[h=1]Great battles - Indian army in siachen glacier[/h] The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about 35.5Â°N 77.0Â°E, just east of the Line of Control between India-Pakistan. India controls all of the Siachen Glacier itself, including all tributary glaciers. At 70 km (43 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas. It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col (pass) on the China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its terminus. The Siachen Glacier lies immediately south of the great watershed that separates China from the Indian subcontinent in the extensively glaciated portion of the Karakoram that is sometimes called the "Third Pole." The glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge immediately to the west and the main Karakoram range to the east. The Saltoro Ridge originates in the north from the Sia Kangri peak on the China border in the Karakoram range. The crest of the Saltoro Ridge's altitudes range from 5,450 to 7,720 m (17,880 to 25,330 feet). The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at 5,589 m (18,336 ft), Bilafond La at 5,450 m (17,880 ft), and Gyong La at 5,689 m (18,665 ft) The average winter snowfall is 10.5 m (35 ft) and temperatures can dip to âˆ’50 Â°C (âˆ’58.0 Â°F). Including all tributary glaciers, the Siachen Glacier system covers about 700 km2 (270 sq mi). The Siachen Glacier boasts the world's highest helipad, built by India. The world's highest battlefield is also located on the glacier at a height of 21,000 feet (6400 m) above the sea level. GSM mobile service was launched in 2009 near army base camp Operation Meghdoot was the name given to the attack launched by the Indian Military to capture the Siachen Glacier in the disputed Kashmir region, precipitating the Siachen Conflict. Launched on April 13, 1984, this military operation was unique as the first assault launched in the world's highest battlefield. The military action eventually resulted in Indian troops managing to gain control of the entire Siachen Glacier. Today, the occupation of locations along what is known as the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) continues to be known as Operation Meghdoot, with up to 10 Infantry Battalions each of the Indian Army and Pakistani Army actively deployed in altitudes up to 6,400 metre The Siachen Glacier became a bone of contention following a vague demarcation of territory as per the Simla Agreement of 1972, which did not exactly specify who had authority over the Siachen Glacier area. As a result of this, both nations lay claim to the barren land. In the 1970s and early 80s, Pakistan permitted several mountaineering expeditions to climb the peaks in the Siachen region. This served to reinforce their claim on the area as these expeditions arrived on the glacier with a permit obtained from the Government of Pakistan. Indian sources claim that in many cases a liaison officer from the Pakistan army accompanied the teams. In 1978 the Indian Army began closely monitoring the situation in the region and concurrently India also allowed mountaineering expeditions to the glacier, approaching from its side. The most notable one was the one launched by Colonel N. Kumar of the Indian Army, who mounted an Army expedition to Teram Kangri as a counter-exercise. When Pakistan gave permission to a Japanese expedition to scale an important peak (Rimo I) in 1984, it further prompted Indian anger. The peak, located east of the Siachen Glacier, also overlooks the northwestern areas of the Aksai Chin area which is occupied by China but claimed by India. The Indian military believed that such an expedition could further a link for a trade route from the southwestern (Pakistani) to the northeastern (Chinese) side of the Karakoram Range and eventually provide a strategic, if not tactical, advantage to the Pakistan Military.