effective organisation, but Vallabhbhai realised this need during his campaigns and devoted his organisational talents and energy to the building up of the strength of the Party which could be geared to fight in an organised and effective manner. His grip over the Party organisation was complete.

    Vallabhbhai Patel was thus one of the chief architects and guardians of India's freedom and his contribution towards consolidating the freedom of the country remains unrivalled.

    He died on December 15, 1950, leaving behind a son, Dahyabhai Patel, and a daughter, Maniben Patel.

    - Morarji Desai

    I am not interested in loaves and fishes, or legislative honours. The peasantry do not understand them, they are little affected by them. I believe that Gandhiji's eleven points mean the substance of Swaraj. That which does not satisfy them is no Swaraj. Whilst I would respect the rights of landlords, rajas, maharajas and others to the extent, that they do not hurt the sweating millions, my interest lies in helping the downtrodden to rise from their state and be on a level with the tallest in the land.

    Thank God the gospel of Truth and Non- Violence has given these an inkling of their dignity and the power they possess. Much still remains to be done. But let us make up our minds that we exist for them, not they for us. Lot us shed our petty rivalries and jealousies, feuds and let everyone realise that the Congress represents and exists for the toiling millions and it will become an irresistible power...

    From the Presidential Address - Sardar Vallabbbhai Patel
    I.N.C. Session, 1931, Karachi.

    http://www.congresssandesh.com/AICC/history/presidents/sardar_vallabhbhai_patel.htm
     
  17. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

    Contributions
    Vallabhbhai Patel was one of the great social leaders of India. He played a crucial role during the freedom struggle of India and was instrumental in the integration of over 500 princely states into the Indian Union. Despite the choice of the people, on the request of Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel stepped down from the candidacy of Congress president. The election on that occasion eventually meant for the election of the first Prime Minister of independent India.

    Life
    Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875 in Gujarat to Zaverbhai and Ladbai. Vallabhbhai, His father had served in the army of the Queen of Jhansi while his mother was a very spiritual man.

    Starting his academic career in a Gujarati medium school Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and shifted to an English medium school. In 1897, Vallabhbhai passed his high school examination and started preparing for law examination. 1910, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel went to England to study law. He completed his law studies in 1913 and came back to India and started his law practice. For his Excellencies in Law, Vallabhbhai was offered many lucrative posts by the British Government but he rejected all. He was a staunch opponent of the British government and its laws and therefore decided not to work for the British.

    He later started practicing at Ahmedabad. After a meeting with Mahatma Gandhi, at the Gujarat Club, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel got influenced by Gandhi's words. Later, inspired by Gandhi's work and philosophy Patel became a staunch follower of him.

    Indian National Movement
    In 1917, Sardar Vallabhbhai was elected as the Secretary of the Gujarat Sabha. The next year, when there was a flood in Kaira, the British insisted on collecting tax from the farmers. Sardar Vallabhbhai led a massive "No Tax campaign" that urged the farmers not to pay their land. The peaceful movement forced the British authority to return then land taken away from the farmers His effort to bring together the farmers of his area brought him the title of 'Sardar' to his name.

    In 1928, the farmers of Bardoli faced a similar problem of "tax-hike". After prolonged summons, when the farmers refused to pay the extra tax, the government in retaliation seized their lands. Vallabhbhai Patel. The agitation took on for more than six months and after a deal struck between the government and farmer's representatives, the lands were returned.

    In 1930 Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was imprisoned for participating in the famous Salt Satyagraha called by Mahatma Gandhi. His inspiring speeches during the "Salt Movement" transformed the lives of numerous people, who later played a major role in making the movement successful.

    Sardar Patel was freed in 1931 following an agreement signed between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India. The treaty was popularly known as the Gandhi-Irwin pact. The same year, Patel was elected as the president of Indian National Congress Party for its Karachi session.

    In the Karachi session, the Indian National Congress Party committed itself to the defence of fundamental rights and human rights and a dream of a secular nation. An agreement regarding this was also sanctioned.

    In 1934, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel led the all-India election campaign for the Indian National Congress. Though he did not contest a seat for himself, Sardar Patel helped his fellow party mates during the election.

    Sardar Patel was annoyed at Jawaharlal Nehru for the latter's declarations of the adoption of socialism in 1936. Patel also considered Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose a "keen of more power within the party.

    Influence of Gandhi
    While senior leaders including Jawaharlal Nehru, Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari and Maulana Azad criticized Mahatma Gandhi's concept that the civil disobedience movement would compel the British to leave the nation, Patel extended his support to Gandhi. Despite the unwillingness of the Congress High Command, Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel strongly forced the All India Congress Committee to ratify the civil disobedience movement and launch it without delaying further. Acting under the pressure, the All India Congress Committee sanctioned the drive on 7 August 1942.

    One important episode that could change the political lines of the country had shaped up just a year of attaining independence. During the election for the Congress presidency in 1946, thirteen of the sixteen states proposed Sardar Patel's name for the post. It was a very crucial election, as the elected president of the congress party would be later considered as the first Prime Minister of independent India. Just a few days, before the all important election, Mahatma Gandhi request Sardar Patel to leave the candidacy and support Jawaharlal Nehru. Sardar Patel, without pondering twice, stepped down.

    Integration of princely states
    At the time of independence, Indian territory was divided into three parts. First, the territories under the direct control of the British government, second were the territories over which the hereditary rulers had suzerainty. The regions, which had been colonized by France and Portugal, formed the last. India, without the integration of these different territories under one roof, could not be considered as a unified and total country. It was a stupendous task for the ruling party, to persuade the rulers of these states to join. According to British government, the province rulers had the liberty to choose how they wanted to be ruled. They were given two choices. They could join either of India and Pakistan or stay independently. The stance of the British government had made the task much difficult for India. At this point many leaders of the congress approached the rulers but they failed to convince. At last, they all made a request Vallabhbhai Patel to think some other options to bring the princely rulers under Indian control. Sardar Patel eventually dealt with the tough-situation and came out successfully. He had made secured their accession. Therefore, the state of India we see today was a result of the efforts put in by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

    Death
    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel's health declined in 1950. He, himself realized that he was not going to live much longer. On 2 November his health deteriorated further and was confined to bed. After suffering a massive heart attack, on 15 December 1950, the great soul left the world.


    http://www.culturalindia.net/leaders/sardar-vallabhbhai-patel.html
     
  18. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    SARDAR PATEL - BUILDER OF A STEEL STRONG INDIA*
    The history of India would have been different had Sardar Patel not been the Deputy Prime Minister when India became independent in 1947. The triumvirate- Gandhiji, Nehru and Sardar Patel were responsible for giving direction to the destiny of the country. Sardar Patel consolidated the country into one united whole in a unique manner.


    Formative Years

    Born on October 31, 1875 at Nadiad, in the Kaira district of Gujarat, Vallabh Bhai Patel was the son of Zaverbhai Galabhai Patel , a Leva Patidar. This class of cultivators was known for their simple character, industrious habits and straightforward dealings. Vallabh Bhai possessed an ingenous mind as a school boy. He was a rebel whose exceptional organisational abilities were recognised by his schoolmates and teachers. Patel passed the matriculation examination from the Nadiad High School in 1897.

    Patel had two ambitions to fulfil , first to become a pleader and later a barrister. During those days a matriculate could become a lawyer by taking the pleaders examination. He became a pleader in 1900, and started practising in Godhra. In 1902 he shifted to Balsad, a taluka headquarter, where he practised as a criminal lawyer for nearly eight years, during which period he had built a name for himself as a most successful criminal lawyer. In 1910, he left for London and joined the Middle Temple, where he took an examination in Roman Law and stood first. He returned to India in 1913 and started practising as a barrister in Ahmedabad , fulfilling his second ambition.


    Gandhiji's Disciple

    The impact of Gandhiji's personality on Vallabhbhai was tremendous. It gave him a new mission in life. The Champaran struggle waged by Gandhiji had a sweeping effect on Patel's mind. In Gandhiji's Champaran victory Patel saw the beginning of a new agrarian revolution. His interest in politics had been kindled, as became abunduntly clear in the Provincial Political Conference organised by the Gujarat Sabha and presided by Gandhiji at Godhara. The conference appointed a permanent committee with Gandhiji as the President and Patel as one of the secretaries. He became a staunch follower of Gandhiji. From then on there was no looking back. Blessed with rare qualities of fortitude, integrity and an iron determination, Patel played an important role in the freedom movement.


    Indomitable Personality

    It was due to his sterling leadership and practical vision that the peasant movement in Gujarat became a success. It was in this struggle that the organisational capacity for which Sardar Patel was famous in the whole country became visible. He took over as the nascent nation's Home Minister at a very crucial juncture in history and devoted himself whole heartedly to ensure that the country which was already partitioned, remained intact and united.


    Building a Union

    On the eve of their departure, the British government announced that its paramountcy would lapse not only over the British territory but even over the native States . This meant that as many as 625 small and big native States would become independent like India and Pakistan. Consequently, the country would be divided into a number of small and big units.

    Before embarking on this mammoth task, Sardar sought to ensure the stability of administration by forging a bridge of faith and confidence with the"Steel Frame". Most of the I.C.S. officers suspected that the Congress leaders, particularly Sardar in view of his past experiences with them, would have no faith in the I.C.S. But Sardar rose to the occasion and reposed total trust in their capability to serve the nation. He was, thus, able to win their unstinted support in the endeavour of nation building.

    Attempts were afoot for finalising the standstill agreement with the States. It provided that the Central Government will be vested with powers of defence, foreign policy and communications even over the States. Travancore, Hyderabad and some other States declared themselves sovereign States and created hurdles in the agreement. On the other end, Jinnah with a view to tempt Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and other border States made them an unconditional offer to align with Pakistan on their terms.


    Political Sagacity

    To find an amicable solution to this complicated situation, Sardar issued a statement to the princes wherein he appealed to their sense of patriotism and reiterated that the new States department in no way, desire to have supremacy over them. "If at all, any sense of supremacy is required, it would be with common understanding and for common good. We are at a momentous stage in the history of India. By common endeavour, we can raise the country to new greatness, while lack of unity will expose us to unexpected calamities. I hope the Indian States will realise fully that if we do not cooperate and work together in the general interest, anarchy and chaos will overwhelm us all great and small, and lead us to total ruin". The statement which amply reflected his statesmanship and political sagacity, removed whatever doubts lurked in the minds of the princes.

    There was a popular agitation in Travancore and the State acceded to India. The Nawab of Bhopal could not take all this but when he realised that there was no alternative, he sent the instrument of accession duly signed to Sardar.

    A man of iron will and absolute fearlessness, Sardar Patel tackled the question of 550 and odd State territories and principalities in such a strategic manner which left even his wildest critics in complete amazement. Almost within a year he redrew the map of India with every princely State joining the Indian union and thus, forming part of the political stream of life that was endowed with cultural unity and harmony.


    Intricate Situation

    The intricacy of the situation can perhaps be gauged by the fact that there were 26 small States in Orissa and 15 in the Chattisgarh area of present Madhya Pradesh. It required skilful diplomacy on the part of Sardar Patel to persuade them to merge into bigger, more viable units. Even more ticklish was the case of Saurashtra where there were 14 big States, 119 small States and other units under different administrations totalling 860.

    The herculean task of merging all of them into the Saurashtra union was also accomplished by Sardar Patel. Soon, State after State started acceding to the Indian Union. One after the other, Gwalior, Indore, Dhar, Dewas all accepted the advice of Sardar. Rajputana States followed the same. The Sikhs of Punjab also cooperated with the merger.

    Even by August 15, Hyderabad kept aloof. Hence, Lord Mountbatten himself started negotiations. At one stage, it appeared that there was a settlement but Nizam found himself helpless against the pressures of Razakars. The Razakars started harassing the local public. Thus, when the situation went out of control, Sardar with the consent of the Governor General initiated police action. In 108 hours, the Nizam surrendered and Hyderabad acceded and merged with India. The Nawab of Junagadh accepted an accession with Pakistan. Sardar solved this complex problem in his own inimitable way and the Nawab and his Diwan left Junagadh for Pakistan.

    Thus, the 'Yagna' for establishment of a united India undertaken by Sardar was completed with the merger of Hyderabad. Politically, India became one and united. In the history of India stretched over ages, India became one and united for the first time and that too without shedding a drop of blood. That was the marvel of the personality of Sardar. The sterling qualities of leadership he had shown as leader of Satyagraha, flowered in greater way in the administration of the country, maintenance of law and order and ensuring stability of the country and making it invulnerable.

    http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr98/fe1098/f1510981.html
     
  19. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    Sardar's Biography

    Successfully led Kheda Satyagraha and Bardoli revolt against British government; elected Ahmedabad's municipal president in 1922, 1924 and 1927; elected Congress President in 1931; was independent India's first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister; played a key role in political integration of India; conferred Bharat Ratna in 1991.

    Sardar Patel was popularly known as Iron Man of India. His full name was Vallabhbhai Patel. He played a leading role in the Indian freedom struggle and became the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of India. He is credited with achieving political integration of India.

    Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875 in Nadiad, a small village in Gujarat. His father Jhaverbhai was a farmer and mother Laad Bai was a simple lady. Sardar Vallabhai's early education took place in Karamsad. Then he joined a school in Petlad. After two years he joined a high school in a town called Nadiad. He passed his high school examination in 1896. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was a brilliant student throughout his schooling.

    Vallabhbhai wanted to become a barrister. To realize this ambition he had to go to England. But he did not have the financial means to even join a college India. In those days a candidate could study in private and sit for an examination in Law. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel borrowed books from a lawyer of his acquaintance and studied at home. Occasionally he attended courts of law and listened attentively to the arguments of lawyer. Vallabhbhai passed the Law examination with flying colours.

    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel started his Law practice in Godhra. Soon his practice flourished. He got married to Jhaberaba. In 1904, he got a baby daughter Maniben, and in 1905 his son Dahyabhai was born. Vallabhbhai sent his elder brother Vitthalbhai, who himself was a lawyer, to England for higher studies in Law. Patel was only thirty-three years old when his wife died. He did not wish to marry again. After his brother's return, Vallabhbhai went to England. He studied with single-minded devotion and stood first in the Barrister-at-Law Examination.

    Sardar Patel returned to India in 1913 and started his practice in Ahmedabad. Soon he became popular. At the urging of his friends, Patel contested and won elections to become the sanitation commissioner of Ahmedabad in 1917. Sardar Patel was deeply impressed by Gandhiji's success in Champaran Satyagraha. In 1918, there was a drought in the Kheda division of Gujarat. Peasants asked for relief from the high rate of taxes but the British government refused. Gandhiji took up peasants cause but could not devote his full time in Kheda. He was looking for someone who could lead the struggle in his absence. At this point Sardar Patel volunteered to come forward and lead the struggle. He gave up his lucrative legal practice and entered public life.

    Vallabhbhai successfully led peasants revolt in Kheda and the revolt ended in 1919 when the British government agreed to suspend collection of revenue and roll back the rates. Kheda Satyagraha turned Vallabhbhai Patel into a national hero. Vallabhbhai supported Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement, and as president of the Gujarat Congress, helped in organizing bonfires of British goods in Ahmedabad. He gave up his English clothes and started wearing Khadi. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel was elected Ahmedabad's municipal president in 1922, 1924 and 1927. During his terms, Ahmedabad was extended a major supply of electricity and underwent major education reforms. Drainage and sanitation systems were extended over all the city.

    In 1928, Bardoli Taluka in Gujarat suffered from floods and famine. In this hour of distress the British government raised the revenue taxes by thirty percent. Sardar Patel took up cudgels on behalf of the farmers and appealed to the Governor to reduce the taxes. The Governor refused and the government even announced the date of the collection of the taxes. Sardar Patel organized the farmers and told them not to pay even a single pie of tax. The government tried to repress the revolt but ultimately bowed before Vallabhbhai Patel. It was during the struggle and after the victory in Bardoli that caused intense excitement across India, that Patel was increasingly addressed by his colleagues and followers as Sardar.

    Disobedience Movement in 1930. After the signing of Gandhi-Irwin pact in 1931, Sardar Patel was released and he was elected Congress president for its 1931 session in Karachi. Upon the failure of the Round Table Conference in London, Gandhiji and Sardar Patel were arrested in January 1932 and imprisoned in the Yeravada Central Jail. During this term of imprisonment, Sardar Patel and Mahatma Gandhi grew close to one another, and the two developed a close bond of affection, trust, and frankness without reserve. Sardar Patel was finally released in July 1934.

    In August 1942, the Congress launched the Quit India Movement. The government jailed all the important leaders of the Congress, including Vallabhai Patel. All the leaders were released after three years. After achieving independence on 15th of August 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of independent India and Sardar Patel became the Deputy Prime Minister. He was in charge of Home Affairs, Information and Broadcasting and the Ministry of States.

    There were 565 princely states in India at that time. Some of the Maharajas and Nawabs who ruled over these were sensible and patriotic. But most of them were drunk with wealth and power. They were dreaming of becoming independent rulers once the British quit India. They argued that the government of free India should treat them as equals. Some of them went to the extent of planning to send their representatives to the United Nations Organization. Patel invoked the patriotism of India's monarchs, asking them to join in the freedom of their nation and act as responsible rulers who cared about the future of their people. He persuaded the princes of 565 states of the impossibility of independence from the Indian republic, especially in the presence of growing opposition from their subjects. With great wisdom and political foresight, he consolidated the small kingdoms. The public was with him. He tackled the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Nawab of Junagarh who initially did not want to join India. Sardar Patel's untiring efforts towards the unity of the country brought success. He united a scattered nation without much bloodshed. Due to the achievement of this massive task, Sardar Patel got the title of 'Iron Man'. Sardar Patel died of cardiac arrest on December 15, 1950. For his services to the nation Sardar Patel was conferred with Bharat Ratna in 1991.

    http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/sardar-patel.html
     
  20. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, popularly known as a ‘Man of Steel’, was born on October 31, 1875 at Nadiad, Gujarat. He passsed his high school studies in Nadiad and came out with a strong desire to become a lawyer. Because of financial reasons he could not join any school of law so he studied at home and passed the law exam with flying colors.

    Sardar started his legal practice in Godhra and at the age of 36, he went to England for further studies. He returned to India in 1913 and started his practice in Ahemdabad. He soon became a successful lawyer but his dream and career soon flourished.

    Inspired by the work and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, he decided to join the freedom struggle. His first attempt was to fight for the cause of peasants in Kheda, Bardoli and other parts of Gujarat who were asked to pay heavy taxes to the British Government. Patel, under the leadership of Gandhi Ji, launched non-violent Civil Disobedience Movement against the payment of raised taxes. The Government tried to suppress the revolt but unfortunately could not do so. Finally, the taxes were suspended and thereafter everyone addressed Patel as Sardar. Further, he was also involved in Salt Satyagraha in Nagpur and Quit India Movement in 1942. He also opposed alcoholism, untouchability, caste discrimination and violence. In 1931, he was elected as the President of Indian National Congress.

    After independence he was appointed as the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India. He had served the country during the tenure but Gandhi Ji’s death gave him a major heart attack and he died on December 15, 1950.

    http://www.indianfreedomfighters.in/sardar-vallabhbhai-patel.htm
     
  21. Agantrope

    Agantrope Senior Member Senior Member

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    Hyderabad Liberated, Sardar Patel Implimented
    Thousands of Hardliner Muslim self styled warriors(razakars)under the leadership of radical fanatic Kasim Rizvi’s Ittihad al-Muslimin(The Muslim Union) were enjoying proxy rule in the streets of Hyderabad. These Razakars were harassing, looting and killing Hindus in larger cities like Aurangabad, Hyderabad, Bidar. Hindus were beginning to flee to surrounding regions, causing refugee problems in neighboring Madras. In 82,000 square mile Hyderabad state(bigger than England) Hindus were in majority with 85 of total population but ruler Nawab was muslim( he was one of the most wealthiest persons of the world at that time). Ruler Navab had proximity and trusted, tested, long time good relation with British government. He wanted to declare Hyderabad an indipendent state with the help of his British friends and Pakistan(but at various points he suggested he might throw in his lot with Pakistan.)
    Rizvi had agenda of hate against Hindus and India, and was continuously threating to kill 1.5 crore Hindus living in Hyderabad if India advent to Hyderabad for liberation.
    Hyderabad Planned, Sardar Patel Decided
    Hyderabad’s hardliner Muslim warriors were violent in the streets of Hyderabad for independent Hyderabad cause. Though Hyderabad had 85 percent Hindu population, it’s ruler Navab and Muslim warriors(Razakars) under the leadership of radical fanatic Kasim Rizvi’s Ittihad al-Muslimin(The Muslim Union) wanted Hyderabad to remain as an indipendent state with the help of England and Pakistan. Above video is about historical talk between Kasim Rizvi, an extremist Muslim hardliner responsible for Hindus’ killings, loots and propaganda of hatred against India in Hyderabad and Sardar Patel, an iron man of India who accessed different native stated into a one union and created the map of India on the ground. Though Navab was ruling in the palace of Hyderabad, Rizvi was virtually ruling streets of Hyderabad with his razakar warriors. Rizvi had agenda of hate against Hindus and India, and was continuously threating to kill 1.5 crore Hindus living in Hyderabad if India advent to Hyderabad for liberation.
    This interesting character Kasim(Qasim) Rizvi is well narrated in Guha’s book. Here is an excerpt from Guha’s book:
    In April 1948, a correspondent of The Times of London visited Hyderabad. He interviewd Kasim Razvi and found him to be a ‘fanatical demagogue with great gifts of organization. As a ‘rabble-rouser’ he is formidable, and even in a tete-a-tete he is compelling.’ Razvi saw himself as a prospective leader of a Muslim state, a sort of Jinnah for the Hyderabadis, albeit a more militant one. He had a portrait of the Pakistani leader prominently displayed in his room. Razvi told an Indian journalist that he greatly admired Jinnah, adding that ‘whenever I am in doubt I go to him for counsel which he never grudges giving me.’
    Pictures of Razvi show him with a luxuriant beard. He looked ‘rather like an oriental Mephistopheles.’ His most striking feature was his flashing eyes, ‘from which the fire of fanaticism exudes.’ He had contempt for the Congress, saying, ‘we do not want Brahmin or Bania rule here.’ Asked which side the Razakars would take if Pakistan and India clashed, Razvi answered that Pakistan could take care of itself, but added: ‘Wherever Muslim interests are affected, our interest and sympathy will go out. This applies of course to Palestine as well. Even if Muslim interests are affected in hell, our heart will go out in sympathy.’
    Even though Javaharlal Nehru(with his famous short sightedness in dealing with the affairs) was not happy about it, Sardar Patel sent an army to Hyderabad at last. Battle lasted for five days. Nawab’s 409 soldiers were killed and 122 were injured, 3364 Nawab loyalists were arrested including Kasim Rizvi(who was released in 1957). Rizvi’s Islamic razakars fought more aggressively than Nawab’s army. 2727 razakars were sent to the hell by Sardar Patel’s Indian forces. 102 were injured, 3364 were arrested. Battle was started on 13th and was finished on 18th when major general chaudhary started ruling Hyderabad as a military governor. After his easy defeat, Nawab of Hyderabad acceded his state with Indian union. India also showed gasture and did not arrest Nawab who was ruling for last 34 years here. Nawab even welcomed the Great Sardar Patel in February 1949 on Hyderabad airport when Sardar visited Hyderabad for the first time after victory.

    http://nationfirst.in/leaders/24/
     

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