Genes link Australia with India

Discussion in 'Politics & Society' started by SHURIDH, Jan 15, 2013.

  1. SHURIDH

    SHURIDH Senior Member Senior Member

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    SYDNEY: People from the Indian sub-continent migrated to Australia and mixed with Aborigines 4,000 years ago, bringing the dingo dog with them, according to a study published on Tuesday.
    The continent was thought to have been isolated from other populations until Europeans landed at the end of the 1700s.
    But researchers at the Max PlanckInstitute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, reported"evidence of substantial gene flow between Indian populations and Australia about 4,000 years ago".
    They analysed genetic variation from across the genome from Australian Aborigines, New Guineans, Southeast Asians, and Indians.
    "Long before Europeans settled inAustralia humans had migrated from the Indian subcontinent to Australia and mixed with Australian Aborigines," the study said.
    It found "substantial gene flow from India to Australia 4,230 years ago ie... well before European contact," it said.
    "Interestingly," said researcher Irina Pugach, "this date also coincides with many changes in the archaeological record of Australia, which include a sudden change in plant processing and stone tool technologies... and the first appearance of the dingo in the fossil record.
    "Since we detect inflow of genes from India into Australia at around the same time, it is likely that these changes were related to this migration," she said.
    A common origin was also discovered for the Australian, New Guinean and Philippine Mamanwa populations who had followed a southern migration route out of Africa begun more than 40,000 years ago.
    The researchers estimate the groups split about 36,000 years ago.
    Australia offers some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of humans outside Africa, with sites dated toat least 45,000 years ago.
     
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  3. Sukerchakia

    Sukerchakia Regular Member

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    I think the date 1200 - 1300 BC is very interesting. The later-Harappan period begins at 1900 BC, coinciding somewhat with the arrivals of NW groups. It would have taken 600-700 odd years for these NW groups to inter-mix and displace people and move first towards east i.e. the Gangetic plains and then southwards. Hence, closer to 1200-1300 BC (or 4200 years ago as mentioned in the article), the southern Indians might have been pressured to move over to a new continent.
     
  4. Srinivas_K

    Srinivas_K Senior Member Senior Member

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    There were no major migrations in India, ASI south Indian race arrived about 60000 years ago and ANI north Indian race arrived 40000 years ago, Now current generation is a mixed breed of the both and recent study showed commonality in all castes and religions in India.
     
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  5. trackwhack

    trackwhack Tihar Jail Banned

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    We should claim Australia based on this. The Chinese are busy perfecting 'maps' that they will 'find' and claim it in a few years. :lol:
     
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  6. Raj30

    Raj30 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Any connection ?
    The Lost world of Kumari Kandam

    [​IMG]

    We already know about many legendary cities that today’s world has lost in time. Some of those were the city of Atlantis, and the city of Dwaraka that is mentioned in Mahabharata. But out of all these, there existed one huge land mass to the south of today’s Indian peninsula extending from Kanyakumari in the north, and its sides touching as far to the west as Madagascar and as far to the east as Australia. This huge continent of the Tamil people was called Kumari Kandam or the Lemuria continent that was swallowed by the seas, and eventually lost forever.Hundreds of thousand years ago, continents started drifting, and different continents were formed. And after a much long time, the earliest human beings were born on the earth about 400,000 years ago.

    During the end of the last Ice age, earth’s temperature started rising, large icy masses and glaciers started melting, and thus sea levels started rising. During this period, 12000 years ago, India’s Dravidian peninsula was swallowed by the ever rising seas. Various oceanographic researches have shown that the sea level in the Indian peninsula has risen by 100 meters within the past 14,500 years. There had been three major episodes of sea level fluctuations resulting in the submergence of the Kumari continent which existed to the south of Kanya Kumari (About 14,500 years ago, Sri Lanka was connected with Peninsular India!)The area had been ruled by the Pandya kings, and there are lots of scattered literary evidences to this lost land of the Tamils.
    [​IMG]
    As per Adiyarkunallar, a huge landmass extending from Kanyakumari to a distance of 700 kavatams (unknown, obsolete unit) got sunken in the sea. During this civilization, Kumari Kandam land was divided into 49 territories (nadu). It had mountain ranges, and also had two main rivers- Pahruli and Kumari.

    The earliest civilization that we know of today is the Sumerian civilization established in Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq) around 4000 BC. After this were the Egyptian civilization and then the Indus valley civilization But the Tamil civilization around Kumari Kandam had been much earlier than this, which would put it to the first in the time scale of civilization of mankind. What is even more interesting is that, many world-renowned researchers also claim to have deciphered the Indus script to be Tamil! As per Nakkirar’s Iraiyanaar Akaporul the three Tamil Sangams (Academies of Tamil poets) functioned for 9990 odd years!

    However, very sadly, all that is extant today is the Tamil literature works from the third Sangam. Everything else is lost in the sea, and in time; the people of the civilization were swallowed by the seas. It’s a tragedy of a huge magnitude. The quality of life of the ancient Tamils in Kumari Kandam should have been extraordinarily sublime. Thus naming of India as subcontinent turned out to have a greater meaning . Within a few years , travel to submerged parts of “Kumari kandam” or “Lumeria” should be possible , scientists hope.
     
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  7. civfanatic

    civfanatic Retired Moderator

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    Maybe no major migrations from outside India, but there were quite likely major internal migrations that took place in the 2nd millennium B.C.E. I personally think that there was a mass eastwards movement of Harappan people from the Indus Valley region to the Indo-Gangetic plain during this time, caused by shifting climactic conditions and drying of the Saraswati.

    These Later Harappans were not the exact same as their earlier ancestors, however. I believe that, from the late 3rd millennium B.C.E. onward, there was a steady process of acculturation and mixing that took place between the Harappans and the IE-speaking peoples of present-day Afghanistan. It is known that the Harappans had outposts/colonies as far north as the Amu Darya, and it can be safely assumed that they had regular interactions with the people there. There were probably also small-scale migrations by IE-speaking peoples from the highland regions into the Punjab around this time, which served as a further catalyst for this process of cultural mixing. The Harappan civilization went into decline by c.1700 B.C.E. and was gradually replaced by more localized cultures, which developed from the old IVC but begin to show characteristics of Vedic culture, like cremation (Old Harappans buried their dead instead). The Cemetery H culture of the Sapta-Sindhu region is a good case in point. What this suggests, is that the IE culture gradually became dominant among the Harappan peoples during the 2nd millennium B.C.E. as the end result of a long process of cultural interaction, which probably also entailed a language shift to proto-Sanskrit. The Harappan migrants would have thus spread this new culture along with their agrarian economy east into the Gangetic region, and the Indic civilization would be born.
     
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  8. Sukerchakia

    Sukerchakia Regular Member

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    Certainly no large migrations, but smaller groups did migrate intermittently.
     
  9. bharata

    bharata Regular Member

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    Kumari kandam is not true.The seafaring people of south india could most probably have inhabited australia.
     
  10. SHURIDH

    SHURIDH Senior Member Senior Member

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    I also think same.
     
  11. Raj30

    Raj30 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Kerguelen microcontinent

    BBC News | Sci/Tech | 'Lost continent' discovered
    Lost continent' discovered

    Drilling beneath the ocean: The Joides Resolution

    By BBC News Online Science Editor Dr David Whitehouse


    David Whitehouse fills in the background to the discovery
    Scientists have discovered the remains of a "lost continent" beneath the waves of the Indian Ocean.

    Drilling by the Joides Resolution research vessel, which traverses the seas extracting samples from beneath the sea floor, suggests that the continent, about a third the size of present day Australia, sank from sight only 20 million years ago.



    A recovered sample of the 'lost continent'
    It lies beneath the southern Indian Ocean. Called the Kerguelen Plateau, it is one of the most remote places on Earth.

    The Joides Resolution, the world's largest research vessel, bored a series of holes through the undersea plateau, which is about two kilometres below the ocean surface.

    Spores and pollen

    It brought to the surface many types of rocks associated with explosive volcanism, as well as sedimentary rocks similar to those found in India and Australia.



    Sending the drill bit down to the sea floor
    "We found abundant evidence that much of the Kerguelen Plateau formed above sea level," said Dr Mike Coffin of the University of Texas.

    "Wood fragments, a seed, spores and pollen recovered in 90 million year-old sediment from the central Kerguelen Plateau indicates that it was above sea level."

    Scientists believe that it rose out of the ocean about 110 million years ago, following a series of huge volcanic eruptions.

    Small dinosaurs

    Fifty million years ago, it may have been covered in lush ferns, moist with tropical humidity.



    The 'core store' on the Joides Resolution
    Small dinosaurs would have hidden in the undergrowth stalking their prey.

    Twenty million years ago, it started to sink beneath the waves of what is now the Indian Ocean.

    Scientists hope that studying the region will help them understand the break-up of Australia, India and Antarctica.
     

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